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California State Library 




Presentedby 
Date received 



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EXTRACT 

Pram an Act prtscrihimj />'ules for thf. (iovertimrnt of the Stale Lihrari/, passed 
March Slh, 1801 . 



Section ii. The Librarian shall cause to be kepi a register of all 
books issued and returned; and all books taken by the members of the 
Legislature, bt its ofificers, shall be returned at the close of the session. 
If any person injure or fail to return any book taken from the Librajy, 
he shall forfeit and pay to the Librarian, for the benefit of the Library, 
three times the value thereof; and before the Controller shall issue his 
warrant in favor of any member or officer of the Legislature, or of this 
State, for his per diem, allowance, or salary, he shall be satisfied that 
such member or ofilicer has returned all books taken out of the Library by 
him, and has settled all accounts for injuring such books or otherwise. 

Sec. 15. Books may be taken from the Library by the membersof the 
Legislature and its officers during the session of the same, and at any 
time by the Governor and the officers of the Executive Department of 
this State who are required to keep their offices at the seat of government, 
the Justices of the Supreme Court, the Attorney -General and the Trustees 
of the Library. 



V -.. V •'• 



nrrissw. 




Volume VI.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 5, 1873. 



[Number i. 



Largest Grape-Vlne in the World. 

California is noted for its "big things" the 
•world over, and "we to the manor born" have, 
in consequence, to be more careful in our as- 
sertions than those of other climes. But even 
■while the average Califoruian feels not the 
•slighest prickings of conscience when recount- 
ing the beauties of his Golden State, people 
•who have never crossed the continent are apt 
•to make some allowance for the exaggeration 
Avhich custom has long permitted travelers to 
indulge in. We have the largest mines, the 
largest valleys, the largest farms— but why 
recount the many natur- 
al peculiarities of our 
thrice-favored clime, 
which are so well known 
to all of us on the shores 
o f the Pacific, though 
but half believed in away 
from the sound of its 
waters 7 One thing, 
however — the pride of 
the "lower country" has 
so obtruded itself upon 
public notice, that its 
claims to notoriety are 
■universally conceded. 
We ref«r to the Santa 
Barbara Grape-vine a 
■representation of which 
«s given on this page. 

Most natural curiosi- 
ties and localities of note 
have connected with 
them some little bit of 
romance, which lends an 
additional charm to the 
quiet of a ruined church 
or tower, and softens the 
rugged weather - beaten 
sides of rooky heights, or 
lightens up a gloomy 
chasm as sparkling forth 
does the dark waters of a 
mountain stream. So it 
is with this California 
wonder. We are told — 
no matter by whom ; such 
things should not be 
traced too rudely — that a 
Spannish lady, when 
starting from Souora on 
horseback, had given to 
her by her lover, a 
branch from a grape- 
vine, to be used as a 
riding-whip. She must 
have cherished this as a 
memento aside from its 
usefulness, for when she 
arrived at Santa Barbara, 

after her long journey, she planted the branch, 
which has since grown into notoriety as the 
largest grape-vine in the world. How long 
ago it was planted is somewhat uncertain. 
Some say the Spanish lady came here before 
the beginning of the present century. Others 
say the vine is 40 years old, and still other say 
48 years. Like many other things, even of 
recent origin, the dates in connection with it 
are uncertain — though the grapes are not. 

This famous vine is situated about three 
miles and a half from the town of Santa Bar- 
bara, in the court-yard of an old aJobe house. 
The trunk is four feet four inches in the largest 
part. It begins to branch out at about six or 
eight feet from the ground, and is then sup- 
ported on framework, which it covers as a 
roof, as shown in our illustration. The whole 
vine, supported on the framework, now covers 
over an acre of ground. Several of the limbs 
are as much as ten inches in circumference at 
a distance of 25 or 30 feet from the trunk. 
The annual yield of grapes from this mammoth 
vine is from 10,000 to 12,000 pounds. The 
clusters of grapes average, when ripe, from 
two to two and a half pounds each. The vine 
is on rather high ground, and it is stated that 
the ground about it has never been manured at 



all. The soil under it is hard, and the Span- 
iards dance under the shadow of the leaves of 
the vine, which form a completely sun-proof 
covering of living verdure. This vine by its 
product supported the old woman who owned 
it for many years. Another vine, near by, bids 
fair to rival the " father of all vines," the fruit 
from it rather excelling that of the "big vine." 
A small stream of water runs near both vines, 
which probably helps their growth. — HI. Press. 

Homes in Los Anoeles. — We have received 
from S. Hellman, Los Angeles, a finely gotten 
up pamphlet of 74 pages, entitled. Homes in 
Los Angeles City and County, with descrip- 
tions thereof, with sketches of the four adja- 



Redwood Casks for Wine. 

Passing along Drumm street, a few days since, 
our attention was called to a lot of redwood 
casks, in front of Fulda & Son's cooper-shop, 
which, on inquiry, we learned had just been 
made for Mr. G. M. Jarvis, of the Vine Hill 
Vineyard, Santa Cruz. The casks are made 
of split redwood, thoroughly steamed and 
seasoned, by the process recently devised to 
render this kind of wood suitable for such pur. 
pose. The staves are one and a-half inches 
thick in the bilge, the bung-stave being made 
of ash. The chime-hoops are two and one- 




THE SANTA BARBARA GRAPE-VINE. 



cent counties, by W. McPherson. There is 
hardly a week passes that we are not in receipt 
of letters from the east, asking information in 
regard to the soil, climates and productions of 
the southern counties of California. 

We have carefully examined this new work, 
and find it a perfect treasure of the very infor- 
mation so much desired by those proposing to 
make their future homes in our beautiful land. 
So impressed are we with this truth, we would 
urge upon any Californian desirous of i)ro- 
moting immigration to our State, to purchase 
numerous copies of this work and send them 
broadcast over the world. Price of single 
copies mailed, 75 cents, and sold by W. E. 
Loomis, San Francisco. 



Heavy Hams.— At the San Francisco Market, 
on Clay street, are two hams, weighing 57% 
pounds each, cured by L. Hentrich. The hog 
from which they were taken weighed C80 
pounds, dressed. 



half inches wide, by one-eighth of an inch thick. 
These casks are made especially for shipping 
purposes. We were informed by the Messrs. 
Fulda that they had also made several other 
redwood casks, which had been forwarded to 
some of our most important wine-growers, who 
will thoroughly and practically test their value. 
The price of redwood casks is from 6%c. to 7c. 
per gallon, while oak casks are worth from 10c. 
to 12>^c. per gallon. 



A Contrast.— A correspondent of the Alia 
now making a tour of observation through the 
San Joaquin Valley speaks of two fields respect- 
ively 3,'JOO and 1,000 acres, adjoining, the 
former having had the benefit of irrigation 
which yielded on an average forly-five bushels 
to the acre, and the latter unirrigated which 
yielded five bushels to the acre. In the face of 
such facts we ask is irrigation profitable ? 

Mandfactobies in California number 3,984, 
employing 35,892 people. 



Algaroba Beans— We Have Them. 

In a previous volume of the Hdbax, we called 
attention to the Algaroba or Carob tree as be- 
ing exceedingly valuable to the people of Cata- 
lonia and Valencia in Spain, along the sea coast. 
Valuable because furnishing a large amount 
of highly nutritious food for horses and other 
animals. It seems to be nearly related to the 
honey locust, but bearing a much larger pod, 
full of rich, oily seeds. 

Large quantities of these pods are annually 
shipped to England, where they take the place 
of oil cake as food for stock, being cheap and 
very fattening. The 
pods, when ripe, are said 
to contain more than 
fifty per cent, of sugar, 
hence their fattening 
quality. For transpor- 
tation the pods are dried 
whole. When wanted 
for feed they are broken 
up by pounding and the 
dry pulp with the seeds 
fed without further prep- 
aration . 

They grow upon 
almost any soil; on any 
sterile or rocky place 
where no other tree is 
found, grows luxuriantly 
the carob tree; but its 
most genial home seems 
to be on lands bordering 
the ocean, where it feels 
the efi'oct of ocean air; 
but possibly might flour- 
ish to some extent fur- 
ther inland. In t he- 
former mention o f this 
tree, we remarked that 
there could hardly be a 
more genial soil or cli- 
mate than that portion 
of California between the 
ocean and the coast 
range of mountains; and 
W9 also put this question : 
Who of our seedsmen 
will be the first to intro- 
duce the seeds of this 
exotic? 

The Seeds are Here. 
The well known house 
of Bennett & Page, com- 
mission merchants, i u 
this city, whose business 
reaches to the South 
American Republics, 
knowing the carob bean 
to be a valuable product 
of the sea coast of Chili, 
have obtained from thence a small invoice of 
the seed, about two pounds, which they are 
willing to distribute gratuitously, and have left 
with us about one pound of the same. In 
order to give it a wide distribution, we propose 
to inclose in letter envelope, say 20 or 30 seeds 
to each applicant— till all are disposed of— on 
the receipt of a three cent stamp. The seeds 
are about the size of the yellow locust. 

Bennett & Page, we believe, intend to put a 
portion of the seed in possession of the Sonoma 
Farmers' Club, for distribution and trial. Ah 
regards sprouting the seeds, in the absence of 
any information on the subject, we would sug- 
gest that as the tree seems closely allied to the 
locust family, that scalding hot water be 
poured upon the seed, to remain until they 
swell to two or three times their ordinary size, 
as is done with the honey or yellow locust; or 
one-half might be planted dry and the other 
half scalded. 



FALsTAi'F Easpbebry.— A Sftcramento corres- 
pondent puts a question thus; Can you in- 
form me who has the Falstafif Raspberry roots 
for sale ? I wish to purchase from 50 to 100. 



ORRESPONDENCE. 




[July 5. 1873. 



A Trip 



Through Lake 
Counties. 



and Sonoma 



Eds. Press :— Since writing you last we 
availed the opportunity of visiting the petri- 
fied forest, near Calistoga, which we found of 
much interest, being all it has been repre- 
sented to be. .\fter visiting this we continued 
our course towards the lakes, passing on our 
route the newly-discovered gold and silver 
mine on the St. Helena Mountain. As it was 
quite warm and exceedingly dusty, we found 
stage riding anything but pleasant, as all who 
have traveled by stage over California routes 
during summer mouths will fully understand. 
The crops, so far as seen through Loeonoma 
and Coyote valleys were very fair, and reports 
from parties throughout there were good. 
Also at Lower Lake crops were looking well, 
while at Clear Lake valley and Upper Lake 
they were looking remarkably well for this sea- 
son, and farmers from Scotts and other sur- 
rounding small valleys report very favorably. 
There are large amounts of hay being cut 
throughout the county. Barley is being cut 
in some localities, but the wheat is mostly 
rather late. Fruit will be very short. The 
grapes and potatoes were badly cut down a 
few days since, near the lake, by frost. 

A new stage road has just been completed, 
from Bartlett Springs to Colusa, and a regular 
stage line placed upon the route. The Springs) 
are all being well patronized now. A fine 
brick building is to be commenced at Lakeport 
within a few days for the Odd Fellows Hall. 
The people think the prospect good for a 
steamer being placed on the lake this season, 
as Messrs. Frazier & Floyd have purchased 
the little steamer, formerly belonging to the 
Government, at Mare Island, with the inten- 
tion of removing it to the lake. As we pass 
through Sonoma County we find the grain 
looking well, especially in the vicinity of 
Healdsburg. Fruit also bids fair for a fine 
crop. The grapes are injured but very little 
in this locality. 

At the meeting of the Healdsburg Grange, 
held on the 21st, the opinion was almost unan- 
imous that the yield of hay, grain and fruit, 
would be full an average one, mostly making 
their estimate for yield of wheat at from thirty 
to fifty bushels per acre; also, members from 
Alexander valley expressed the same opinion 
with regard to gi-ain there. Members from 
Dry Creek section thought their grain yield 
would equal that of last year, which was an 
average of lorty-two bushels per acre. We 
wore shown at Healdsburg a stool of oats from 
the ranch of Mr. William Melton, which meas- 
ured nearly seven feet in length. 

A new stage road was completed from Healds- 
burg to the Geysers on the 21st, by which the 
distance is reduced to 16 miles, over which the 
stage makes the Springs in three hours, the 
road being a good one. Also a road is being 
built from Cloverdale through the Sulphur 
Creek Caiion to the Geysers. 

Mr. L. M. Holt, President of the Anaheim 
Fruit Co., at Healdsburg, informs us that their 
trees are all looking well, and they are confi- 
dent of success. This company was organized 
in July la8t,and began operations in September, 
for the purpose of growing tropical fruits at 
Anaheim, Los Angeles Co. They have 106 acres 
planted with about 8,000 trees. The ground 
was all sown in grain this season, from which 
they expect a fair profit. They intend putting 
in the under-ground irrigation-pipes next year, 
provided they are well satisfied it is a success; 
it will require about 27 miles of pipe. Mr. C. 
E. Hutton is Secretary of the Co., and Mr. J. 
N. Chapman, Treasurer. 

At Santa Rosa business seems quite lively ; 
building to considerable extent is being done 
throughout the town. 

The continued cool weather for the past few 
weeks, together with the under-estimated 
prospect previous, undoubtedly accounts for 
the great difference between the present estim- 
ate and that of a few weeks ago, for yon no 
longer hear the wail of a short crop from these 
sections, but almost certain prospect of more 
than an average yield. The lower portion of 
the valley is rather short, but the remainder 
certainly looks well for the present harvest 
A large amount of hay has been cut, and bar- 
ley is being cut. Wheat will soon be ready for 
the headers. We have examined many sam- 
ples of wheat, and find them mostly with fine 
heads all well filled, and nice plump grain. 
Corn, of which there is q\iite an extent, is 
looking well, but quite late. 

A fine field of hops, is growing between 
Santa Kosa and Healdsburg, which is trellised 
by stakes and cord similar to the method used 
by the Eastern hop growers. With the present 
reports from the grain growing sections through- 
out the Western and Middle States, and through 
portions of Europe of the prospects of almost 
a failure, there certainly cannot be a doubt but 
the Pacific grains will demand advanced rates 
over last season and thereby making, with the 
unexpected yield, a most bountiful harvest for 
the State. 

Having a desire to visit the ancient town of 
Sonoma, we turned our course in that direc- 
tion, and as it was through a different locality 
than which wc had traveled before, the driver 
and accompanying friends being ever ready to 
answer our numerous questions, or mention 
all of interest along the route, we were highly 



delighted with the trip, so much so that the 
omnipresent dust and never ceasing jolt was 
wholly unnoticed. 

As we passed through Los Guillicos \ alley, 
which was almost one continuous field of heavy 
ei-ain we stopped a short time at the Los Guil- 
licos 'vineyard owned by Mr. Wm. Hood who 
formerly owned the whole valley. We were 
shown through his large wine cellar, which was 
finely arranged for convenience, etc. ; also his 
distilling and fine store house for distilled 
liquors. He has redwood casks for nearly all 
"bi the wine storing, of which he has about 70,- 
000 gallons; some fine white wine from those 
casks showed no stain from the wood whatever. 
In many vineyards between this and Sono- 
ma the vines were heavily laden with fruit. 
Some of the earlier varieties seemed to have 
put forth a second crop after the frost, which 
are not more than one-third the size of those 
on the same vine which escaped the frost; all 
will probably mature. Sonoma is truly an an- 
cient looking place. One might think the resur- 
rection had come, (if towns are raised in that 
way); but however it is situated near the center 
of a fine and extensive wine-growing section, 
probably the largest on the coast, that being 
almost exclusively the line of agriculture. The 
vines have suffered severely from the frost, but 
will probably furnish half an ordinary yield at 
least. Some of the wine growers are of the 
opinion that more damage was done the grape 
crop by the uncommon strong, cold winds, of 
which "they have had an unusual amount, than 
by the frost, the wind breaking and killing the 
under fruit, which appears to be the case from 
the larger amounts of grapes at well sheltered 
points. We visited the establishment of the 
silkgrowers also, of which we vrill give you a 
full aoount with our next. 

Having a few spare hours yet we visited the 
place of Gen. Vallejo; finding him at leisure we 
engaged in a pleasant chat, after which we were 
shown through his pleasant buildings and ex- 
tensive yineyards, a portion of which was 
planted by hfm thirty years ago and seemed to 
be bearing equal with its younger partners in 
the field; also his fine orchards of tropical 
fruits, etc., were looking finely, as they were 
loaded with half grown fruit. 

In speaking of the silk interests, Mr. V. re- 
marked that within a few years he had de- 
stroyed nearly seven hundred fine mulberry 
trees which were planted a number of years 
ago, and thinking them an incumbrance to 
the place, cut them into firewood, while with 
the present prospect of the silk culture he 
should probably put out as many or more again 
the coming year, being confident that by de- 
stroying the former ones he had lost quite an 
amount. The wind and dust equal that of San 
Francisco for several days past. 

F. G. Sacket. 
June 24th, 1873. 



Compton, Los Angeles County. 



Hermasillo, Sonora, Mexico. 



Editobs Pbess:— As I am a subscriber to 
your highly valued paper through Messrs. White 
& Bauer, I take the liberty of asking you a 
question. Please give me the best mode of 
cleansing merino wool, or separating the oil 
from the wool, in some future number of the 
Pbess. 

Within the last year, I have commenced in a 
small way the improvement of the stock of 
the country, and am fully sanguine that I 
will succeed. I commenced with three Merino 
and 1 Southdown ram, 2 Durham cows and 1 
young bull, 2 fair stalUons and 1 large 3 year 
old California Jack. Lost one fine jack last 
week by epizooty, which disease is very gen- 
eral here, but in mild form; jacks suffer more 
than horses: but few cases prove fatal in horses; 
with this small start I hope in time to make 
some progress, and if I can advance any ideas 
that would or might be of interest to you, I 
will be at your service. Very truly yours, 

J. P. FULLEE. 

June 1st, 1873. 

A manufacturer of woolen goods informs us, 
that a suds of hot water and soda- soap, will 
effectually remore every impurity from wool, 
in which the yolk or oil is an ingredient. 
Wash the wool in any siutable receptacle con- 
taining the hot suds, and rinse in another 
vessel of hot water; squeeze out the water, 
then dry thoroughly and bale. 

Cotton of the New Crop. 

Eus. Pkbss: — We send you to-day a cotton 
bloom from my ranch, four miles above Snell- 
ings, on the Mariposa road. The cotton is 
being cultivated by Mr. Hart Elerson, (colored) 
who will send you a sample of cotton as early 
as possible. Mr. Elerson wishes me to say 
that the cotton crop is now looking better than 
it did last year at this time, and bids fair to be 
a much better crop than has ever been raised 
in this valley. Mr. Elerson cultivated the cot- 
ton crop grown on Charles Peck's ranch last 
year; and is an old cotton grower from the 
South. S. K. Speabs. 

June 21th, 1873. 

The sample came to hand in good condition, 
and, together with the note, is a pretty good 
indication of an early and excellent yield of 
cotton in that part of the State for 1873. We 
would like to hear from Buckley Bros., Strong 
and others, in regard to the cotton prospect, 
whenever convonient. 



Editors Bubai. Press. — The farmers of Los 
Angeles county realizing the importance of a 
closer social relation among themselves and 
having organized five farmers' clubs in the 
county and anticipating many more organiza- 
tions in the course of the summer and fall — 
on the 21st inst., preliminary stops were taken 
for the org.inizalion of a Farmers' Union, for 
the southern part of this State, by dellegates 
from the diffierent clubs meeting at Gallatin 
and appointing a committee to draft suitable 
constitution and by-laws. Three clubs were 
represented. 

The "Union" will meet again on the 9th 
prox., and it is expected each club in the 
county win be represented; at which time a per- 
manent organization will be effected. 

The Barley Crop 
In the vicinity of Compton, in quality, is 
hardly up to the standard of last year, but in 
quantity will exceed last year's crop there hav- 
ing been more area sown. 

The com presents a very flattering prospect 
though in damp localities or where the farmer 
planted very soon after irrigating, before the 
soil was sufficiently warm and dry, the worms 
destroyed the seed making replanting necessary. 
Potato crops are promising well, and I think 
we can safely estimate the crop at one hundred 
per cent, more than was ever before raised in 
this vicinity. The early potato crop is now in 
and I have taken to market as fine potatoes as 
ever were raised on this coast. 

The Farmers of Los Angsies 
Were very iudignant at your article taken from 
the Transcript, but now have settled down to 
the firm conviction that the correspondent of 
the Transcript is one of that class of men who 
being too indolent to work, ashamed to beg, and 
as there is no money rained down to him, he 
wreaks out his vengeance on the country in 
which he is placed. In answer to him I will 
say we have barley (many acres of it) that 
will produce 70 bushels per acre iu this vicin- 
ity, which has not in any wise been irrigated 
except from the heavens. 

In your issue of June 14th, I see a corres- 
pondent signing himself E. B., writing from 
Carmel Valley, speaks of the frost killing all 
of his " Truck " patches, as he is pleased to 
call them, and premises his remarks will apply 
to the southern counties generally. In answer 
I will say, we had in this county on May 31st 
no "killing and chilling frost" as he has chosen 
to call it, nor have we had such frost at any 
time in May. We did have two light frosts 
about that time, but as far as I have been able 
to learn, twenty-five cents would cover all 
damages. I have all kinds of "garden truck," 
and not one blade did the frost touch, although 
it did touch the leaves of some of my neigh- 
bors' corn and pumpkins slightly, and I think 
Compton is as much exposed to frost as any 
settlement in the county being near the sea- 
coast. J. A. WAI.KEE. 

It is our practice to make up from our ex- 
changes and their correspondence a weekly 
synopsis of the weather and condition of 
crops in their several counties. We take it for 
granted that such correspondence is truthful, 
or we should not give it. It is very evident 
however, that the Oakland Transcript, in which 
the obnoxious conespoiidence first appeared, 
was in that instance grossly misinformed. 



in our fruit trees, so let them bud and blossom 
when they get ready if it does take them a long 
time to wake up. O. N. Cadwell. 

Carpenteria, Santa Barbara Co., June 22d. 



Crops and Peculiarities. 



Eds. Press: — We will come a little short of 
what we anticipated early in the season; but 
our hay and barley crops i re very good and but 
little if any under the average for the four 
years past that I have liveil here. We certainly 
feel well about our crops tl.us far. The season 
has been very peculiar, no rain since early in 
February and none too much then. Indeed I 
think we are doing finely for the amount of 
moisture we have had. The frosts which cut 
so sharply both above and below us, doneno 
damage here that I can learn. 

Corn and beans are an item with us; looking 
well now, but too early to say how much of a 
crop we will harvest. But little wheat sown 
in this vicinity. The little there is, is plump 
and more free from rust than last year. I 
notice considerable smut, which no one has 
even an excuse for, as a thorough preparation 
of the seed with bluestone is a preventive. 

Our fruit trees would, undoubtedlj' (some of 
them), look rather strangely to the fruit grow- 
ers further north. Many of our apple, pear, 
peach and plum trees are jnst beginning to put 
out their leaves, and appear to be "waking up" 
to their duty. Some varieties of the apple, 
pear and peach are more prompt to come out 
earlier, but none of them come out with such 
vigor as 1 have been accustomed to see. Many 
of the best varieties of the peach will do little 
or nothing here, as the fruit buds dry up and 
fall off long before a leaf will start. We can 
select a few varieties that will do better, so 
we can have in time plenty of tolerable 
peaches. 

Plums are nearly an entire failure, one year 
with an other. I find great trouble in starting 
dormant buds, peach, plums, etc , as many of 
them insist on being dormant until the second 
year and then come out promptly. I have seen 
buds start the third season that no coaxing 
could bring out before. I think that a hard nut 
for our nurserymen to crack. The apricot, fig, 
walnut and almond appear more at home. 

The weather is so delightful, cool and pleas- 
ant most of the time. It is enjoyable indeed, 
and we can put up with a few strange freaks 



Paradise Valley. 

Editors Hub Ai. Press: — I noticed an article iu 
your issue of June 14th, from ' 'Farmer, " refer- 
iug to my experience in raising Brahmas. 
Now, Mr. Editor, I heartily endorse every word 
proclaimed by " Farmer," pertaining to fancy 
fowls, and furthermore I have abundant 
evidence all around me, in the experience of 
others, to substantiate all that *' Farmer" 
has asserted, notwithstonding the seeming suc- 
cess of your correspondent, Sonoma, writing 
from Sonoma Valley, June i6th. 

The idea of men traveling around the coun- 
try selling hens at six dollars a piece, and eggs 
50 cents a piece, that are positively not as 
good layers, as most any common breed of 
hens, old fashion biddies, being far superior, 
for eggs or for the table, I concur with 
" Farmer," and make the application to my- 
self — we are greenhorns, for being humbugged 
by chicken swindlers. I have the Black 
Spanish hens that have laid 4 times as many 
eggs as the Dark Brahmas. In my humble opin- 
ion a bigger humbug and swindle was never 
practiced upon any people, than this fancy fowl 
business. I will take the old fashion hens of 
30 years ago, in preference to any of the 
fancy breeds of the present day. 
The Crop Prospect. 
Heading has really commenced in earnest. 
Crops are a little better than I anticipated in 
my last. I think the yield will be greater than 
last year, according to the amount of straw, 
the ear having more grains in a mesh, which 
will make about one-fourth more grain than 
the same amount of straw last season. Still I 
consider that the dry weather has reduced the 
present crop one-h.ilf, and iu some localities 
more, but as a general thing, farmers antici- 
pate one-half a crop this season. 

I am credibly informed that some ranches 
along the Stanislaus and Tuolumne rivers will 
reach 20 to 25 bushels per acre. All that the 
farmers of our Golden State ask is, that they 
may receive the legitimate price for their pro- 
duce that the foreign market prices guarantee. 
But heretofore we have had so many intrigu- 
ing swindlers, called middle-men, to eat out 
our substance and take the lion's share, that I 
anticipate many cases of bankruptcy among 
farmers this coming fall, all because of shoit 
crops, and to a great extent being swindled out 
of the fruits of their hard labor. 

Occasional. 
June 20, 1873. 

Almonds. 



Editors Press: — Many eastern people, aware 
of the adaptability of California's soil and cli- 
mate, to the production by open-growth of 
semi-tropical fruits, are seeking localities here 
with the object of investing their capital in 
this most important branch of horticulture. 

To whom it may concern, therefore, 1 offer 
through the medium of your most excellent 
journal, the following hints, touching the cul- 
ture of almonds. Select from the nursery trees 
that have been grafted or budded on peach 
stocks, and those having been well irrigated 
and cultivated, having attained the fullest and 
most perfect development whilst in the nur- 
sery; on this depends success. 

I am aquainted with a gentleman who pur- 
chased last winter 3,000 trees; 1,500 of which, 
had the full benefit of the conditions I have 
named, the balance being worked upon almond 
stocks, and grown in the nursery without irri- 
gation. This gentleman has what is known as 
"ohapparal land" that is, land from which 
that shrub has been cleared; his laud had 
been well plowed and worked, and the soil was 
the same iu nature throughout. 

When I visited the place about a month ago, 
I found the 1,.500 which had been worked upon 
peach, and well in-igated while in the nursery, 
healthy and vigorous, having put out new 
shoots from eight inches to a foot in length; 
and with every indication of completly grati- 
fying the hopes of their owner, while the 
1,500 worked on almond, and grown without 
irrigation, were the most complete failure I 
ever saw; not a single tree being alive. 

The nature of the Almond demands that it 
shall be planted upon high, dry, gravelly or 
sandy situations; putting forth its bloom as it 
does in February, it cannot be grown sm-cess- 
fully on moist lands where humid atmosphere 
tends to increase the severity of Spring frosts. 
It is obvious therefore taking the above facts 
into consideration, that a tree should have its 
saps and elements developed without s<u»i( while 
iu the nursery, in order 10 give it strength to 
rally under the change iu transplanting to 
which it is subjected. Akbuilius Kamp. 

San Joi!<;, June 22d, 1873. 



Crazy Disease. — Editobs Bubai. Ppbss:— I 
have been anxiously waiting to see some one, 
through the columns of your valuable jjaper, 
say something more about the "crazy disease." 
1 challenge my friend Occasional, or any other 
" Battle VVeed " theorist, to prove that there is 
a sj/iiiplMii in the crazy disease of poison on the 
stomach. Come! let's have theory. I say the 
symptoms are of a rheumatic or nnuralgia type, 
and culminating iu chronic- hydrocephalus. 
Come! lead out and I will answer. 1 claim one 
victory already, as "all is well that ends well." 
My mare got well; your horse died. 

Geo. Kay Miller. 

Vacaville Solano Co., June 23d, 1873. 



July 5, 1873.] 



I8CELL^|«IE@JS. 



California in the Ninth Census. 

A correspondent of the Bulletin who has been 
extracting items of interest to Californians 
from the ninth census, writes as follows con- 
cerning the mines: The censuses of 1850 and 
1860 cannot be taken as a guide in determining 
the increase of manufactures in California, as 
in other States, because mining was a chief el- 
ment of the account then, and it, with quarry- 
ing and the fisherie<i, are left out of the census 
in 1870, though given separately in a form that 
the Commissioner of the Census himself pro- 
nounces utterly unreliable. The following ta- 
ble shows, including the mining and fishery 
statistics in 1850 and 1860, and leaving them 
out in 1870, the manufactured products of the 
State of California. 

18.W (includiug mining) $12,862,552 

1860 (including mining) 68,253,228 

1870 (exclusive of mining) 66,594,552 

In 1850 and 1860, the principal products of 
California were from the mines. The wheel- 
wright shops, where wagons were made and 
repaired, and the flour mills, were then pro- 
ducing something considerable for those days, 
but nothing as compared to now. The vast 
other things that will be seen in a detailed ta- 
ble given below, have made California one of 
the great manufacturing States of the Union. 
Her mining industries, less by far now than in 
1860, are stated (because no correct statement 
is obtained) leaving out the milled product, at 
a total of $8,281,623. 

Cinnabar 817,700 

Gold, hydraulic mined 1,622,993 

Gold, placer mined 2,646,174 

Gold quartz 3,096,666 

Gold and silver quartz 15,000 

Silver quartz 83,100 

Conflicting Estimates. 

With regard to the productions of gold and 
silver, however, the thousand difficulties sur- 
rounding the ascertainment of anything like a 
correct statement regarding it, make it almost 
impossible to obtain one under a system oper- 
ated by the average census enumerator. Pro- 
fessor R. W. Raymond, Commissioner of Min- 
ing Statistics, gives for the year most nearly 
corresponding to the census year, the gold and 
silver product of the United States, mined and 
milled, as follows: 

California $22,500,000 

Nevada 14,000,000 

Oregon and Washington 3,000,000 

Idaho 7,000,000 

Montana 9,000,000 

Colorado and Wyoming 4,000,000 

New Mexico 500,000 

Arizona 1,000,000 

All other sources 500,000 

Total *61 ,500,000 

The census for 1870, excluding the value 
added by milling, gives the gold and silver 
mining product proper at $26,452,652 as fol- 
lows. 

Hydraulic $2,508,531 

Placer 7,266,613 

Quartz 16,677,508 

The Census Commissioner allows 45 per 
cent., as added by milling, and the result is 
that the two reports on gold and silver mining 
for the United States, including milling, stand : 

Professor Raymond $61,500,000 

Census Commispioner 33,959,531 

Commissioner Walker Defends His Statistics. 

Commissioner Walker defends his statistics 
for 1870 as against the seemingly great reduc- 
tion as compared with the census of 1860, by 
showing that in the latter census two-thirds or 
probably three- fourths of the amount of $24,- 
163,170 then rep 1 ted as the gross product for 
gold mining, wore based on estimates; that du- 
plicated production, resulting from the value 
of the gold or silver quartz being twice counted 
— once directly after being mined, and again 
after being milled, and even triplications of 
another class, that resulted from including the 
assay and refining of gold and silver, all the 
value thus reported having been included as 
bullion, and a portion of it having been twice 
reported; once as the value of ore, and once 
again as bullion, and third as assayed or re- 
fined metal. In 1860, 5,000 of 7,042 gold min- 
ing establishments were not returned to the 
census office, but were estimated for. The 
census of 1870 does not in this respect contain 
any estimates. For that reason the amounts 
seem surprisingly small. Taking into consid- 
eration the admissions made in both the eighth 
and ninth census reports, the belief is irresis- 
tible that so far as gold and silver mining are 
concerned in the census, both of 1860 and 
1870, the statistics are so unreliable that the 
results attained are not only provoking to con- 
template, but are almost as bad as none at all. 
This fact should not, however, detract from 
the credibility of the entire census, because 
the statistics relating to population, niortality, 
manufactyires, etc., are, as a rule, of inestima- 
ble value, the best the United States ever had, 
and reflect great credit upon the Commis- 
sioner. 

School Ship. — It is proposed to endeavor to 
secure the Flag Ship "California," recently 
condemned, and now lying in our harbor, as a 
"school ship" for boys who would otherwise 
be candidates for the Industrial school. She 
is admirably adapted for the purpose and it is 
to be hoped that efl'orts of the gentlemen who 
have the matter in hand will be.successlul. 
This is the manner in which old ships are dis- 
posed of in England and the results have been 
satisfiict.jry. 



An Important Discovery. 

The White Pine News says: It has long been 
our wish to speak of the discovery of stone 
coal at Pancake, but we have refrained from 
doing so, fearing that a premature expose might 
injure the prospects of the owners of the prop- 
erty. Now, however, that the fact of the ex- 
istence of good coal in quanties has been de- 
monstrated, as we are informed, beyond a 
doubt, it has become a matter of public interest 
to all people. The mine where this valuable 
discovery was made is situated on the Pancake 
range of mountains, fifteen miles from Hamil- 
ton, in the immediate vicinity of J. D. Sulli- 
van's old station. Some four years ago the 
latter gentleman, then living on his ranch at 
the place mentioned, thought he could trace 
indications of the existence of coal, and at 
once commenced sinking a shaft, which he 
finally abandoned, until Col. A. Lewis, an en- 
ergetic mining gentleman, well known in 
White Pine and vicinity, in company with 
Fred. Barrows, were attracted to the spot, and, 
becoming convinced of the presence of coal at 
that place, entered into arrangements with Mr. 
Sullivan to commence work on the same. Col. 
Lewis at once proceedsd East, and after con- 
siderable difficulty succeeded in interesting 
some parties there in his enterprise, and work 
has been prosecuted steadily since. To the 
gentlemen now engaged in the development of 
this valuable property is due great credit for 
their persistent efforts against much opposi- 
tion from practical miners and theoretical sci- 
entists, who never acknowledge the presence 
of anything until some other parties make dis- 
coveries; then they know all about it and de- 
clare that the formation of the country proves 
unmistakably the existence of the article 
sought for. Scieuce is well enough, but had 
Col. Lewis and his companions listened to ad- 
vice from its devotees, they would never have 
made the discovery of marketable coal in Pan- 
cake range. No doubt can possibly exist of 
the value and extent of the mine, as, we are 
informed, that at a depth of 2U0 feet a vein of 
four feet eight inches has been exposed, which 
can be readily extracted. The locality wherein 
this discovery is made renders the value of the 
property greater from its contiguity to the 
smelting furnaces of Eureka, and the valley 
through which the line of railroad is proposed 
to be built. When all arrangements are com- 
plete, a large force of men will be set at work 
on this mine, and we can confidently expect 
to see coal in use, both for domestic and smelt- 
ing purposes. The owners of the mine are 
naturally much elated at the prospect before 
them, and with much truth, believe that their 
possessions exceed by far the richest silver 
mine in Eastern Nevada. 



The Coal Fields of China. — There has long 
been much talk of the extensive coal fields 
within the Chinese Empire, but nothing defi- 
nite had been published concerning them. M. 
Louis Strauss, Consul for Belgium at one of 
the Chinese ports, now furnishes the Indepeji- 
dence Beige with the following figures as to the 
extent of the coal formation in the northern 
provinces of the Empire: 

Sq. miles. 

In Chiensi 9,000 

In Chansi 28,000 

In Tchyli k 30,000 

In Chin-King 20,000 

87,000 
In addition to these there are the coal de- 
posits of Formosa, an island off the Chinese 
coast, of 10,000 square miles, making the to- 
tal coal area 97,000 square miles. The United 
States is the only other nation which has any- 
thing like the same extent of coal lands. The 
area in this country is estimated at 120,000 
square miles. The 12,000 square miles of 
coal deposits in the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and 18,000 in its colonial dependen- 
cies, make an insignificant showing in com- 
parison with the vast deposits of China. Yet 
with all this known mineral wealth, the 
Chinese, who have seen the value of coal in the 
United States and the Australian colonies, 
have hitherto shown no signs of working their 
mines at home. It has however recently been 
said, but it is only a rumor, that the Court at 
Pekin is favorably disposed towards the intro- 
duction of the rail roads into the Empire. 
Perhaps the Mongolian mind may yet awake 
from its long sleep of thousands of years, to 
realize the value of these deposits. It may 
find more profit iu keeping its coolie labor at 
home, i^roviding cheap coal for the accessible 
markets, than in seeking to take the place of 
Africa in supplying slaves to the aristocratic 
nations. 

The painful effect of artificial light upon the 
eyes is attributed by recent investigators to the 
great proportion of non-luminous rays, or rays 
of mere caloric bearing no illumination, which 
it contains. In sunlight there are 50 per cent, 
of such rays, in ga.slight nearly 90, iu electric 
80, in kerosene light 94. A German chemist 
named Landsberg has discovered that by pass- 
ing any kind of artificial light through a thin 
layer of alum or mica, these caloric rays are 
absorbed, while the illuminating power of the 
light rays is undiminished, and becomes ex- 
ceedingly mild and pleasant to the eyes. 

Big Team. — The Eureka Senlbielol June 17th 
says: " There were 80,113 pounds of bullion 
shipped on Prichard's mammoth team of twenty- 
four mules and six wagons yesterday. The item 
should be copied in the Eastern papers, and 
half of their readers would say the reporter 
lied; that there never were so many animals, 
wagons and bars of bullion in one string. 



A Valuable Invention— Enameled Brick. 

We have already made some allusion to the 
recent invention by Mr. Clark of Connecticut, 
of a process for preparing an enameled brick 
for building purposes. It seems that a large 
company has recently been orgapized iu Phil- 
idelphia for the purpose of manufacture. The 
American Manufacturer, in speaking of this new 
article of manufacture, says: The process of 
enameling or glazing pottery and procelain has 
long been known, and even bricks have been 
glazed by what is known as the salt process; 
but the glazing is too perishable to be exten- 
sively used. There has also been another dif- 
ficulty in all previous processes of enameling. 
Litharge, or the protoxide of lead, has always 
been used; so essential has this been deemed 
that it is asserted that it is impossible to pro- 
duce an enamel without its use. 

Mr, Clark has, however, succeeded in find- 
ing a substitute for lead, and has thus avoided 
the cracking or "craziug" to which all enamels 
of which litharge is a component, is liable. 

The minerals used for the enamel are feld- 
spar, flint, China clay, fluorspar, and the sub- 
stitute for lead. These are melted together, 
and upon cooling are broken into bits looking 
like flints iu size and fracture. These are then 
ground to a powder under French burrs, so 
exceedingly fine that it feels to the touch of 
the finger like the best quality of flour, and as 
a liquid it flows through >^ net containing 10,- 
000 meshes to the square iuch. This powder 
is placed iu a suitable vessel and mixed with 
water until it assumes the consistency of the 
thin "skim" used by plasterers. It is natural- 
ly white, but almost any color that can be pro- 
duced in painting can be had by adding the 
necessary material. When the enamel has 
been thus prepared, it is rejidy for application 
by simply dipping the face of the brick into it. 
The paste readily adheres, the spongy quality 
of the bricks drawing it into the pores, and 
giving it a firm grip as it hardens. The brick, 
as soon as dipped, and while the enamel is 
still in a soft state, are placed in square boxes 
made of fire clay, face side up, and conveyed 
to a heating kiln, where they are subjected to 
a heat ranging between fourteen hundred and 
seventeen hundred degrees Fahrenheit, accord 
ing to the quantity of the flint in the enamel. 
The heat fuses the preparation, and the brick 
being in an exactly upright position, the enam- 
el settles evenly on the face, and is ready to 
be removed and cooled for use. 

The advantages of this invention are numer- 
ous. The brick presents a most beautiful face, 
smooth, hard, polished, and, as shown by a 
series of the severest chemical and mechani- 
cal tests, almost indestructible. Heat and 
cold arc alike powerless to affect the enamel; 
a blow sufficient to drive a nail into wood pro- 
duces not the slightest crack or flaw. Acids or 
other corrosive liquids do not attack it. 

The company have received an order from 
the Building Commitee of the Centennial Com- 
mission at Philadelphia, for 200,000 of these 
bricks, which they intend using in the con- 
struction of some of their buildings. 

A prominent railroad official designs using 
these bricks for lining the inside walls of some 
of the machine shops of the company, as a 
matter of economy in light — the shops being 
so dark as to require the almost constant use 
of gas in the winter months. The pure white 
enamel, for this purpose, would constitute an 
excellent reflector, and would render shops as 
light as a parlor painted in white. 

It is invaluable in building bank vaults, 
foundations, or in any situation where abso- 
lute freedom from dampness is necessary. 
The great advantage is their cheapness. They 
can be .delivered at sixty dollars per thousand, 
when the ordinary brick cost forty dollars. 
Philadelphia pressed brick are worth sixty dol- 
lars per thousand exclusive of the cost of deliv- 
ery, and an ordinary three story front can be 
put up withthese elegantly colored bricks at 
about one hundred dollars less than the cost 
of the Philidelphia brand. The enameled 
bricks are larger than the ordinary makes, which 
is also an item in their favor. 

It is of course understood that it is not to 
the manufacture of brick alone that this enam- 
el is adapted. There is no use to which por- 
celain has been put that this is not applicable. 
For enameling stove fronts, kettels, etc., it is 
unsurpassed. We also imagine that in the 
chemical arts it must be invaluable. In acid 
manufacture where a substance free from the 
influence of corrosion is absolutely needed, 
this must be employed. 



Scientific Prize-Awabd. — The Academy of 
Sciences, at Paris, have awarded their purse of 
$10,000 to Mr. Gramme, for his electro-mag- 
netic machine, which is one of the simplest 
and most efficient that has yet been invented. 
The construction is so free from complications 
that the instrument will work and give a con- 
tinuous current for months together, and to 
those who know anything of the subject, these 
will appear as results of the highest import- 
ance. One of the uses to which this machine 
may be immediately applied is the production 
of a light of intense brilliancy, which will be 
seen farther than any other electric light yet 
known. One of the French steamship com- 
panies is about to use this light on their ves- 
sels as a precaution against collisions or other 
ca,sualties, and it is obvious it can be made of 
great general utility. 

The mills on the Carson River are running 
to their full capacity, and there is plenty of 
water. 



Progress in the Manufacture of Mirrors. 

In the year 1782, the price in Europe of a 
mirror of ten square feet, amounted to 265 
francs, 5.35 francs being ejjual to one gold dollar. 
In 1805, the price of a mirror of the same size 
was 225 francs, and two years ago it only 
amounted to one-fifth of this sum, or 45 francs. 
But the differences in price are still greater for 
the large mirrors. From the year 1805 to the 
year 1865. the price of a mirror of forty square 
feet went down from 400 francs to 262 francs. 
In 1G88„ it was not considered possible to cast 
a mirror containing eighteen square feet; but 
five years later, Lucas, in Nehou, succeeded 
in casting plates containing thirty feet; and in 
1834, Saint Gobin exhibited a plate of one hun- 
dred square feet. In 1849, he produced one 
containing one hundred and thirty feet; at the 
first London Exhibition, one of one hundred 
and forty-two; at the first Paris Exhibition, 
one of one hundred and eighty-three; and at 
the last International Exhibition, one of two 
hundred and twenty square feet. This last 
mirror is the largest ever cast with the contents 
of a single pot. In the year 1862, the Belgian 
establishment of Sainte-Variu d'Oignies ex- 
hibited in London a plate of a size exceeding 
the last mentioned by twenty-six square feet, 
but, this mirror being cast with the contents 
of two pots, it showed marks which were pro- 
duced by the line of contact of the two 
streams. 

Vabious QnALiTEEs OF Ibon.— It is a well 
known fact, that there is a great variety in 
quality and character of pig, bloom and cast 
iron. When iron has passed into the form of 
steel, the same great differencies exist in 
quality. The reason is easily defined and un- 
derstood by the iron worker. That iron is 
ever found pure, or made so by any change 
yet known, we do not believe. It is metal of 
various elements, and when a certain portion 
of each one predominates, the variation from 
the one not holding the same is at once noted. 

The existence of an undue proportion of 
phosphoric acid, can be at once detected; for 
it imparts to the mass a great degree of brittle- 
ness and shortness. The existence of carbon 
in small or large proportion gives to iron 
many changes; and it is remarkable how little 
of this carbon is required to produce steel 
from iron. 

It is curious to witness the changes pro- 
duced by the variations of quality of carbon 
from one to six per cent, in the changes of 
this metal from pig iron to other conditions. 
It is wonderful to observe the entire difference 
in the quality of pig iron by careful analysis. 
The various proportions ef silica, lime, alumi- 
na, magnesia, manganese, sulphur, phospho- 
rus, titantic acid, or other substances though 
principally or partially destroyed by the pro- 
cess of change, leaves their marked influence 
upon the metal ever after. — Ex. 

Another Answeb. — Mr. A. E. Holley gives a 
very sensible answer to the much discussed 
question, "What is Steel," in the following 
language: " Steel is an alloy of iron that is 
cast while in a fluid state iuto a malleable 
ingot. Any radical nomenclature founded on 
chemical differences leads to endless mistake 
and confusion. If steel is defined as an alloy 
of iron containing carbon enough to harden it 
when it is heated and plunged into water, then 
puddled iron, although laminated and 
heterogeneous in structure, may not be steel, 
and the finest product of the crucible, 
although crystalline and homogeneous in struc- 
ture, may not be steel. The fundamental and 
essential difference between steel and all other 
compounds of iron is a structural difference, 
and it is always easily determined, while steel 
and wrought iron cannot always be distin- 
guished by chemical analysis. The same pro- 
portions of ca,bon, manganese, silicon and 
other elements may exist in and similarly 
effect any malleable alloy of iron. Steel is, 
therefore, an alloy of Iron which is cast into 
a malleable mass." 



Raising Steam by Solar Heat. — Several in- 
ventors in different countries are attempting 
to utilize the heat of the sun's rays, and to con- 
struct a sun engine. Many people shake their 
head at this idea and ridicule the very idea of 
success. But they are certainly unacquainted 
with the stupendous force at disposal. To con- 
vert one pound of water from zero to steam re- 
quires 637 centigrade units of heat. The re- 
searches of men of science have proved that 
every square centimeter of the earth's surface 
receives not less than 231,675 centigrade units 
of the sun's heat annually. Forty per cent, of 
this is absorbed by the surrounding atmos- 
phere, and sixty per cent, reaches the earth. 
This gives seven centigrade units received per 
second on each centimeter, so that ninety-one 
square feet of the earth's surface would receive 
heat enough every second for the vaporization 
of one pound of water. 

Device fob Inceeasino the Flow of Wbllk. 
M. Donnet, a French engineer, has discovered 
a method of increasing the flow of wells, by 
closing the mouth as perfectly as possible, by 
means of a sheet-iron bell, through the top of 
which (he tube passes which is attached to the 
pump. When the pump is worked, if more 
water is withdrawn from the well than uatnr- 
ally flows into it, the water-level is lowered, 
and a diminution of pressure is produced on 
the surface ; this causes an increased supply 
of water to come in from the springs which feed 
the well, and the total delivery of the well is 
permanently increased. 



TAomm uwsuuu 



[July 5, 1873. 



pi^R|«EI\S IH GoJilCIL. 



The Farmers' New Departure. 

The Patrons Defining their Position. 

Following i« the opening addreBS at the or- 
ganization and installation of tlie members and 
officers of Elmira Grange, by Judge T. Hart 
Hyatt, Master of Vacnville Grange; 
What Do the Patrons of Husbandry Propose 

to Do? 
We propose to beoomu revolutionists. Y(B; 
we propose to try our hand at revolution, until 
we can overthrow the pei verted, rotten system 
by which the industrial farmer, the producer 
of the very elements of man's existence and 
subsistence has been made to toil and sweat 
and suffer privation, and too often penury and 
ruin, in order that the bloated monopolist, the 
grasping middleman, and the ring sharks, who 
rob the farm«r of ullj hi* profits, may roll 
in luxury and wealth, and by which the farmer 
has been made to support the political dema- 
gogues, who ride into place and power on the 
backs of the honest but duped tillers of the 
soil, who are taxed, and taxed, and taxed, and 
squeezed and robbed, to support these insati- 
able noDopolibts and political bummers, 
until it has come to be a serious question with 
many farmers whether they had not better 
abandon their farms and their homos to those 
who already absorb all the profits of their farms 
and li.bor can produce. 

We propose lo break up these mouopulies, to 
combine our strength into one mighty power 
that shall be able to hurl from place and power 
all these dishonest harpies who steal into office, 
betray the farmers' interests, and make them- 
selves millionaires and lordly aristocrats ut the 
expense of the honest and confiding farmer. 

We propose to demonstrate that although 
our order is a secret organization in its tnodus 
operandi, in its internal workings, and has a 
secret charm-spring that gives vigor and life 
and unwonted energy to its magic workings— a 
shield of mystery that from prudential yet jus- 
tifiable reasons the outside world may not pen- 
etrate, and that shall exclude the trickster and 
covert enemy from our councils, while we only 
maintain the privacy necessary to the success 
of every judicious enterprise. Yet we do not 
fear freely, publicly and boldly to declare the 
ends and aims that we propose to accomplish 
iu the progrc 88 of our secret mission. They 
are snch as all good men and honest patriots 
and true Christians and worthy citizens can 
commend, and with success, too. 

Wo propose, acting upon the principle that 
" eternal vigilance is the price of liberty," and 
of success, as well, that we will use that vigi 
lance to the utmost to prevent "wolves ii 
sheep's clothing" from stealing into our fold 
to carry ovit their mischievous, selfish designs; 
to see that political demagogues and corrupt 
partisan intriguers do not hoist themselves into 
our order to distract our councils or to betray 
our confidence, not that we expect or ask any 
man who joins us to lay aside his honest polit- 
ical principle nor his party obligations, only 
when and so far as these obligations nre found 
to clash with his honest duties as a good citi 
zen and a faithful patron. 

We propose to consolidate the farmers of 
California and our national union into one 
united masg, to organize, conciliate and com- 
bine, so far as pot-sible, every conflicting ele 
ment into one united whole, so that, like the 
electric current that by touch can send an in- 
stantaneous shock to the remotest bounds of 
earth and sea, so shall the slightest outrage of 
these oppressors upon the weakest member of 
our order of patrons send a thrill through our 
entire lines, interpose a protective shield and 
call down a righteous retribution upon the of- 
fending aggressors. 

We propose to stand by each other in com- 
batting the railroad monopolies, when they re- 
fuse to listen to reasjn and insist on charging 
rates of faro and freight that are ruinous to the 
farmer; in combatting ship monopolies and 
grain rings and produce brokers, who are not 
satisfied with reasonable commissions for their 
services, but who assume to dictate to farmers 
what prices they shall sell their grain and pro- 
ducts at, and dictate what amount of freights 
they shall pay and what commissions they 
shall submit to. 

We propose that inasmuch as it is the farm- 
er 8 lands, and the farmer's labor, and the 
farmer's capital and the farmer's products that 
build up and support these modes of transpor- 
tation and these middle men, we shall have 
some voice in the handling and disposition of 
our products, and at least a small share of the 
profits. 

We propose to have lines of transportation, 
and warehouses, and shipping merchants, and 
storekeepers, and machine builders, and deal- 
ers and mechanics devoted to our interests— 
those that will be willing and can afford to do 
our business at small, fair profits, by having 
onr trade, as a whole, guaranteed to them. 

We propose to aid and encourage the build- 
ing of narrow-gauge railroads wherever prac- 
ticable and needed, to be owned and managed 
by or in the interest of farmers and farming 
pursuits, as a means of cheapening fares and 
freights, and getting rid of the extortions of 
the old monopolies. 

We propose to see why it is that farmers 
shoald not be placed on an equal footuig with 



other industries and other people in obtaining 
banking facilities, when they find it necessary 
to borrow money to aid in their farming opera- 
tions ; to see why it is that the farmer must 
pay from one and a-half to two and a-half per 
cent per month interest, when the specuiator, 
the grain-ring sharks, can get money at the 
same places at one-half these rates, with which 
to "comer" the farmer and rob mm of his just 
dues. 

We propose to make a combined, energetic 
efi'ort, or series of efforts, to lessen the amount 
of taxation on our State and nation, under 
which the farming interest is now groaning 
and struggling for existence. It is a significant 
fact, demanding the serious attention of every 
farmer, stated in one of the tracts issued by 
our National Grange that '3«r'n« the third 
session of the Foriy-first Congress *lGy,000,000 
were appropriated for different purposes; of 
which iuimeuse sum, in time of peace, less 
than one million of dollars was appropriated 
directly for the interests of agriculture. Is it 
not time that these things should be looked 
into by those who have the great burden of 
taxation to bear? 

We propose that the tax gatherers shall not, 
as in 1871, be paid neariy 40 cents on the dol- 
lar for collecting the internal revenue of the 
country, or $7,22.'j,3tl2..50 for collecting $18,- 
375,388.20, as shown by the report of the Fifth 
Auditor of the Treasury iu that year. 

We propose, after having given a bonus of 
$200,000 in this county of Solano, to aid in 
building a railway, that we have a right to 
claim some justice from tho managers in the 
adjustment of rates of fare and freight; that 
they shall not, as they have done, charge the 
people of our county a fare of $3 from San 
Francisco to Balavia, for instance, a distance 
of 57 miles, while the outside way-farer could 
go from San Francisco to Sacramento, 83 miles, 
for $2, over tho same road. 

We propose to see why it is that, while 
freights are to-day being carried from Sacra- 
mento to San Francisco V)y competing steamers 
at $1.50 per ton, a distance of 125 miles— and 
at a profit at that— we must be charged from 
$4 to $G per ton from Vacaville and Vaca Sta- 
tion, or Elmira, to San Francisco, a distance 
of less than UO miles; and why it is that, atone 
time, they charge as much for running a car 30 
miles as at others for fiO miles. 

We propose that those railways that have 
been built with the bounty of our country and 
our national Government shall pay the same 
pro rata tax on their full value that our farmers 
have to pay on their farms, especially as every 
farmer's tax is heavily increased each year to 
pay the very railway bonds that help this rail- 
road into existence. 

We propose to carry out the spirit and letter 
of the resolutions adopted unanimously by the 
Vacaville Grange on the 26th April last. 

We propose to do all this — and howV Not 
by organizing a political party, unless we are 
driven to it as a elire necessity, as a last resort 
in self-defence, to foil tho intrigues and 
machinations of the political trie'k»t( rs and 
grasping monopolists, who strive, and, alas, 
too often succeed, in subsidizing our Legifla- 
tures and national law-givers with corrupt 
Credit Mobilier swindlers and by the grossest 
bribery and corruption. But we propose to 
apply a remedy ; by supporting no man for any 
position of the public trust, no matter what 
may be his professions or party affiliations, 
whoso integrity and honest instincts and well- 
earned reputation are not clearly beyond the 
reach of these Shylocks to bribe or approach. 
We propose to study and discuss, make ex- 
periments and compare notes as to the best 
modes of making our farms productive, the 
best crops to produce, the best modes of tillage; 
in other words, to make ourselves a practical, 
scientific, working college of husbandry, where 
our sons and daughters may be trained to know 
something of the nature and progress of the 
great industry which lies at the foundation of 
all other industrial pursuits within the knowl- 
edge and scope of men. 

We propose, besides all this, in admitting 
the fair, pure type of women to our councils, 
to cultivate the social virtues among our patron 
associates; and, in the terse and beautiful lan- 
guage of the preamble to our Constitution, 
"the ultimate object of this organization is for 
mutual instruction and protection, to lighten 
labor by diffusing afknowledge of its aims and 
purposes, expand the mind by tracing the beau- 
tiful laws the great Creator has established in 
the universe, and to enlage our views of crea- 
tive wisdom and power." And while our ritual 
is void of all sectarian dogmas or political par- 
tisanism, it is lofty and ennobling in tone and 
sentiment, with all the beauty and simplicity 
of gospel truth. 

Much else we propose to do, that it is not 
expedient nor necessary now publicly to declare, 
but which, in due time, will be developed in 
the progress of our honest labors for the good 
of tho public in general, and of the farmer's 
interest in particular. 

This is the kind of revolution we are inaugu- 
rating and intending to carry on. 

We propose, ere we close this brief outline 
of what we, as Patrons of Husbandry, under 
this new departure dispensation, propose to do 
in this great work before us, to refer briefly to 
the progress this popular institution is making 
in our country. Its onward progress, for the 
past twelve months, has been unp iralleled in 
the history of any like undertaking. At the 
close of the last year, 1872, the number of 
Granges, as reported by onr National Grange, 
at Washington, was as followi: Illinois, tj5 
Granges; Missouri, U Granges; Indiana, 38 
Granges; Kansas, 12 Granges; Iowa, f>n'2 



Granges; Alabama, 8 Granges; South Carolina, 
100 Granges; Tennessee, 4 Granges; Ohio, G 
Granges; Mississippi, 55; Michigan, 8 Granges; 
Nebraska, i'J Granges; Louisiana, 3 Granges; 
Georgia, 2 Granges; Virginia, 1 Grange; Min- 
nesota, 4C Granges; Kentucky, 1 Grange; Ar- 
kansas, 1 Grange; Wisconsin, 24 Granges; 
Vermont, 12 Granges; New Jersey, 1 Grange; 
Canada, 3 Granges. 

And now to this list add California with— say 
fifteen granges (we shall soon have, we doubt 
not, fifty), making twenty-two States in which 
granges have already been organized. And in 
all the granges the number of members has 
rapidly increased since the commencement of 
the present year. Missouri is said to have in- 
creased its number from 14 to 200 granges; 
Iowa from 652 to nearly l,OfX), and they claim 
to have over 100,000 members. The toUl num- 
ber of members in the several granges in the 
United States is reckoned to be over 1,(KJ0,000, 
some estimates claim 1,800,0(M). 

In some of the Western States the Patrons 
own a large portion of the grain elevators, and 
manage there own forwarding and transporta- 
tion bu.siness. They are manufacturing their 
own farming implements in Iowa; they have, 
also, their co-operative stores. 

New granges are springing up in every di- 
rection, and the cry is " Still they come !" 



Sonoma County Farmers' Club. 



1873. Vice-President 



Club met June 21st 
Coulter in the chair, 

Mr. Fulton for the Committee on Conference 
with Morgan Sons reported that the Committee 
expected one, perhaps two of the members to 
visit San Francisco iu a week, and as the mat- 
ter was not very urgent, hoped »here would be 
further time granted. Mr. Hood had told him 
that some questions had 1 eon propounded to 
Morgan Sons and answered in the (Jail, in ref- 
erence to their terms. I believe that the firm 
agrees to ship 100 tons of grain at the same 
rates charged for a whole ship load. On mo- 
tion of Mr. Rector further time granted. 

Coulter — On behalf of Finance Committee 
asked further time, which was granted, 

Mr. Whittaker asked if anything had been 
paid on the rent of hall, and tho Sc-crelary and 
President both made reports of the amount 
collected and paid, and the anticipated future 
expenses of the Club. 

The Secretary on motion read the names of 
delinquents for dues and the amount due from 
each. 

On motion the Secretary was instructed to 
write to each delinquent and collect the dues. 

Report of crops being in order, Mr. Adams 
presented four or five samples of difi'erent kinds 
of wheat grown on various parts of his farm. 
Tho first was the result of some seed obtained 
from the Sonoma iJemocral officein 1871, which 
had been sent by the Agricultural Department 
at AVashington City. He drilled one half-pint 
in his garden in 1871, gathered the produce, 
and in last October sowed the see-d on sum- 
mer fallowed black adobe lands, about one- 
eighth ])art of an acre. The wheat was called 
White Touzell, a white French wheat. The 
sample, which Mr. Adams said waii a fair one, 
was 4}^ feet high, had stooled well, and the 
heads were well filled. The straw was white 
and fine. 

The next sample was composed of Smith 
wheat. White Club, and White Chili, and was 
as tall as the French wheat. This was dry 
8 jwed on summer fallowed gravelly adobe land, 
on October last, about 15 acres. 

Next sample was the same mixture, sowed 
in February last, which was not so fine looking 
as the two former. 

Next sample was that of volunteer crop of 
same mixture, adol>e laud, the stalk was long, 
stiff, and heads well filled. 

Two samples were shown, which were quite 
green; one of the Re^d Sonora, about 'i% feet 
high; the other White Chili about two feet 
high. These crops were sown on identically 
the same quality of land at the same time. 

Mr. Coulter. — Have you tried mixing see-d? 
I have read that such a course was favorable to 
increased product. 

Adams. — Yes — you can see by these samples 
that it will produce more. 

Mr. Rector. — There is some advantage by 
mixing, besides increased product. You can 
get a better quality of flour, but I would not 
recommend the plan on account that different 
varieties mature at different times, so that the 
loss of grain is not more than compensated by 
increased product. 

Mr. Range exhibited samples of Red Sonora, 
which was veiy beautiful. 

Mr. Rector recognized it as a wheat grown 
in Oregon. It was not a favorite with millers, 
but the farmers sowed it for their family use, 
as it produces more and better flo.ir than any 
other kind. 

Coulter.— It could not have been Red Sono- 
ra, for that does not make good flour. It is 
very flinty, and balls up in the grinding. 

Adams. — Y'ou cannot mistake Red Sonora. 
It has a velvet on the husk. He exhibited the 
ripe and green grains, which both showed a 
soft velvet on the husk of each grain. 

Whittaker. — The question is, which kind 
produces the most per acre. I think Oregon 
wheat produces most to the acre, and does not 
rust. I think I shall make forty bushels to the 
acre. I drilled eighty pounds to the acre. 
My drill shows tho exact amount of seed drilled 
to^ the acre. It has a machine attached to it 
which gauges like a readometer. 

Thompson. — What is your experience un be- 
tween drilling and sowing broadcast. 

Whittiker.— I find it better to drill than 



broadcast. The produce is from five to eight 
bushels more than grain sown broadcast. An- 
other advantage is that during the north winels 
the drilled grain stands up and grows right 
along. I drill seven inches apart. I drill all 
my wheat. 

(Question.— How would it do to drill fonrteen 
inches apart? 

Answer.— I believe it would be l>etter; be- 
tween the rows could be cultivated and the land 
kept clean. I am also of the opinion that the 
product would be one-third more. 

Mr. Whittaker showed samples of Tappa- 
hannock. Goose and other varieties of wheal 
which looked exceedingly well. 

Question.— Is there any difference between 
Oregon and White? 
Answer. — None. 

Rector.— There is no difference. The Ore- 
gon wheat has a peaked heiul— not much chess 
in the grain. The Club does not screen ho 
much as the Oregon wheat. 

Whittaker— 1 have (luit raising Club, be- 
cause it shells out so much. Even if I could 
save the Club, I think Oregon wheat would 
yield the most. 

Mr. O'Rreen exhibited three samples of 
wheat — one soweil 24th of January on bottom 
land, one sowed 6lh November on summer fal- 
low. Sowed eighty pounds to acre, and one 
sample sowed 20th March. Mr. O'Breen did 
not say how much the yield would be, but the 
wheat looked very fine. 

O'Breen. — Rye is much used in my country 
(Holland;. It ia grown on dry, sandy soil, 
and is f<;d by dairymen to cows, producing a 
good flow of milk. It btands drouth well. • 

Gus. Peterson exhibited some splendid heads 
of White Club and (Jregon wheat, grown on bis 
ranch, near the Laguna. 

Mr. Story, of Bennett Valley, also showed 
some fine samples of Oregon wheat. 

Mr. Gauldin and others also exhibited sam- 
ples of their wheat crop, which were greatly ad- 
mired. 

[We are comi)elled to omit for want of space, 
further proceedings reported, and the interest- 
ing discussion on the queslifjn, "Will wheat 
change to cheat?" — Ed.] 

Subject for discussion next meeting, "Cans' h 
and prevention of smut." — Soiu/ina Dfnnocral . 



San Joaquin Farmers' Clnb. 

Club met June 28, Captain F. £. Kelchum, 
President, in the chair. 

Mr. Phelps, chairman of the committee ap- 
pointed to draft a memorial to Congress in re- 
lation to the proposed diversion of the waters 
of the San Joaejuin river from the natural 
channel of the stream into canals for irrigating 
purposes, read the following report which was, 
on motion of Mr. .Smyth, adopted: 

"This memorial of citizens of the Stale of 
California to the Congress of the United States, 
respectfully represents : 

"That the bill entitled "A bill to encourage 
the construction of canals for irrigation and 
navigation in California," giving privilege, 
and subsidies to a corporation known as thi- 
San Joaquin and King's River Canal and Irri 
gation Company, is, as they believe, wrong in 
principle, and will be most injurious iu its 
practical effect. 

"That the said San Joaquin and King's 
River Canal and Irrigation Company is s cor- 
poration claiming greater and more extensive 
rights and privileges than the laws under which 
it is organized do warrant, asserting a right to 
all the rivers of the San Joariuiu Valley, and 
assuihes to extend its control indeGnitely ov> r 
the flowing waters of the State, thereby consti- 
tuting a complete monopoly <<f what must in 
all the future be of vital importance te; our de- 
velopment and wealth. 

"That a system of irrigation most iu accor- 
dance with our necessities and interests should 
place the waters of the rivers of our Slate used 
for that purpose under the supervision anl 
control of the owners ami cultivators of the 
soil, associated under such regulations and in 
such irrigation districts, formed under our 
State laws, as our experience and interest shall 
suggest, and which are most in harmony with 
local and self-goverumeut. 

"That we cannot, either formally or tacitly, 
assent to the doctrine assumed in said bill, 
that Congress has power U) grant away, or in 
any manner interfere with the rivers of our 
State for any such purpose as therein contem- 
plated. 

"That there are companies already organ- 
ized, and others in process of organization, 
under our State laws for the purpose of utilizing; 
the waters of the San Joaquin and Sacramento 
valleys, which ask no aid from the government 
and claim no exclusive privileges, and we be- 
lieve the farmers of this .State are able to con- 
struct irrigating canals upon these principles 
whenever their necessities require them. 

" Finally, we respectfully but earnestly pri' 
test against the granting of any such privilegi - 
and hubsidies as are proposed in the said bii: 
before your honorable body, believing thai 
their effects will be to fasten upon us a graeji- 
ing corporate monopoly, whose sejle object will 
be to grow rich upon our necessities, leaviiv' 
us without the power of self-protection." 

Messrs. Phelps, Kelchum, .Smith, Wilkii. 
and others, discussed at length the matter of 
irrigation on a broad and extended scale, and 
favored the construction of canals on a large 
and liberal plan, but einiilmtically opposed the 
idea or denign of th<' Government granting.' 
Hulmidy for the mea.^ure. The general beli. I 
expressed was that the farmers tbemselv> •. 
should organize and plan, own and control all 
the enterprises dt signed and calculatoel to a '• 



JuK'5 1S73.I 



vance legitimate farming interests and pursuits. 
The question of irrigation was discussed 
intelligently and at some considerable length, 
and the general conclusion seemed to be that 
combined capital was scheming, through leg- 
islation, to control the laboring interests of the 
country. 

On motion of Mr. Wilkins, the Secretary was 
instructed to forward a copy of the above 
memorial to the various Clubs in the State, and 
to solicit their co-operation in thwarting the 
designs of monopolists in controllingthe waters 
of the State. 

Captain Ketchum, in speaking of the advan- 
tages of irrigation, referred to a crop of wheat 
which had matured in thirty-sis days. The 
subject of " Dry Plowing," chosen at a pre- 
vious meeting for discussion, was postponed for 
debate until next meeting of the Club. — Inde- 
pendent, 



\cm}C\}LJ\i^J{L flojES. 



AT.AMEDA. 

NewH, June 27: Floral Kabities.— A nursery 
man informs us that the gardens about Oakland 
beat the world for curiosities. Almost every 
private garden contains some rare productions 
that would be worth many times its weight in 
gold, roots and all, at the East. We saw a 
bouquet yesterday from the beautifully culti- 
vated grounds of C. B. Card, corner of Eighth 
and Jackson streets, in which there were sev- 
eral double red and white fuchias and no less 
than thirty-seven varieties of pinks. Some of 
the pink stems had six varieties of that fragrant 
flower upon each of them. 

Transcript, June 27 : Wheat, oats and barley 
in the immediate vicinity of Oakland are 
mostly cut and stacked, but the harvest is in 
full ijlast throughout the county. The yield 
of all cereals as we have before remarked will 
be very fair, and the hay crop heavy and 
healthy, 

EL DOBADO. 

Republican, June 26: Prolific. — Mr. Lap- 
man, of Uppertown, has a hen that has laid 
184 eggs during the past 184 days. Has any 
one a hen that can compare with Mr. Lapham's, 
for honest industry? 

LAK£. 

Bee, June 28 : Strakge Climatic Changes. 
Within the past two weeks the climatic changes 
here have been rather peculiar. First, sum- 
mer weather with its regular noonday heat, set 
in. Last week a change came, and days, and 
evenings especially, have been cool enough for 
fires indoors. 

Tail Oats. — A bunch of Surprise oats, seven 
feet four inches in length, raised on the farm 
of W. T. and F. M. Gully, Scott's Valley, was 
left at our office this week. They have five 
acres of this oats — all over a man's head in 
height — and it will average about eighty bush- 
els to the acre. The seed of this Surprise 
oats, as it is called, was brought from Illinois, 
where it was originally cultivated from a wild 
variety. 

The Crops. — We gather the following infor- 
mation regarding the crops from Mr. John 
Burger, who is farming two miles from here. 
The hay is generally cut throughout the 
county, and the yield is good, averaging about 
three tons to the acre. Farmers have com- 
menced cutting grain, and there will be a fair 
average crop. It is estimated that there will 
be about forty bushels of barley to the acre; 
forty of wheat; and oats from forty to fifty 
bushels to the acre — going as high as seventy- 
five on one farm in Scott's Va'ley. 

MAB.IN. 

County Journal, 'June 26; One of the best 
arranged dairies it was our good fortune to visit 
in Tomales township was that of Mr. Abijah 
Woodworth. It is leased by the owners, two 
younger brothers, Charles and Samuel, and 
they are making the best of it. The Woud- 
worths believe that there is economy and profit 
in everything that tends to the comfort and 
convenience of their cows, as well as in pro- 
viding every facility in their dairy. Capacious 
sheds and bay mows are constructed for winter 
use, and a high and thoroughly eflfective wind 
fence protects the cows from the daily breeze 
that sweeps over that country. In building a 
wind fence be sure to leave crevices for the 
wind to go through. Build it similar to a picket 
fence. This cute the wind, and destroys its 
force. Whereas, if you make it solid, the wind 
will pass over it solid, and come back into the 
yard with a furious swirl to fill the vacuum 
created by its passage over. At this dairy Cap- 
tain AUen's patent butter worker is in use, and 
it is thought to be the best. Although the feed 
has fallen ofi"a good deal, 80 cows on this place 
are still making 75 pounds of butter a day, and 
in the best of the season they make 92 pounds. 

MONTEBEy. 

Democrat, June 28 : Harvest has commenced 
of barley, at least, and preparations are being 
made for the wheat crop. As previously re- 
ported, prospects of a good yield of bright, 
plump grain, are flattering. 

New Plant. — Under this caution the Index 
describes a "new plant," the stalk of which, 
covered with flowers, is on exhibition in Ab- 
bott's drug store. It is not a "new" plant by 
any means, and it is the American aloe, called 
"maguey" by the Mexicans. Growing on the 
tops of the hills along the coast south of the 
town of Monterey, it has long been a familiar 
object to all persons acquainted with that dis- 
trict of country. 



NAPA. 

Reporter June 28 : Wheat. — That we are cer- 
tain in this county of a good crop, there is 
now no question. Not only can we congratu- 
late ourselves on this fact, but the grain will 
be of larger head, plumper, and far cleaner 
than we have been blessed with for some years. 

Fine Wheat. — Mr. W. M. Meers has left for 
our inspection a bunch of very fine wheat in 
our office. It has delighted all whD viewed it. 
The stalks are over fiye feet in length, and 
the well-filled heads measure a little over five 
inches. This wheat was grown on the farm 
of the above named gentleman this side of 
Foss Valley, in the foot-hills. 

Register: A Nutmeg Tree. — Walking up 
Guajome Canon, four miles northwest of town, 
recently, we passed a small tree some 20 to 30 
feet in height, gi-owing out of the side of the 
canon, which much resembled a cedar, but 
which a friend informs us is known here as a 
Nutmeg Tree, and there is fruit on it in the 
proi^er season, resembling the nutmeg of 
commerce. This tree has very sharp, thorny 
leaves, and we have since noticed in the Lake- 
port Bee an account of the same variety of 
tree being found in Lake county. 

A Magnolia Bud.— Mr. H. W. Crabb, of 
Oakville, favors us with a large and beautiful 
Magnolia Bud, from his garden, which was one 
of nine on two trees four years old from the 
seed. This, Mr, C. informs us, is an unpar- 
alleled case. 

A Big Troitt — Dwight Hackett and Joseph 
Green, last evening speared a trout in Napa 
Creek that was 28^ inches long and weighed 
5% pounds. 
SANTA BARBARA. 

Fress, June 21: The Grain Crop. — The grain 
crop of Santa Barbara County for the year 1873 
has now been so nearly harvested that the 
yield may be safely estimated. From the most 
careful estimates which we could obtain, we are 
warranted in saying that this year's crop will 
exceed that of any previous year. Much more 
land was seeded than ever before, and the av- 
erage results are equal to any ordinary year. 

In some parts of the county the yield was 
light, and in other parts it was enormous. 
Whenever intelligent tillage made a good crop 
possible, the good crop came. Not a single 
field was irrigated, except by the sweat of the 
farmer's brow. 

The average yield per acre of wheat in this 
county, may safely be placed at twenty sacks 
of one hundred pounds each. In many fields 
the yield is as high as fifty sacks, and hence it 
is a low estimate to put it at twenty sacks to 
the acre. The barley yield is quite as good, 
and the price will make both crops profitable. 
SAN JOAaXJTN. 

Argus, June 28: Cotton Blossoms. — C. S. 
Peck, Esq., brought us a cotton bloom from 
one of the Merced plantations, on Monday last. 
Mr. Peck states that the cotton in his fields and 
the fields of Col. Strong are more forward than 
in any former season, and that the prospects 
for a large yield are extremely flattering. Mr. 
Peck cultivated a portion of his land last year 
in cotton, and was so well pleased with the re- 
turns that he this season planted just 
double the number of acres cultivated by him 

last year. 

One of the advantages of cotton culture in 
this country is, it gives employment to a large 
number of men in the spring and fall season'?, 
when they cannot get work in the grain fields; 
the crop being "laid by" before harvest com- 
mences, and ready to gather in September and 
October, between the close of the harvest sea- 
son and the beginning of the fall rains. 

Since the experiment was first tried in this 
county, we have heard of no failure of the 
crop, the trial on the Mariposa Creek plains 
last year proving eminently successful, paying 
the enterprising gentlemen who introduced it 
there so large a profit that they have this year 
planted six hundred acres, an increase of five 
hundred acres on last year's planting. 

Independent: Wheat up the Eiveh. — A gen- 
tleman just returned from a trip up the San 
Joaquia informs us that farmers on the west side 
of the river are busy threshing their grain and 
piling it up on the banks for shipment. By to- 
night it is thought there will be grain ready for 
shipping at every landing between Hill's Ferry 

and Stockton. 

New Wheat. — The first installment of alot of 
one hundred tons of new wheat from the ranch 
of W. H. Fairchild was received by the Farm- 
ers' Co-operative Union yesterday. It is of a 
very superior quality. 
SANTA CLABA. 

Mercury, June 26 : The Wheat Prospect. — 
Last ween we published an estimate in gross 
of the amount of the wheat yield in this State 
during the present season. Our figures pre- 
sented then showed the surplus of last years' 
crop to be 500,000 tons, and the estimated sur- 
plus of the present crop at 400,000 or four- 
fiiths of that of last year. Since that time, 
however, we have received later and more defi- 
nite information in regard to the yield from all 
of the great wheat growing counties of the 
State, showing that our estimate was much 
too small. 

We were yesterday shown a lot of gooseber- 
ries picked at random from the place of Mr. 
Henry Mitchell in this city. The berries aver- 
aged three inches and a half in circumference 
one way and four and a half the other. The 
bush on which they grew is from a cuttiug and 
only three years old. 

Is spite of the late frosts last spring, it is 
confidently expected that the vineyards of this 
county will yield at least three-quarters of a 
crop. This is much better than was expected. 



Fruits of all kinds are coming into our mar- 
kets in large quantities and the daily ship- 
ment of fruit, from this city to points beyond 
the Sierra Nevada mountains, are very large 
and steadily increasing. 

Tobacco.— The Pacific Tobacco Company 
commenced cutting their tobacco near GiWy 
yesterday. This is something unprecedented 
in the history of tobacco culture in the United 
Stites, and we doubt if another country can be 
found on the globe wher3 tobacco will come to 
maturity in so short a time. The crop that 
they have now commenced to gather stands 
from four to six feet high, and the area they 
have planted is about four hundred acres. 

The company expect to ^et two, and possibly 
three crops from the same land during the pres- 
ent year, as only about sis weeks time is re- 
quired to mature a crop. Four new houses 
have been erected for curing purposes, making 
six in all, and two or more will be put up dur- 
ing the season. Most of last year's crop is yet 
on hand — a very fine quality of tobacco. 

A portion of it will be manufactured into 
cigars for the market. It would require a sharp 
expert to distinguish it from the finest brands 
ot imported Havana. The Gulp patent for 
curing tobacco, is attracting attention commen- 
surate with its merits, even in foreign coun- 
tries, and the time is not very far off when the 
Culp brand will take its place at the head of 
all varieties of the fragi-ant weed. 

SOLANO. 

Independent, June 26: Crop Prospects. — 
Harvesting has been going on in Yolo and 
northern Solano for some time, and the pros- 
pects for a fair yield now pretty well ascer- 
tained. Large shipments have already been 
made, and yet the hai-vest is only just inaugu- 
rated. In most sections the early sown grain 
is found to be fine, and the yield will be abun- 
dant. The late sown grain is generally poor. 

The tule or swamp lands that have been re- 
claimed are represented as yielding the finest 
crops. Throughout the southern and western 
parts of the country the yield will be consider- 
ably above that of last year, and the quality of 
the grain will also be good. 

Throughout Napa county the same will be 
found to be true. In Beryessa Valley the 
yield will hardly come up to that of last year, 
yet throughout the other portions of the county 
it will be better. Some of the grain fields 
along the main valley are as fine as could be 
wished. The early sown grain is always found 
to be the best. 

The corn crop promises to be fair. The yield 
may not be so large as last year, but it will not 
fall much short. 

The fruit crop, with the exception of grapes, 
is an average one. The grape yield will be 
poor, and it is expected that the quality will 
not be an average. This will make the quan- 
tity of old wines in the cellars bring a higher 
price than was expected. 

In this manner some good will result from 
the gi-eat blight by the spring frosts. The cel- 
lars will be cleared of old wines, and at the 
next vintage there will be an abundance of 
room and accommodation for the yield. 

SONOMA. 

Argus June 27: Daisy Burned. — The dairy 
house and fixtures belonging to Jerry Cary, 
on Salmon Creek, in Marin County, was de- 
stroyed by fire on Sunday. Besides the dairy 
house there were eight barrels of butter burned, 
800 pans and other fixtures. It was with diffi- 
culty that the residence was saved. The loss 
was estimated at about §1,300. 

We learn from a correspondent of the 
Healdsburg Flag, that last year there were de- 
livered at the Cloverdale railroad depot for 
shipment 608,730 pounds of wool. This year, 
from the closest calculations that can be made, 
there will pass through the place 800,000 
pounds of wool. 

To Farmers. — In the process of drying, corn 
loses one-fourth and wheat one-fourteenth. 
Therefore, farmers will make more by selling 
unshelled corn in the Fall at 75 cents, than in 
the Summer at $1 a bushel. Wheat at $1.32 in 
December is equal to $1.50 for the same wheat 
in the June following, interest being estimated 
at 7 per cent. 

Valuable Sheep. — The Benicia Tribune says 
630 head of Merino ewes and bucks, valued at 
$40,000, imported by rail direct from Vermont, 
by Amos Roberts, of Solano County, were 
brought down fiom Sacramento on the Amador 
last week and landed at Benicia, to be driven 
out to the ranch of the owner. 

Tule Laxds.— A large area of tule lands will 
be reclaimed this season. In the San Joaquin 
Valley the two islands, Union and Koberts, 
will be inclosed this year with substantial le- 
vees. The former is owned by the Cincinnati 
company, of which the chief representative and 
engineer is Theodore S. Schowden. The is- 
land contains about 65,000 acres, and will re- 
quire to surround it seventy miles of levee. 
Roberts' Island is owned by a Boston com- 
pany. It contains about 75,000 acres of land, 
and will require eighty miles of levee. 
STANISLAUS. 

County News, June 27: Harvesting. — It 
may now be said that we are fairly in the 
midst of haivest. Headers and reapers are at 
work cutting down the ripened grain, wherever 
it will justify for the labor expended. As yet, 
but few threshers are running, therefore but 
little can be told of the probable yield. The 
inference, however, so far of those who are 
best informed, is that whilst the yield per acre 
will be small, the giain in proportion to straw 
will be in excess of even last year. The seed 
is large, plump, and well-filled. Especially is 
this the case on the sand plaiBS or central belt 



of the county. Though the quantity may be 
small the quality will be good. 

Wheat Burned.— On last Sunday a fire 
was discovered on the Tuolumne river bottoms 
and was not checked until it spread to Mr. Dal- 
lis' wheat field. Our informant states that 
about fifty arcres of fine gi-ain was destroyed. 
The fire, it is supposed, was occasioned by 
some hunters shooting guns in which paper 
wads had been used. 
YOLO. 

Mail, June 26: Heavy Yield. — R. B. Blowers 
informs us that he cut 130 tons of hay 
(alfalfa) from 32 acres at one time this season, 
and the clover now stands three feet high and 
very heavy, again ready for the mower. He 
believes this is the best yield of clover hay ever 
cut in this section of country. 

Wheat, Wood and Fence Burned. — On 
Monday last, E. R. and Thos. Lowe lost by 
fire on their rauch three miles beyond Cache- 
ville, about thirty acres of wheat, as many 
cords of wood and a mile of board fence. The 
Hoppin Brothers, adjoining, also lost by the 
the same fire a mile of fence and twenty acres 
of good wheat. The total loss to all will not 
fall short of two thousand dollars. 

Bemocrat, June 27: Wheat Burned. — Fire 
was communicated to a wheat field belonging 
to Johnson Bros., and E. C. Church, near Sil- 
vejrville, on Monday last, and about twenty- 
five acres burned. 



Sball we Make Sugar. 

We imported in 1872 sugar and molasses to 
the value of $89,000,000 in gold, which was 
seven millions more than the total value of 
our grain exports. The first named-article 
pays a high duty on its importation, a specific 
rate per pound greater than the wheat nets to 
the farmer. The great question then is to 
what an extent we can raise the sugar-beet, so 
as to lesson the drain for specie that follows 
our importation of cane sugar. In former times 
the latter was raised in the West India Islands, 
Brazil and Louisana by slave labor; now it is 
produced in all those regions, save in Cuba, by 
free labor, and in the latter slavery will soon be 
abolished. The consequence .will be that the 
cost of sugar made from beets or the cane will 
vary but little in amount. Experiments made 
in California to manufacture beet-sugar have 
been attended with great success, as regards 
quality, and time improved processes will af- 
ford our farmer a cheap means of obtaining an 
article that forms a heavy item in household 
expenses. The establishment of factores will 
build up settlements in their neighborhood ; 
their wiU be a good demand for sugar-beet, and, 
after making syrup and sugar, the refuse 
may be used to fatten cattle, or for ma- 
nure. California is one of the great sugar-im- 
porting States. The refineries in San Francisco 
used in the course of last year 41,000,000 
pounds of raw, making 32,000,000 pounds of 
refined and 3,300,000 gallons of syrup, which 
found markets in the neighboring States and 
Territories. 

Last year the total imports from foreign 
countries were 82,000,000 pounds, of which 
46,000,000 came from Manila and China. In 
France, Italy, Germany, England and Russia, 
the manufacture of sugar from beets, were pa- 
tiently followed, has been a great success. In 
this State, from its variety of soil, there are 
many localities where the proper description of 
beet can bo successfully cultivated. In view of 
the possibility that foreigh demand for Cali- 
fornia wheat may fail within some season of 
the next few years, our farmers ought to devote 
their attention to consider how they can aid 
the establishment of refineries for making beet- 
sugar. If successful to the extent of our ex- 
pectations it would amount to 9,000,000 annu- 
ally; but the quantity could be greatly increased 
to supply a demand from the States in the 
Mississippi Valley. — Examiner 



A Batter and Cheese Exchange. 

The dairy interest now represented in the 
city of New Y'ork has become so important 
that an Exchange is about to be established in 
that city as one of the permanent institutions. 
The New York Bulktin shows the relative im- 
portance of the butter and cheese interest by 
giving the following estimates of the produce 
business of that city last year: 

Butter ..taO.OOO.OflO 

Cheese 15,000,000 

Wheat. J^.OW.OW 

Flour 26.000.1100 

Corn" 26.000,000 

Petroleum;; IS'SSSffi 

Cutmeats 12,000,0Ou 

The two items of butter and cheese amount 
to $45,000,000, butter alone leading every other 
article in the produce market. 

The remarkable prosperity of the dairymen 
is well-known. Wherever a dairy business has 
been well managed it has been a very satisfac- 
tory business. Good butter and good cheese 
rarely overstock the market. The new Batter 
Exchange, as well as the figures quoted, indi- 
cates the great progress which this interest has 
made during the last few years. 

Chinese Peovebb.— The flsh dwells in 
the depth of the waters, and the eagle in 
the side of heaven; the one, though high, 
may be reached with the arrow, and the 
other, though deep, with the hook; but 
the heart of a man, thongh a foot distant, 
cun not be known. 



^^OmiQ BMUMA SPmEBS* 



[July 5. 1873. 



California Mioers. 

The early pioneer miners of California — 
those who laid the foundation for future civili- 
zation and progress on this coast— were by no 
means the rude and lawless men that many 
Lave thought them to have been. At the time 
of their advent here there was no law, and of 
course no officers of the law by whom the peace 
of the community could be preserved. Every 
community was a law to itself. Men joined 
together in parties of four or five or more, to 
work claims— working themselves and often 
hiring others to assist them. Partnership 
papers were unknown; yet these improvised 
partnerships were conducted as honorably as if 
the parties were bound by all the legal docu- 
ments possible, regularly signed, sealed and 
recorded. They divided their earnings or 
shared the losses, with the most scrupulous 
honesty. When a traveler went among them 
they were hospitable and generous, and a more 
quiet orderly community never existed on any 
part of the coast, than was found in the mines 
of California during the summer and winter of 
1849. 

Let us make a little sketch for the uninitiated, 
not fanciful but well remembered by the writer, 
of the domestic arrangements of this class of 
men. One cabin is the type of the majority, | 
for though they may differ in detail as to ap- 
pearance and arrangements, the same general 1 
characteristics are common to all. The engrav- ! 
ing shown on this page will serve to give an | 
idea to the uninitiated reader of the exterior ap- 1 
pearance of an isolated cabin, and a group of I 
miners encircling the lire, while its truthful- i 
ness will be recognized by those of our friends 
who are now among such 
scenes. The little group have 
evidently just returned from 
their claim hard by, and have 
made a long day of it, for the 
moon is rising over the tree 
tops in the background. The 
"doctor " is preparing supper, 
the other boys are reading, 
taking it easy, warming them- 
Belvea or gathering wood for 
the camp fire. Black coffee, 
boiled beans, fried bacon, 
bread baked in a Dutch oven, 
or pancakes, form their frugal 
meal. But it is eaten with a 
relish that an epicure would 
envy, for industry, early rising, 
and regular habits are great 
promoters o f appetite and 
digestion. Beside the cabin 
are the utensils with which 
they pursue their daily toil, 
and handling a pick or shovel 
invariably drives away dys- 
pepsia. 

Now let us take a peep in- 
side the cabin and see what 
the domestic arrangements 
are. Somewhat neater than 
one would suppose from the 
appearance of the outside. No 
paper or cloth on the walls to 
be sure, but the nails driven 
into the logs would spoil that. 
Four blinks on each side of the 
cabin, beside the door, with 
their heads toward it in a 
double tier. A small, rough 
table in the center, with several boxes and 
powder kegs for chairs, a small looking- 
glass near the Uttle window with a comb 
suspended from a string beside it. These 
catch the eye of the visitor at the first glance. 
Then he becomes cognizant of some sacks of 
flour, one of potatoes, in the corner, a few sides 
of bacon suspended from a beam, a miner's pan 
or two, an old pick handle, some store clothes 
hanging from the nails, and a couple of com- 
mon trunks, and .several cracker boxes and car- 
pet sacks, in company with gum boots protr\ide 
from under the lower bunks. The walls are 
ornamented with cuts taken from illustrated 
newspapers and a few photographs are tacked 
under two or three of the bunks. On a couple 
of shelves over the fire-place are a few well- 
worn books, which show signs of hard service. 
An old newspaper slicks out of the foot of one 
of the bunks. At the back of the cabin is the 
open fire-place in front of which the boys sit on 
winter evenings. In the summer they prefer 
to sit outside around the camp fire and smoke 
their pipes, spin yarns and dream of the time 
when they will have made their pile. On an- 
other shelf above the window is a bag of salt, 
several yeast powder cans, a paper of coffee, a 
couple of bottles of quicksilver, some plugs of 
tobacco, a worn pack of cards and a crib-board. 
In the corner is a bread pan, some molasses 
bottles, a demijohn and a pair of boots, under- 
going repairs. The beds consist of a couple of 
pair of blankets without sheets or coverlet, 
made up on a straw mattress, with a coat or 
two for a pillow. 

Take them even as we find them at this day, 
these men do not care a cent what the outside ■ 
world thinks of them. They do their work 
and mind their own business and do not want 1 
any one to meddle with it. But as far as being 
idL or most all, gamblers, desperadoes, diunk- } 
ards, etc., as many people suppose, any one; 
who told them so personally would find a fight 
on his hands as quick as if he killed a rat down 
in one of the levels of a mine on the Comstock 
lodo. ' 



Hydrostatic Weighing Machine. 

We saw this week at Linforth, Kellogg & 
Co.'s, No. 5 Front street, one of Duckham's 
Patent Hydrostatic Weighing Machines and 
Dynamometers, an English invention of great 
utility. The machine is very simjjle in appear- 
ance and construction, though of great power. 
It is intended to weigh heavy articles during 
the operation of loading and unloading, but 
may also be used as a dynamometer, rope or 
chain tester. It is simply a square iron box, 
above and below which are heavy iron rings, 
for attaching to the materials to be weighed 
and to the crane. A dial plate is on the front 
of this iron box which indicates the weight 
from 100 pounds up to 100 tons, according to 
the size of the machine. The external dimen- 
sions of a 30 ton machine are only '28 inches x 
18 inches x 13 inches. Inside of the iron case, 
which is filled with oil, is a simple valve, and 
when the weight is attached to the lower ring 
it forces the oil through the small pipe in pro- 
portion to the weight, so that the oil presses 
the index finger in the dial to the proper point. 
Machines of this sort will bo found very use- 
ful in many places. Small sized ones can bo used 
for weighing ore at mills, where there are no 
scales. The weighing can all be done in one oper- 
ation, while loading or unloading. They are 
also valuable to railway companies, merchants, 
shippers, iron founders, etc. The weight of 
metal can bo ascertained even during manufac- 
ture. Cargo and stores for ships can be 



A California Invention— Hyde's Water- 
Power Attachment. 

The little engraving, shown herewith, rep- 
resents a machine which although simple in 
appearance and operation, is one which is 
rapidly effecting a great change in domestic 
circles. It is Hyde's Water power attachment 
for sewing machines. The evils attendant on 
the constant operation of the sewing machine 
by the treadle movement, are too well known 
to need comment by us. Physicians have 
agreed that the method usually employed is 
injurious to the health of females, and should 
be remedied. This little water power attach- 
ment is, as can be seen by the cut, quite sim- 
ple. It can be attached to the table of the 
machine in such a manner as to offer no 
obstruction to the operator and in fact is 
rather ornamental than otherwise. 

It consists of a neat iron water-case, about 
one foot in diameter which is attached to the 
side of the table. Within the case is a water 
wheel, modeled after the wheel ordinarily used 
in manufactories, and measuring eleven inches 
in diameter; two pipes connect with the case, 
one running from a point iu the floor to the 
front side of the case and almost on a line with 
the center; and the other a waste pipe, lead- 
ing from the rear end of the case to, and 
through, the floor. The volume of water, 
involving of course, the motive power of the 
machine, is controlled by the operator, who 
simply presses his foot on the iron sandal that 




MINEBS ABOUND THS! CAMP FIRE. 



weighed while hoisting on board. Everybody 
who deals in merchandise by weight, or is in- 
terested in knowing the strength of material or 
machinery, can by this contrivance ascertain 
these particulars. 

As soon as the goods are lifted, they are 
weighed, and the operation of weighing is cost- 
less. Several sizes are made for different uses. 
When attached to the chain of a crane the pro- 
cess of raising the material weighs it accu- 
rately. A peculiar merit is its lightness, an 
84-lb. machine being capable of weighing ton 
tons. It is one of the most recent and useful 
adaptations of the principles of hydraulics, 
and is like a common spring-balance on a 
large scale. "Land-lubbers" will readily un- 
derstand about " weighing the anchor," after 
seeing this machine, for the operation would 
be as simple as weighing a pound of sugar, if 
it were necessary. 

Lapt Bug. — Epitobs Pbess: As you seem 
to know a remedy for all the evils to which the 
vegetable kingdom is subject, will you please 
tell me what will destroy the Lady Bug? I have 
used both saltpetre and sulphur, but they do 
not seem to have any eff'ect. Miss E. P. D. 

Batavia, June, 1873. 

Will some one of our florists name a remedy, 
or some means of destruction, and oblige Miss 
E. p. D.? 

We had always supposed the Lady Bug to be 
inoffensive, doing no injury to leaf or flower. 

To Wool-Qbowebs.— We would call the at- 
tention of those having wool to sell, to the 
advertisement of Watt & McLennan, Wool 
Commission Merchants, corner of Sansome 
and Jackson streets, San Francisco. 



is substituted for the treadle. The stream of 
water running upon the wheel is no larger than 
a darning needle, but it performs its work ad- 
mirably, furnishing all the power required; the 
water passes a few inches in the bucket on the 
wheel and is then thrown off by centrifugal 
force, and passes down the waste pipe. An 
ordinary tank pressure of 20 feet, or the pres- 
sure of the city water pipes will move the 



plying the attachment the wheel is fastened to 
the table of the sewing machine by wood 
screws or bolts. The foot-valve is placed be- 
neath the table and screwed fast to the floor, 
and occupies the same position as an ordinary 
treadle. The pipes are connected with rubber 
or leather washers placed between the joints 
or couplings, and screwed tight. The waste 
water pipe connecting with the outlet of the 
machine must have sufficient fall to secure 
free drainage, otherwise the wheel will cease 
to operate. On cabinet machines the wheel 
can be placed under the table and connected 
by a belt. The attachments can be made with 
either rubber or lead pipe; if with rubber, the 
machine can be moved to any part of the room, 
according to the length of hose. The foot- 
valve must in that case be put upon a board , 
with the sewing machine table resting npon it. 
Messrs. Sawyer & Whedon, No. 633 Wash- 
ington street, agents for this machine, inform 
us that they have lately applied it to other uses 
than driving sewing machines, and that it an- 
swers the purpose required admirably. One 
use to which it will probably be applied exten- 
sively, is in driving a dental tool known as 
Morrison's "Burring Engine," which is used for 
boring out cavities in teeth. This machine 
has usually been run by a treadle but an irreg- 
ular movement was the consequence. Recently 
however, this little "attachment" has been 
applied in this city to run the "Burring En- 
gine " with very satisfactory results. Boring 
teeth by water power may seem a strange idea, 
but it has nevertheless been put in practice 
successfully. The drilling and 
polishing is done as well as the 
excavating, and as quickly. 
By this means the dentist is 
able to move about in any 
direction, and to point the 
" burr " to any particular place 
without any irregularity of 
movement in the instrument. 

The agents are now apply- 
ing it to small printing presses, 
jewelers' and dentists' lathes, 
etc. In one jeweler's in this 
city a 1-16 inch nozzle entire- 
ly dispenses with two trfadhs, 
drives a polishing lathe 1,500 
revolutions a minute and works 
at the same time a lapstone six 
feet distant. It is also used on 
a lathe at a prominent opti- 
cian's and works beautifully 
for light turning, polishing and 
grinding. This little thing is 
a California invention, having 
been patented through the 
agency connected with this 
office recently. For small 
manufacturing purposes whei c 
little power Is required it is 
iuvaluitble, and when imce 
used can scarcely be dispeusid 
with. It is being introduced 
quite extensively in this State, 
and will no doubt before long 
find its way to the East. The 
machine will materially lessen 
the doctors' bills in fomilies, 
and be of great benefit to 
many aiUng persons of the 
gentle sex. Its simplicity is apparent to the 
most casual observer. 




machine at a high rate of speed, causing it to 
run 300 yards of cloth, while the ordinary 
operator would run 150 yards. The little water 
wheel only weighs six ounces. 

The machine is operated as follows: The 
operator starts it by pressing upon the iron 
sandal with the front part of the foot. If a 
higher rate of speed is desired, increase the 
pressure, and so on until the required speed 
is reached. The speed is lessened by depress- 
ing the heel, and the machine can be started 
at full speed at once, or stopped immediately 
at will. The attachment is compact, the water 
is never seen, and the ease of working the ma- 
chine with it is almost no work at all. In ap- 



The SEC0>fn Laboest Merchant VEssisr. 
Afloat. — On Saturday last, says Iron, a mag- 
nificent screw steamer, named the Citi/ of Ches- 
ter, built for Messrs. Inman, of Liverpool, was 
launched from the shipbuilding yard of Messrs. 
Caird & Co. , Greenock. The vessel is the larg- 
est merchant steamer that has ever been built 
on the Clyde, and she is farther said to be the 
largest afloat, with the sole exception of the 
Great Eastern. The Cilt/ of Chester is to be 
engaged in the Liverpool, New York, and 
Philadelphia service, and will take her atat- 
tion during the coming summer. When 
toasting "Success to the Citi/ of Chester," after 
the launch, Mr. J. T. Caird referred to the 
great and rapid advance which has taken place 
in shipbuilding and engioeering science on the 
Clyde within the last fortj' years. 

When his firm settled in Qreenock, at that 
time they built a vessel of 500 tons, and were 
unable to find a purchaser for her for some 
years, owing to the general objection that she 
was too large. That vessel was the largest that 
had till then been built on the Clyde. Many 
years afterwards his firm built the Atrato, also 
larger than any of her predecessors on the 
Clvde, and now his firm had the honor of turn- 
out the Citij of Chester, the largest yet built. It 
would be vain, however, to expect that she 
would remain for any length of time the 
largest vesKCl, for, at the farthest, two years 
would see her quite eclipsed in size. Messrs. [ 
Caird will immediately commence the con- | 
struction of another screw-steamer for Messrs. 
Firman, which will be 50 feet longer, and have ' 
600 hundred tons more burthen than the City \ 
of Clies-ter. i 

Gbain, Cotton, anp Wool-Obowbrs will be 
interested, we think, in the advertisement of 
J. C. Merrill & Co., who are doing business at 
204 and 206 California street, San Francisco. 



Julys. 1873.3 



iPjL©itx© :ETOaj.a!> !Fmii: 



ESjic Eqq 



Cooking as a Science and an Art. 

At the International Exhibition in London, 
Mr. Buckmaster lectures on cooking. He has 
abundanct and efScient assistance, and all the 
materials and accessories he needs for the com- 
plete illustration of his subjects. Having 
mounted his rostrum, where a variety of ob- 
jects have been arranged to his hand for illus- 
trative purposes, he is waited upon by four 
dapper female cooks, appropriately attired, wh 
watch his eye and hand, and hang upon his 
lips, suiting their actions to his words. He 
vindicates his mission manfully as a teacher 
of practical eookeiy, and contends that there is 
greater dignity in a housewife, or a woman of 
any class, being able to cook economically a 
wholesome, palatable dinner, than in being 
able to fashion and minipulatejflounces. His 
object, he stated, was not to show how to pre- 
pare costly, high-class dishes, but to point out 
defects in our domestic cookery, and to suggest 
remedies. 

Aided by his assistants he proceeds to pre- 
pare various dishes, which he subsequently 
passed around among the audience, who test 
their quality. Meat is put on to steam and 
boil, vegetables are scraped and sliced, a few 
words being interspersed concerning their re- 
spective characters and qualities, and the 
manner in which they should be prepared and 
manipulated. At a late lecture he prepared a 
French pot au/eu, an excellent and economi- 
cal dish. Some few pounds of meat and bones 
were placed in a stew pan and covered about 
two inches over the top with pure, soft water. 
An onion is next peeled, and put down to 
roast. Another onion is peeled and garnished 
with a dozen cloves, stuck round in center. 
The other vegetables are then scraped and 
sliced. These consisted of two carrots, a par- 
snip, two turnips (these can scarcely be peel- 
ed too thickly, while potatoes cannot be peel- 
ed too thinly, as far as the mere cuticle goes), 
half a head of celery, a leek, and for a flavoring 
bouquet, a sprig of marjoram, another of 
thyme, a small bunch of parsley, two bay-leaves, 
and a clove of garlic. The saucepan, which 
has been simmering on the cooking-stove, is 
then carefully skimmed, and the carrots ad- 
ded ten minutes before the other vegetables, 
the other ingredients being a dessert-spoonful 
of salt, a teaspoonful each of whole pepper 
and of allspice; the whole is then put to sim- 
mer for three or four hours, but should not be 
allowed to boil. The time required for this 
dish, requires that it should be cooked at 
leisure after the lecture, and warmed up for 
the next day's audience. 

In referring to the aims and objects of the 
school, Mr. Buckmaster quotes the proverb, 
"God sends meat, " but another party "sends 
cooks. ' ' His numerous and respectable audience 
relish) his soup, beef, and omelettes, and his 
lecture, too highly to suspect for a moment 
that he or his assistants were in the service 
of the said other party; and although all pres- 
ent might be' in accord in applying to them 
the adjective clever, not one, we feel assured, 
dream of attaching the substantive. 



and which should be kept under the sink, in 
some odd nook — the other should be smaller, 
and only be used to set the tea kettle, etc., up- 
on when filling, and therefore must be kept 
handy and clean, so if you should be sick 
with a headache, pain in your side, or any 
little trifling thing, and should ask your kind 
husband to fill the tea kettle, he would take 
the cricket down to set it on, instead of setting 
it in the sink — thus causing you more labor 
than it saves which he woukl be sure to do 
were the cricket under the sink, or so black 
and nasty, he could not touch it without soiling 
his hands. 

And last but not least, have a light rack 
made of strips of wood an inch wide, an 
eighth of an inch thick and a foot long, nailed 
over one another, making a rack a foot square, 
with both sides alike, to put in your sink to 
turn dishes upon while washing, thus keeping 
them from touching the sink, which is liable 
to be greasy and dirty, and draining them so 
they will wipe easily. 

You may think, fair reader, that it takes 
considerable to furnish a sink to suit my taste; 
but every one of these things are around my 
sink, and not one would I dispense with, nei- 
ther will you, after having seen how conven- 
ient they are. — Ohio Farmer. 



QOOD l-JEi^LTH' 



OsEfUL IflfOR^/^flON. 



Eitclien Farnitare. 

Never have dark furniture for a kitchen. It 
shows the dust much more than light, and 
requires double the care. Never have extra 
shelves, mantels, etc., painted dark if you can 
help it. If it is your misfortune to have dark 
paint and furniture, wipe it once in a few days 
with a damp cloth, and have it varnished often. 
Have your sink in a convenient place, but 
never under a window if you can avoid it, as 
much work is caused by greasy dishwater 
spattering upon the windows as it necdssarily 
must. Back of your sink nail up a piece of 
varnished paper, and then you can with a wet 
cloth remove all spots that would soon spoil 
room paper. If you are so fortunate as to 
have a sink room, have it papered and then 
varnished well all over, as fly tracks and every 
spot can be wiped off. The sink should be 
lined with zinc, nailed only around the edges, 
as nails upon the bottom rust and wear 
through, allowing water to run under the sink, 
thereby causing the boards to rot. 

Good zinc can be kept nice and bright by 
scouring once in a week or two with sand, and 
rubbing all over once or twice a day with soft 
soap, scalding and wiping dry. 

At one side have a place to put your water 
pail on, which always day and night keep 
covered; an uncovered water pail is a slack 
thing. Nailed upon the back side of the sink, 
have a little box perforated through the bot- 
tom, to keep hard soap in, and if you have no 
better place, castile soap and a piece of pumice 
stone to remove stains from your hands. 
Your soft soap keep under the sink, which I 
take for granted is boarded up, with a door 
where you put your pots and kettles, board to 
scour knives upon, sand, etc., etc., and which 
place should be kept as neat as your sitting 
room. Just over the sink have a narrow 
shelf with holes through, to set your common 
tumblers upon when washed and rinsed, that 
they may drain and dry, thus saving the time 
and labor of wiping them with a dry cloth. 

At the other end of the sink, have a narrow 
strip nailed up to set your kettle cricket on ; 
of these you should have two, one to set your 
kettles on when washing and cleaning them. 



Tlie Eye of an Eagle. 

The eyes of all birds have a peculiarity of 
structure whichj enables them to see near or 
distant objects equally well, and this .wonder- 
ful power is carried to the greatest perfection 
in the bird of prey. When we recollect that an 
eagle will ascend more than a mile in perpen- 
dicular hight, and from that enormous eleva- 
tion will perceive its unsuspecting prey, and 
pounce on it with unerring certainty ; and when 
we see the same birds scrutinizing, with almost 
microscopic nicety, an object close at hand, we 
shall at once perceive that he possesses a power 
of accommodating his sight to distances in a 
manner to which our eye is unfitted, and of 
which it is totally incapable. If we take a 
printed page, we shall find that there is some 
particular distance, probably ten inches, at 
which we can read the words and see each let- 
ler with perfect distinctness; but if we move 
this page to a distance of forty inches, or bring 
it within a distance of five inches, we shall find 
it impossible to read it all; a scientific man 
would therefore, call ten inches the focus or 
focal distance of our eyes. We cannot alter 
this focus except by the aid of spectacles. 

But an eagle has the power of altering the 
focus of his eye just as he pleases; he has only 
to look at an object at the distance of two feet, 
or two miles, in order to see it with perfect 
distinctness. Of course, the eagle knows noth- 
ing of the wonderful contrivance which God 
has supplied for his accommodation; he em- 
ploys it instinctively and because he cannot 
help it. The.ball of his eye is surrounded by 
fifteen little plates, called sclerotic bones; they 
form a complete ring, and their edges slightly 
overlap each other. When he looks at a dis- 
tant object, this little circle of bones expands, 
and the ball of the eye being relieved from the 
pressure becomes flatter; and when he looks 
at a very near object, the little bones press to- 
gether, and the ball of the eye is thus squeezed 
into a rounder or more convex form ; the efi'ect 
is very familiar to everybody; a person with 
very round eyes is near-sighted, and only sees 
clearly an object that is close to him; and a 
person with flat eyes, as in old age, can see 
nothing clearly except at a distance; the eagle, 
by the mere will, can make his eyes round or 
flat, and see with equal clearness at any dis- 
tance. 

Inteeesting and Useful Facts. — A bell rung 
under water returns a tone as distinct as if 
rung in the air. 

Stop one ear with the finger and press the 
other to the end of a long stick, and if a watch 
be held at the other end of the wood, ticking 
will be heard, be the wood a stick ever so long. 

Tie a poker in the middle of a strip of flan- 
nel two or three feet long, and press your 
thumbs or fingers into your ears, while you 
swing your poker against an iron fender, and 
you will hear a sound like that of a heavy 
church bell. 

These experiments prove that water, wood 
and flannels are good conductors of sound, for 
the sound of the bell, the watch and the fender 
passes through the water and along the deal 
and flannel to the ear, and excite in us the 
sense of sound. Sound of all kinds, it is as- 
certained, travels at the rate of fifteen miles in 
a minute. The softest whisper travels as fast 
as the most tremendous thunder. The know- 
ledge of this fact has been applied to the meas- 
urement of distance. 

Suppose a ship in distress fires a gun, the 
light of which is seen on shore, or by another 
vessel, twenty seconds before a report is heard, 
it is known to be a distance of 20 times 1,143 
feet, or a little more than four and a half miles. 

Phosphorus. — Red amorphous phosphorus, 
under the influence of solar heat, as does char- 
coal, has the property of absorbing many sub- 
stances without acting chemically upon them, 
as rosaniline, iodine, sulphur. Pulverized 

Ehosphorus agitated in a solution of iodine in 
isulphate of carbon or rosaniline in alcohol, 
absorbs the iodine or the rosaniline, leaving 
the solution colorless. These facts are pub- 
lished as the result of the labors of M. Testini. 



Premonitions of Consumption. 

Somebody asks if it is possible to tell that a 
person is predisposed to consumption; if it is 
true that one shows by an outward appearance 
whether he will, under bad hygiene, be more 
likely than his neighbor to got the disorder. 
Most certainly it is, to a great degree. 

A child who has a thin, delicate, light skin, 
light hair, light, prominent and speaking eyes, 
who grows rapidly and is plump and fat, who 
is precocious and over smart, is the one who 
it may be suspected is consumptive. That 
child who, in his or her mental and moral na- 
ture promises most, as its parents view it, is 
most likely to have consumption; the brain ele- 
ments which have to do with good morals, good 
feelings and mental acumen, are those which 
in consumptive children are most apt to be 
overgrown. 

Very early such children usually manifest a 
dislike for fatty foods; this symptom is very 
general, occurring through life in more than 
half the persons who have the disease, and be- 
ing observed in nearly all in whom the disease 
is either incipient or confirmed. An habitual 
disrelish for fat by a young person is sufficient 
to arouse a suspicion of tuberculous tendency. 
The dislike for this particular article of diet is 
occasioned by an inability to digest it, not from 
any so-called freak of taste; rather the taste is 
determined by the powers of the system. 

The inability to digest fat is a kind of dys- 
pepsia, and some form of dyspepsia exists in 
nearly all cases of consumption. Usually, 
there is with this failure of digestion an an- 
noying eructation of acid from the stomach, 
that has with some given it the name of acid dys- 
pepsia. In not more than ten per cent, of 
cases does tuberculosis occur without being 
preceded by some sort of indigestion, albeit 
only comparatively a few cases of dyspepsia oc- 
cur in consumptives. — Maine Farmer. 



Eating Wlien Exliaasted. 

When the strength or nerve power is already 
worn out, or used up, the digestion of food only 
makes a fresh demand upon it, and if it be un» 
able to meet the demand, the food is only a 
burden upon it, producing mischief. Our 
bodies have been compared to steam engines, 
the food being the fuel and the steam produced 
the nerve power. The analogy holds good to 
a certain extent. It, when the steam is low, 
because the fire is low, you pile in too fast a 
quantity of coal, you put out your fire, and if 
you have depended upon steam power to fan 
your fires, that is also extinguished. Beyond 
this the comparison fails. You may clean out 
your furnaces and begin again, but in the body 
the consequences of this overloading are danger- 
ous and sometimes fatal. No cause of cholera 
is more common than eating freely when ex- 
hausted. The rule should be to rest for a time, 
and take some simple refreshment, a cup, or 
part of a cup, of tea, a little broth, or even a 
piece of bread — anything simple and in small 
amount, just to stimulate the stomach slightly, 
and begin to restore its power. After rest, a 
moderate quantity will be refreshing. Never 
eat a full meal when you are exhausted. Take 
first a small quantity of anything simple which 
may be handy, and rest. Then, after a time, 
proper food will be a blessing, not a burden. 
The fires will burn, the steam will be up, and 
you can go on your way safely. It is not 
amiss, in this connection, to say that children 
would avoid many a feverish night and many 
an attack of disease, if mothers would follow 
this rule. — Ex. 



Women's Legs. — Here is something from the 
Book of Beauty that is strictly local here or 
anywhere else. Women should read it: 

"A handsome leg is a rarity, we had almost 
said an impossibility, among American women. 
The reason of this is the place where they wear 
their garters. No French woman, no English 
woman of cultivation, now-a-days wears her 
garters below the knees. It is ruinous to the 
shape of the calf. More than this, it has seri- 
ous consequences of another kind. The prin- 
cipal vein of the leg, vena saphrenahrevis, runs 
just beneath the skin until it nearly reaches 
the knee, when it sinks between the muscles. 
Now, if this is constricted at its largest point 
by a tight garter, the blood is checked in its 
return to the heart, the feet are easily chilled, 
and more liable to disease; the other veins of 
the leg are swollen into hard blue knots, be- 
come varicose, as it is called, and often break, 
forming obstinate ulcers. 'This is a picture 
which a physician sees nearly every day. 
With the garter fastened above the knee all 
this pain and deformity is avoided, but it is 
still Ijetter to wear no garter at all, and to sus- 
pend the stocking by tapes around the waist. 
In this case, however, a well-fitting stocking 
is needed." 



Ammonia in Whooping Cough. — A writer in 
the British Medical Journal, states that in cases 
of whooping cough in the last stage — that is, 
after the third week — he has had one ounce of 
the strongest liquid ammonia put into a gal- 
lon of boiling water in an open pan, and the 
steam kept up by means of half a brick made 
red-hot throughout, and put into the boiling 
water containing the ammonia, the pan being 
placed in the middle of a room into which the 
patients were brought as the ammouiated 
steam was passing ofi'. This method, he says, 
was used in the evening, just before bed-time ; 
and it proved so eflicacious in abating the 
spasmodic attack, and after three or four days 
terminating the malady, as to establish, be- 
yond any doubt, the great value of this mode 
of inhaling ammonia as a therapeutic agent in 
tranquilizing the nervous system in the whoop- 
ing cough. 

Weabing Flannel. — The majority of people 
are not aware of the beneficial efi'ects of wear- 
ing flannel next to the body, both in cold and 
warm weather. Flannel is certainly not so 
uncomfortable in warm weather as prejudiced 
people believe. Frequent colds and constant 
hacking coughs have left me since adopting 
flannel garments. There is no need of great 
bulk about the waist, which condemns the 
wearer of flannels with those who prefer wasp- 
waists, always fastening at the back. There are 
scarcely any of the i)ad effects of sudden 
changes of weather felt by those who wear 
flannel garments, and all mothers especially 
should endeavor to secure such for their little 
people, in preference to all those showy out- 
side trimmings which fashion commends. 

Nature of the Pain from Burns. — It is the 
common opinion that persons severely burned 
suffer the like pain with those who are slightly 
injured by fire; but such is not the case. In- 
stead of experiencing a burning sensation, 
they suffer from a feeling of coldness; the blood 
being driven from the surface of the body to 
the heart, lungs, etc.; and persons that die 
from injury by fire, suffer in somewhat the 
same manner with these that are frozen to 
' death, 



A Healtliy City. 

It appears from the following table, com- 
piled from the Census returns of 1870, that 
with the exception of Valparaiso, San Fran- 
cisco is the healthiest city on the continent. 
The figures show the number of deaths in each 
1,000 inhabitants for the year: 

Valparaiso (Chili) IG Boston 30 

San Francisco 17 New Orleans 30 

St. Louis 20 Newark 31 

Cincinnati 20 Halifax 31 

Baltimore 25 New York .'<2 

Philadelphia 2G Savannah 36 

Chicago 27 Montreal :t7 

Brooklyn 28 Memphis 4(1 

There is no doubt that the summer winds, 
that cause so much discomfort and annoyance, 
and provoke so many animadversions by res- 
idents of San Francisco, perform a very im- 
portant mission in bearing away the malarious 
elements, which would otherwise poison the 
air and propagate disease in this city. The 
above showing is most gratifying to Califor- 
nians. 



Cooling off Suddenly when Heated sends 
many of our farmers' youth to an early tomb. 
It is often a matter of surprise that so many 
farmers' boys and girls die of consumption. It 
is thought that abundant exercise in the open . 
air is directly opposed to that disease. So it 
is; but judgment and knowledge of the laws 
of health are esential to the preservation of 
health under any circumstances. V/hen over- 
heated, cool off slowly — never in a strong 
draught of air. Gentle fanning, especially if 
the face is wet with cold water, will soon pro- 
duce a delightful coolness, which leaves no dis- 
agreeable results. 



Common Sense. 

There is a chilly, disagreeable article, 
called common sense, which is, of all things 
most repulsive and antipathetical to all 
petted creatures whose life baa consisted 
in flattery. It is tbo kind of talk whicb 
sisters are very apt to bear from brothers, 
and daughters from fathers and mothers, 
when fathers and mothers do their duty by 
them! which sets the world before them 
as it is, and not as it is painted by flatter- 
ers. Those women who prefer the society 
of gentlemen, and who have the faculty of 
bewitching their senses, never are in the 
way of hearing from this cold matter-of- 
fact region; for them it really does not ex- 
ist. Kvery phrase that moots their ear is 
polished and softened, gmirded and deli- 
cately turned, till there is not a particle 
of homely truth loft in it. They pass 
their time in a world of illusions; they 
demand these illusions of all who approach 
them, as the condition of peace and favor. 
AH persons, as a sort of instinct, recog- 
nize the woman who lives by flattery, and 
give her the portion of meat to which she 
is entitled indue season; and thus some 
poor women are hopelessly buried, as sui- 
cides used to be iu Scotland, under a 
mountain of rubbish, to whicli each passer- 
by adds one stone. It is only by some 
extraordinary power of circumstances that 
a man can be found to invade the sover- 
eignty of ft pretty woman with any disa- 
greeable tidings, or as Junius says, "to 
instruct the throne in the language of 
truth."— jT/'-s'. H. U. Siowe. 

If thine enemy wrong thee, buy each of 
his children a drum. 



3P*^Q*J* *fcw iiLM^*'*^^^ 3r^JSi 



[July 5. 1873- 




PDBLISHISD Bt 

DSWBIT ak CO. 

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Prikoitai. Editob W. B. EWER, A. M. 

Absooiate EnnOB I. N. HOAQ, (Sacramento.) 

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to our SoiKNTirio Pbess, Patent Agency, Egraviug and 
Printing establishment. 

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P. O. orders at our risk 

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Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
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in extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper. 
Inserted at special rates. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 5, 1873. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



QENERAX EDITORIALS.— Homes In Los An- 
geles; Redwood Casks for Wine; Algaroba Beans — We 
Have Them, Faf^e 1. Our Natal Day; Gathering 
Fruit for Exiinrt; Erroneous Wheat Estimates, 8. 

IliiUSTRATIONS. — The Santa Barbara Grape- 
vine. Fag's!. Miners Around the Camp Fire, 6. 
Tintid Kusiln», 9. Laurel Hall, San Mateo, 10. 

HORTICULTURE.— How to Make Wax Flowers; 
Pa1inii.-.a Palms, 9. 

POULTRY NOTES.— Brahmas as Layers, 9. 

CORRESFONDENCE.— A Trip Through Ijike and 
Sonoma Counties; Hermasillo, Sonora, Mexico; Cot- 
ton of the New Crop; Compton, Los Angeles ('ounty; 
Crops and Peculiarities; Paradise Valley; Almonds; 
Crazv Disease, 2. 

FARMERS IN COUNCIL.— The Farmers' New 
Departure; Sonoma County Farmers' Club; San 
Joaquin Farmers' Club, 4-6. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from various coun. 
ties in California, 5. 

DOUESTIC ECONOMY.— Cooking as a Science 
and an Art; Kitehen Furniture, 7. 

USEFUL INFORMATION. — The Eye of an 
Eagle; Interesting ami I'sel'ul Facts; Phosphorus, 7. 

OOOD HEALTH. -Premonitions of Consumption; 
Women's Legs; .Ammonia in Whooping Cough; Wear- 
ing Flannel; Nature of the Pain from Burns; Eating 
When Exhausted; A Healthy City; Cooling oft Sud- 
denly when Heated; Common Sense, 7. 

HOME CIRCLE.- Christian Sailor (Poetry) ; Short 
I-etters to Young Ciirls- No. 2; The Quietude of Ma- 
turity; Did not Truly I^ove; Beecheron Housekeeping; 
Nursing Troubles, IQ. 

YOUNO FOLKS' COLUMN.-H We Were Only 
Rich, 10. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — California in the Ninth 
Census; School Ship; An Important Discovery; The 
Goal Fields of China; Big Team; A Valuable Inven- 
tion— Enameled Brick; Scientific Prize Award: Pro- 
gress in ths Manufacture of Mirrors: Various Quali- 
ties of Iron; Another Answer; Raising Steam by Sola 
Heat; Device foi Increasing the Flow of Wells; 3. 
The Second Largest Merchant Vessel Afloat, 6, Rev- 
olution in the Production of Butter, 8. 



Erroneous Wheat Estimate. 

In our recent June 2l8t number, we gnre a 
tabular statement copied from the Sacramento 
Record, that now appears to us to be wrong 
flomewhere. That statement put the total 
yield of wheat for 1872, at 12,701,000 centals. 
Now the commercial records of the port of 
San Francisco show, that over 11,000,000 of 
ceptals of the crop of 1872 have already been 
.shipped to foreign ports; whilst the quantity 
required for seed and the year's consumption 
could not have been less than 4,500,000 cen- 
tals; which added to the 500,000 centals of the 
old crop now on hand, would carry the yield 
of 1872 altogether above the Record's estimate 
of 12,701,000 centals as the total yield. Will 
the Record set us right in the matter, and show 
us upon what it bases its estimate for an in- 
creased yield the present year over that of the 
last. 

We think it a mistake of that portion of the 
press of the State, which over-estimates the 
probable yield. It is doing the farmers an in- 
jury; for with every statement, up goes the 
price of sacks one or two cents or more. As 
long as it was believed that the crops would be 
light, or less than last year, sacks were reason- 
ably low; and the same condition also affects 
the price of freights. The shipping "ring" 
would have every farmer believe that there are 
again, this year not ships enough to freight the 
wheat, and having nearly all the tonnage to 
themselves, up goes the freight. 

Now the facts undoubtedly are, that the 
crop cannot possibly exceed that of last year, 
and as there are ships enough chartered to take 
the whole crop away in reasonable time, the 
probability is that if farmers do not crowd the 
market till it absolutely chokes, there will be 
no rise in freight. Let the farmers hold on to 



every bushel of wheat they can till it is wanted 
actually called for to complete cargoes and a 
fair price will be obtained for every bushel of 
our surplus. 

There are several large farmers in different 
parts of the State, who are making arrange- 
ments to store their grain in bulk, determined 
that the rapacious maw of the middle men and 
"ring " managers shall no longer utterly con- 
sume the whole cost and profit of production. 

The farmers through the action of the 
Granges should combine — and in a year or two 
will — and procure their own ships and ship 
their own wheat ; and show to the plunderers 
of their hard earnings, that they are entirely 
competent to manage their grain interest, and 
possibly to some considerable extent the politi- 
cal affairs of the State. 



Our Natal Day. 

Before this number of the Bubal will have 
reached the homes of a majority of its patrons, 
that ever memorable day, the 4th of July, will 
have come again, and again passed away; but 
not to be forgotten, for so long as the Ameri- 
can Continent shall stand up out of the sea as 
solid land, so long will the day bo remembered 
and celebrated by the people of the United 
States, as the birthday of freedom. 

And it is becoming in us as the descendants 
of noble and patriotic sires, in whose veins 
coursed the warm blood of a pure and holy he- 
roism, that we should, as the inheritors of their 
great legacy, hold in remembrance and perpet- 
uity, the sacred trust committed to us, by keep- 
ing alive in the hearts of our people, the causes 
and the conflict that resulted in the establish- 
ment of freedom's empire on American soil. 

It is our only, truly national holiday, and as 
we have but one, every true lover of his coun- 
try should in some way contribute, by devoting 
the day and his efforts to the keeping alive of 
that BX)irit of patriotism that can alone pre- 
serve otir institutions, the honor and glory of 
our people among the nations. 

If, then, it is the spirit of patriotism that we 
would kindle and nourish in the minds of our 
youth and keep the same alive as a perpetual 
fire, how can we do it better, than to let what 
there is of "old '76" spirit remaining amongst 
us, with all there is of "Young America," join 
in the grand, annual celebration so spiritedly 
predicted by the elder Adams; that the day 
would be celebrated by our children and our 
childrens' children, with processions and 
marchings and dinners and speeches and ora- 
tions, the roar of cannon and the blaze of fire- 
works, bonfires and illuminations to the latest 
generations. 

Now we drop right down from our "spread 
eagle" height to say, that to enable all, con- 
nected in any way with the Bubal roKss, in- 
cluding proprietors, editors, compositors and 
printers, to join in the celebration of the 4th, 
we issue the Bubal a day earlier than usual; 
so that if there should seem to be anything 
lacking in the present number, let it be charged 
to the account of "Independence day." 

Iowa Homestead and Westebn Farm Jour- 
nal. — This excellent paper, the of&cial organ 
of the Patrons of Husbandry in Iowa, and 
teeming with information interesting to the 
members of the Order, to the farmers of the 
West, and to the general reader everywhere, 
has been increased in size at a large expense, 
and yet is offered at an exceedingly low rate. 
By reference to our advertising pages, further 
interesting facts in relation to this admirably- 
conducted journal can be obtained. To those 
desirous of subscribing, the expense of remit- 
tance can be saved by paying over to Deputy 
N. W. Garretson, now on this Coast, who will 
receipt for the same. 

Industbial Exhibition. — The Board of Di- 
rectors of the St. Joseph Industrial Exposition 
announce that an exhibition of Manufactures, 
Stock, Products, Arts and Inventions will be 
held in St .loseph, Missouri, opening on Mon- 
day, September 29th, 1873, (one week previ- 
ous to the St. Louis Fair,) and continuing one 
week. 



The Colobado Desebt. — A thorough and 
complete survey of the Colorado Desert, east 
of San Diego, with a view of ascertaining the 
practicobility of turning the Colorado river 
into the Desert, and thus reclaiming vast tracts 
of land, is to be made by Mr. J. E. James. 
He is said to be backed by heavy capitalists. 

On File. — Silk-worms at Sonoma; Spring 
Valley; Poplars and Monterey Cypress. 



Gathering Fruit for Export. 

As the season is upon us in which fruit ex- 
port by rail, to the interior as well as the more 
Eastern States, will become almost as common 
as the departure of daily trains, a few facts in 
relation to the best condition of fruits for ex- 
port as relates to their keeping and ripening, 
cannot be considered out of time. 

We would like to impress upon those who 
will have fruit to send abroad, the advantages 
of an early gathering of the same. Not that 
the fruit will be much better in quality for be- 
ing picked green, and then allowed to ripen, 
but that if gathered several days before fully 
ripe, it will bear transportation better, and 
ripen sufiSciently, so that the result on the 
whole will be a profit over that which can pos- 
sibly be realized from the shipment of fully 
ripened fruit. 

Particularly is this remark applicable to 
pears. Members of the American Pomological 
Society of close observation have given their 
experience particularly with the Bartlett pear; 
they have found that specimens gathered two 
weeks before ripening and having then scarcely 
any color on the sunny side, increase rapidly 
in coloring when ripening in the dark, and in 
that time presented a brilliant carmine tint. 

The condition of darkness can scarcely be 
considered as having a positive or active influ- 
ence in bringing out the coloring of fruit, and 
can therefore be estimated as collateral in im- 
portance and effect. Scientific observation 
alone can determine the extent or nature of its 
influence. 

Time of Picking Pears. 

When the rate of growth is very slow, it is 
safer to gather fruit a little before it has done 
growing, for the reason that it is more difftcult 
to check or arrest the incipient decay character- 
istic of the first stages of ripening or mellow- 
ing, than to retard or measurably prevent its 
commencement. Early gathering insures the 
best results in keeping. Fitness for gathering 
is not always clearly indicated by outward ap- 
pearance; but fruit for keeping should never 
be allowed to hang on the tree as long as it 
will. A test recommended by experienced 
pear-growers is when the stem parts easily 
from the fruit-spur. If this is correct in re- 
gard to the pear, it ought to be of the apple 
also. But there are many varieties which it 
would not be safe to trust to such a test; but 
some sorts will hang on long after they are fit 
to gather. 

During the process of growth the seed cavity 
serves as a reservoir for holding a supply of 
juices, but when growth has nearly ceased, the 
moisture disappears from this cavity, and it be- 
comes empty and comparatively dry. This condi- 
tion affords two modes of judging of the degree 
of maturity the fruit has attained. One is, the 
slight rustling sound the seed makes when 
shaken ; and the other is, to open some of the 
fruit as soon as this hollow state of the seed 
cavity can be detected, and if the seed has 
changed to a pale brown color, it may be as- 
sumed that the fruit is fit to gather. It is not 
so safe to wait till the seeds are a dark brown. 
The general condition of the leaves as to color, 
and the degree in which they adhere to the 
branches, also afford means of estimating the 
state of maturity of the fruit. 

Keep the Fruit Cool. 

After fruit is gathered its resistance to evap- 
oration is increased by every Recessive reduc- 
tion of temperature down to 32^ Fahrenheit, 
when evaporation and the wasting of the fruit 
cease together. Generally the temperature of 
cellars and fruit-rooms is not, and need not, bo 
kept down to that point. 

Early gathered fruit can be so managed as to 
have it much more fully colored than if gath- 
ered late, and the keeping) properties, which 
are even more important, are increased by the 
same management. The nutrative qualities 
mast always be of higher value than mere ap- 
pearances, though the latter greatly affect 
prices in market. Early gathering insures both 
results in the greatest perfection. 

Time of Picking Apples. 

A writer in the New York Tribune tells us 
that G. W. Browning, of Luzerne county Pa., 
some years since accidentally discovered that 
winter apples picked some five or six weeks be- 
fore the usual time of gathering, would keep 
sound some months longer than those allowed 
to ripen on the trees. 

Since that time he has picked his apples 
early, and reserved them for the spring and 
summer market, thus obtaining much higher 
prices than if sold in the fall or winter. 
Whether any effect upon the flavor and quality 
of the fruit was observable, is not stated. 



A Revolution in the Production of 
Butter. 

statements have been widely published de- 
scribing the method of manufacturing so-called 
butter from animal fat, as it has been carried 
on in France. The New York Sun gives an ac- 
count of what is now being done in New York. 
It is to be presumed that there will be 
considerable room left for the old-fashioned 
kind of butter for some time to come, and at 
prices that will justify making. We copy as 
follows : 

A company has been organized in this city, 
with a capital of $500,000, for the manufacture 
of butter. It is claimed that the butter is gen- 
uine, the means of producing it being alone 
artificial; in other words, the discoverer affirms 
that the article is not merely butyrous, but in 
every respect the complete and perfect thing, 
as agreeable, nutritious, and usable as the best 
Orange county butter. A gentleman of recog- 
nized ability as a chemist is the fortunate in- 
troducer of this new wonder. Several persons 
of wealth have bought stock, and in a week or 
two the manufacture will be conducted on a 
very large scale. The temporary oflBces of the 
Oleo-Mnrgarine Manufacturing Co., as the 
corporation is called, are at 40 Broadway, and 
their manufactory at Forty-fifth street. Ar- 
rangements have l^een made for securing better 
accommodations in Fiftieth street, and very 
soon the market will be fully supplied with the 
new product. At present the demand for the 
article is so great that it is beyond the capacity 
of the company to supply it. The profits are 
expected to be over 100 per cent. 
Fashionable Hotel Butter. 

As this city-made Orange county butter is 
used in many of the most fashionable hotels 
and restaurants, both for cooking and for the 
table, it may be interesting to the readers of 
The Sun to learn something of the method in 
which it is made. In the first place agents are 
employed to visit the slaughter houses and to 
buy up all the beef fat usually styled suet. 
This suet is carted to the butter factory and 
cleansed. Then it is put into ordinary meat 
choppers and minced fine. It is afterward 
placed in a boiler with as much water in bulk 
as itself. A steam pipe is introduced among 
the particles of the suet and they are melted. 
The refuse or membrane goes to the bottom of 
the water, the oily substance floats and is re- 
moved. This latter consists of butter matter 
and stearine. A temperature of 80 degrees 
melts the former and leaves the stearine at the 
bottom. The butter matter, or cream, is drawn 
off; then about thirreen per cent, of fresh milk 
is added and the necessary salt, and the whole 
is churned for ten or fifteen minutes. The re- 
sult is Orange county butter at about one-half 
the usual cost. 

The stearine is sold at twelve cents a pound 
to the candle maker, and the refuse at seven 
cents a pound to the manufacturer of food for 
cattle. 

Butter for Summer Tourists. 

All the leading steamship lines between here 
and Europe are to be supplied this Summer 
with this newly invented butter. In taste and 
appearance it is precisely simiHar to the finest 
country butter, made from the milk of Uve 
cows. Several of the leading men in the but- 
ter trnde have purchased stock, as have also 
many of the steamship lines and the propri- 
etors of the leading city hotels. Prof. E. 
Ogden Doremus has testified to the success of 
the new method of butter manufacture, and 
prophesies groat prosperity for the new corpo- 
ration. Prof. Paraf, the discoverer, expects 
that the new product will drive live cow butter 
out of the market altogether. The few un- 
scientific outsiders who are acquainted with 
the facts now first made public, regard the 
whole thing with amazement. It seems ex- 
tremely odd to them that the same carcass 
which furnishes a fresh steak for breakfast 
should also supply the Orange county butter 
which they spread upon their accompanying 
hot rolls. 

Admitting all that is stated in the foregoing 
to be true, as regards the process of manufac- 
ture and quality of the product, yet we fail to 
perceive the immense advantage claimed for 
the new process. To get at the "butter mat- 
ter," as it is called, the animal must needs be 
killed; which seems very much like "killing 
the goose that laid the golden eggs;" and yet 
the number of animals necessarily slaughtered 
for beef, would undoubtedly afford a consider- 
able supply. 

All of this suet supply is not in the posses • 
sion of the new style butter makers; they will 
have to buy their stock from the butchers; and 
how long would it be after it was known that 
these patent butter makers were making a 
profit of "100 per cent." on cost of the suet, 
before the butchers would put up the price of 
the same. So we will rest easy, believing that 
California made butter, by the old process, 
will not wholly go out of fashion, in any event, 
not before we can dispose of our State's consid- 
erable stock of cows. 



Oakland Farming Club. — The report of an 
interesting meeting of this club, held Friday 
evening, June 27th, will appear next week. 
Owing to commencement exercises, the club 
adjourned to July 25tb. 



July 5, 1873.] 



ES. 



Brahmas as Layers. 

Editobs Press: — I have read the letter of 
■" Farmer " in Pbess, June 14th, andean assure 
him that the poor results of which he writes 
cannot be blamed upon the Brahmas. I have 
known several who were similarly disgusted 
with fancy fowls, and have traced the cause of 
their poor success to either a selection of very 
poor stock, or over-feeding. Every fancier 
knows that a Bramah pullet allowed to lay at 
six months will not attain the points of one so 
fed as to produce her first egg when over a year 
old. A great many birds imported at high 
prices, and sold here, have been bred for the 
sharper alone, in utter disregard of everything 
but size and showing qualities; but unless too 
old, even then they should be superior to com- 
mon fowls, if properly cared for, especially in 
the matter of food. A good Light Brahma here 
is superior to two of the best Dunghills as a 
layer, and requires less food than one of them. 
I have kept records and made comparisons fre- 
quently; and I have some Brahma pullets 
which laid, after their arrival this spring, thirty- 
one eggs each before they became broody. 
Their desire to sit being broken they were lay- 
ing again in 10 days afterwards, and continued 
until they averaged fourteen eggs each. Three 
of them I again removed to a clear corral and 
within eleven days two commenced to lay and 
the other followed suit the day after, (yester- 
day.) And it must be remembered that Brah- 
mas are winter layers. These hens weigh now 
6J^ to 8 pounds each. I can take any one of 
them and, by feeding plenty of fattening food, 
reduce the number of eggs to less than those 
laid by a common hen. I could cite instances 
of people, who, like Mr. Leland, keep fowls 
for people in marketing them, though they 
may not breed them by the thousands as he 
does, and use Light Brahmas exclusively, so 
superior are they to common fowls. "Farm- 
er " says " why should we try to improve our 
present stock by crossing with fowls that are 
not good layers; that cannot endure extremes 
of heat and cold, etc?" It is the universal 
verdict of all who have kept Brahmas, not for 
show, not as fanciers, but for use as a table 
and egg-producing fowl, that they are far su- 
perior in just those very points; and I cannot 
see how one man should claim the results of 
his own venture as proving to a certainty what 
thousands have controverted, when the fault was 
probably in the feeding, perhaps in the fowls, 
as individuals, though their class stand so high. 
Taking "Farmer's" experience on the one hand 
and that of Mr. Warren Leland on the other, 
when we find the latter sending some four thou- 
sand chickens to market each year, (he never 
sells a Brahma as a fancier, but sends them to 
market killed and plucked, ) and showing by 
figures the result in dollars and cents, which 
induce him to breed Light Brahmas and them 
alone, may we not be pretty certain that the 
fault was not in the Brahmas as a class, but 
perhaps, in " Farmer's" treatment or his indi- 
vidual specimens ? And when we find Mr. Le- 
land coiroberated by thousands of others, may 
we not conclude that the certainty is almost 
absolute ? There are those who import and 
sell exhibition fowls, raised perhaps, as I men- 
tioned before, for show alone, others who buy 
a trio, raise a few and sell them, brother and 
sister, good, bad and indifferent, as first-class 
birds; but there are few who know how to 
properly mate fancy stock (few on this coast, 
i should say) and how to direct others as to 
their care. 

Very few in their first venture with the Asi- 
atic fowls do not make the great mistake of 
feeding too much. " The appetite of adult 
birds (Brahmas) should never be satisfied; and 
over-feeding is especially prejudicial to profit 
in this breed of fowls." No laying hen should 
be allowed more than a handful of soft food in 
the morning and a very small handful of grain, 
taken with the palm of the hand down, in the 
evening, with a small quantity of meat, not 
more than a cubic inch every other day, always 
cooked, and in summer time only once a week. 
Plenty of green food, the whole still not to ex- 
ceed the handful; ur a cabbage may be sus- 
pended in the run where the fowls can peck it 
as it swings. Corn and corn-meal are too fat- 
tening. This when fowls are confined; of 
course when at large they find their own green 
food and need no feeding, except, perhaps, a 
little grain at night, when even corn may be 
sparingly used. Of course many a reader re- 
members farmer so and so, who does just 
the reverse of this, and yet has fine fowls and 
eggs; but let this farmer so and so adopt these 
rules and he will be surprised to find how much 
finer will his fine fowls become, how much 
more plentiful his eggs. Even the quantities 
mentioned may be too much, as will be often 
shown by the eggs. An ill-shaped egg is al- 
most a sure sign that the layer is too fat; and 
chicks from eggs laid by an over-fat hen will 
be poor and weak and sickly. 

During moulting the food should of course 

be plentiful and with more meat. 

I ask " Farmer " if he obtained from 50 



common hens, in a year, more than three hun- 
dred dozen eggs or that many ? It is a matter 
of record and of figures produced by facts that 
the same number of Leghorn or Houdan hens, 
with the facilities he mentions in his letter as 
afforded his poultry, with little, if any other 
feeding, will produce at least five hundred 
dozen and increase that of the others to six or 
seven hundred. I do not speak of one favorite 
tried under peculiar circumstances, but of what 
a lot of 50 treated in a nowise extraordinary 
manner will accomplish. We have records of 
275 eggs laid in a year by a single Leghorn ; 
many of 250 ; and if we were to take even the 
latter large lay of single hens and calculate 
that of the 50 by it, we should have over a 
thousand dozen. 

I can assure "Farmer" that I have made 
many comparisons, not with one trio alone 
guessing nothing; marking every thingpn paper, 
and the Brahmas have always proved them- 
selves just the reverse of what he claims, 
always superior to the common fowl, laying 20 
to 30 eggs before becoming broody, while the 
common laid but 12 to 16; ready to commence 
again to lay in 10 or 12 days after breaking up , 



f-fo^ftCllLjUiRE. 



How to Make Wax Flowers. 

Fuchsia— Variety Named "Tinted Venus.' 

The largest and best variety of Fuchsias in 
bloom were displayed at the Horticultural Fair 
of 1873, by Mr. F. Leideman, of the Pacific 
Nursery, Lombard street. The variety called 
"Tinted Venus"— an illustration of which is 
herewith presented — was one of the prettiest 
single Fuchsias in the collection. We have 
selected it for a study, because several ladies 
have requested a nice Fuchsia pattern, and 
this seems one of the best. 

There are four petals and four sepals in each 
flower; eight stamens and one pistil. The 
flower is pendant from the branch, by a green 
stem two inches in length. The pistil is two 
inches in length, the stamens one and a half 
inch. 

First, as in all studies of wax flower making, 




TINTED FUCHSIA. 



while the common require a rest of 3 weeks 
and longer ; laying 12 to 16 eggs in the second 
clutch while the common was content with 6 
to 8 ; or, if allowed to sit, ready when her 
chicks were a month old to produce another 
batch of 25 or 30 eggs, while the common re- 
quired 2 or 3 months to begin again on her 12 
or 16. This as to eggs; moreover they grow to 
so much larger size, they eat less, are quicker, 
tamer, more easily confined, for which a low 
fence sufl&ces, consequently less troublesome; 
in every way superior. I once bought a set- 
ting of eggs from a prize strain, hatched a few 
light Brahmas, kept them 15 months and never 
got an egg ; but happily I did not rush to the 
same conclusion as " Farmer " from my single 
venture ; and I have been led to believe since 
then that failures are due in 9 cases out of 10 
to improper feeding or bad selection. A 
Brahma pullet hatched in early spring should 
be through moulting and have commenced to 
lay when six months old ; and hatched late 
may not moult until next Spring and be 10 
months or more in age before her first egg, the 
latter being probably the finer looking bird 
and an equally good egg producer thereafter. 

As requested, I hid hoped to prepare a paper 
on "Feeding," but, as yet, have been unable 
to do so. I may state the best soft feed, good 
in the order named: Oatmeal, ground fine, 
husks and all ; Barley meal and shorts mixed ; 
occasionally potatoes or beets or turnips boiled 
and smashed and added to one of above. 
For grain : Buckwheat, as soon as the fowls 
become accustomed to its color; white oats, 
good malt barley, wheat and sometimes small 
white peas. I speak of laying hens ; of course 
for growing chicks, corn, cracked and as 
meal, and other fattening articles, are very good. 
W. J. Eybe, Jb. 

Napa, Cal., June 20, 1873, 



select the stem wire; for this variety it should 
be a No. 32 wire. Wax the wire well, as though 
it were a carpet thread ; turn it down at the 
end, so as to hold firmly the foundation of the 
flower; then, with the lightest green wax sin- 
gle, one-eighth of s, sheet, roll it round the 
wire to form a compact bed for the foundation. 
Select No. 50 wire for stamens and pistils; the 
wire should be white, silk-covered. Out a nar- 
row strip of white single wax, and cover neatly 
the wires for stamens and pistil; then take up 
on the fingers separately small balls of single 
white wax; roll them in the fingers, attaching 
them each to the pistil or stamens, afterward 
tinting the stems of the pistils and stamens, 
both, with "crimson lake," in dry powder, the 
pollen being produced by dipping the ends of 
the stamens into chrome yellow and sienna 
mixed together. After painting pistils and sta- 
mens, place the pistil on the wax bud or foun- 
dation of the flower, and fasten it firmly by 
using the moulding pin; then place the eight 
stamens round the jMstil, fastening each to its 
place in the same manner. 

The petals are made of double wax, colored 
with a lint, mixed of Naples yellow and arrow 
root, to reduce the tint to the palest cream 
color, with the least mixture of yellow chrome, 
to produce a lively tint. Roll each of the 
petals with the moulding pin, curling and 
thinning the tip of each petal very much. Then 
color with the fingers each petal; afterward 
with a fine line sable brush, tint the lines on 
each petal with Winsor & Newton's crimson 
lake, in water color. Place the four petals, 
lapping one over the other, around the stamens 
and pistil, taking care to fasten each one sepa- 
rately to the foundation of the flower with the 
moulding pin. The four long sepals are bright 
red. Cut from double wax doubled, and 
painted first with dry camlne, afterward rolled 



and reflexed with the modelling pin, au' 
touched over with wet carmine on the edges, 
or wherever the pin has left its traces. 

They are then fixed in their places around 
the petals, joined carefully to the bud by the 
pin, which should be used to fasten the whole 
four sepals together, so that not a trace of the 
joining could be seen. 

The small green seed cup is formed of one- 
eighth sheet lightest green wax, rolled around 
the stem at the base of the flower, smoothed 
ofl" to a cone-shape by the pin. The stem 
should be covered with light green single wax, 
and joined to the branch. Four fuchsias and 
four buds of different sizes, with a few leaves, 
make a pretty branchlet for a vase. We are in- 
debted to E. E. Moore, seedsman and florist 
of this city, for the elegant specimen repre- 
sented in our engraving. — Anna Gettz Lucas in 
IUu>trated Press. 



Palmacea — Palms. 



The number of known species of .palms are 
over a thousand. The most remarkable are 
the Betelnut palm {areia catechu) , the fruit of 
which, divided into quarters, rolled in the pep- 
per leaf, and sprinkled with lime, is in general 
used as a masticatory amongst the natives of 
the East Indies, much the same as tobacco is 
employed by us. This mixture gives a red 
tinge to the saliva, and seems to have some 
narcotic power. The Sago palm {Saguerus 
Rumphii) grows in the south of China, Japan, 
and all over the East Indies. The pith of this 
palm, from which the sago is obtained, is a 
chief means of nourishment for millions in 
warm climates, and is exported largely from 
Singapore, where it is manufactured. In our 
California climate it is both nutritive and easy 
of digestion. It is much used for puddings, 
and constitutes an excellent article of diet for 
invalids. The Oil palm {Elais Ouineensis) is a 
native of the western coast of Africa. The oil 
is obtained from the fruit, which is about the 
size of an olive, and of a yellow color. The 
Cocoa-nut palm {Cocos nucifera), which grows 
by the sea-side in most tropical countries, is 
especially abundant throughout the South Sea 
Islands. It forms a fine shade. It makes a 
good thatch, and excellent baskets. The young 
leaflets make fans and bonnets ; also clothing, 
goblets, likewise fire kindling, fish lines, and 
cords, a balsam for wounds from the juice of 
the nut, and oil for embalment of the dead. 
Posts can be made from the trunk, and char- 
coal to cook with ; paddles for canoes, and 
clubs and spears for battle. Lastly, we direct 
attention to the Doum palm of Upper Egvpt 
{Hyphene Tliebaicn). The fruit of (his is much 
larger than the Date palm {Pheenix daciy life- 
ra), and is equally nutritious. The rind of the 
fruit is brown and mealy, and has both the 
taste and color of gingerbread ; hence one of 
its common names is the gingerbread tree. 
The spongy, internal portion of the fruit of 
this palm forms an important article of food, 
and when this pulp is mixed with an infusion 
of dates, it constitutes a cooling drink, much 
prescribed by the Arabs in febrile affections as 
cooling and demulcent. 

Drying Fios.— We find in the Rural Alahnm- 
ian for June, a statement to the effect, that the 
large Symrna, White Genoa, Brunswick and 
Figue d'Or.are the best varieties for drying, as 
they are of excellent quality, largo, solid and 
less juicy than the common yellow fig of the 
country. Here is an idea that should be turned 
to profit in the selection of figs for drying. 
We all understand the difference between the 
best raisin and wine grapes to be, that the 
former should be sweet, pulpy and dry; whilst 
the juicier grape with the least pulp gives the 
largest yield of wine material. A pulpy grape 
makes an excellent raisin and is easily dried; 
a very juicy grape is difficult to drj', and (he 
same rule holds with reference to figs; avoid 
therefore the more juicy varieties, where the 
purpose is drying and packing. 

Cost of Raisino Bekts. — Mr. Harris Lewis, 
near Little Falls, N. Y., states that the cost of 
raising beets on his farm last season — including 
cost of labor, cost of seed, etc., was 46.50 per 
acre. The yield was 900 bushels or 22 tons an 
acre. Beet sugaries can afford to pay $4.00 per 
ton for beets delivered. This would make the 
beets upon an acre worth $88.00, from which 
diiduct $46.50 as cost of production, and we 
have a net profit of $41.50 per acre. 

Anothkk Si>obt.— Last spring, Thos. Leon- 
ard, of Sonora, Tuolumne county, grafted a 
scion of a red rose upon a locust tree. The 
graft grow, bearing of course rose leaves and 
finally a bloom; but instead of a rose, the 
bloom was exactly that of the locust in form, 
but with the deep red color that naturally be- 
longed to the rose. This well authenticated 
instance of the effect of the stock upon th e 
graft, is one of the most singular on record, 



10 



W3.mwm wwMA^ ipm^SB. 



[July 5. 1873. 




Christian Sailor. 



BV HECTOR A. STl'AKT. 

One lonely star upon the verge 
Shone o'er the stormy wave, 
And fitful nightwinds wailed a dirge 
Above the sailor's grave. 

He long with righteous compass sailed 
Life's troubled billows through, 

And held, whatever ills prevailed. 
The port of Heaven in view. 

And now, like Moses on the run 

Of Nebo's beacon hight. 
He saw beyond the .shadows dim, 

The Promised Land in sight. 

He saw, and at the prospect fired 

Of terror felt no more, 
Rut earnestly to rest desired, 

( >n that auspicious shore. 



Short Letters to Young Girls— No. 2. 

(Written for the Press by Mrs. Eliza E. Anthony.] 

Always rise early and put yonr room to 
rights before going to breakfast. You 
have no idea how the half hour before 
breakfast will help you during the day. 
You will have your work finished sooner, 
and more time to yourself; and instead of 
sitting down at the windo^f to watch the 
passers by, spend that time in reading a 
useful book. 1 was a girl myself a few 
years ago, and I know by experience, it is 
much jpleasanter to read the latest novel ; 
but in the end it will not do as much good 
as an interesting history, or a book of trav- 
els. 

[f you commence by reading aloud you 
will benefit yourself and hearers; for it 
will learn you how to become a good read- 
er — a rare thing— and cause you to become 
self-possessed, and in listening to you, your 
hearers will become more interested, than 
if they read themselves. 

But to come back to the morning; after 
breakfast is over, help wash the dishes, 
and then sweep and dust the house. 
The best way to manage , is to have your 
work laid out for every day in the week: — 
say wash on Jlonday, iron on Tuesday, 
mend and bake on Wednesday. Sweep 
the whole house two or three times a week; 
the rooms that are used every day, and by 
doing your work systematically, you will 
not be hurried or behind hand and will 
gain a great many more spare hours in a 
year than if you idled four days, and over- 
worked yourself the remaining three. 

Do not sit in the parlor with folded 
hands, while your mother or sister is do- 
ing the work. If you have visitors, en- 
tertain them gracefully, and after they 
leave, see if yon cannot find something to 
do. A few minutes now and then, will 
sometimes make something graceful and 
something pretty for your small brother 
or sister to wear ; or you might make some 
of your dresses, to make which you have 
heretofore payed a handsome sum to your 
dressmaker. 

A mother ought to teach her children 
how to make their own clothes, and how 
to keep house ; such instruction will still 
leave time enough for the so-called accom- 
plishments. When I was married, I was 
only sixteen, and did not know how to 
cut out; or make the simplest thing, and 
I had to hire it done, or go without. My 
mother had always cut out and basted the 
articles, while I did thesewing only. But 
now I flatter myself I better undertand 
it. But I will write again. 

The Quietude of Maturity. — Have you 
never watched a young girl as she sits and 
thinks? the pleasant smile stealing round 
her lips— no frown or anxious care on her 
forehead — no pained look in her eyes. Oh, 
my poor weary-hearted reader, who has, 
like me, gone through life's struggle, what 
would you not give to be like her, to be as 
you once were; but that with another joy 
has passed away from you forever. You 
are only too glad now to sit a while and en- 
joy to-day's peace, and you have no trem- 
bling hopes, no feverish longings for to- 
morrow. It does seem too bad that as we 
grow older all faith in the future vanishes, 
and anticipation, in itself a pleasure leaves 
us. The time comes to us all when think- 
ing is only pain, for it is either a sad, sad 
retrospect, or a foreshadowing of coming 
trouble. You that are young prize the 
sunny days that are passing like a breath; 
enjoy them while you can, for beyond there 
lies a dreary waste. — Mtf Own Story. 



Laurel Hall, San Matea. 

To the dweller in the city, dazed with 
the turmoil and burdened with the cares 
of business, an escape, even for a day, to 
some quiet country town, where "rumor 
of oppression and deceit" never intrudes, 
is a positive benefit and luxury to be ap- 
preciated only by those who have tried it. 
Among the many such places that can be 
found within a radius of fifty miles from 
San Francisco, San Mateo is one of the 
quietest and prettiest. Here, men of ele- 
gant leisure and unlimited resources — 
such as Hay ward, Parrott, Howard and 
Sunderland have found ample opportunity 
for the indulgence of rural tastes, modified 
by all the accessions which wealth can give. 
These fine estates lend additional charms 
to those which nature has bestowed upon 
the place, and can be enjoyed by all casual 
visitors. Besides these points of attraction 
there are others of special interest to pa- 
rents who have boys and girls to educate 
and to all w-ho are interested in the educa- 
tional progress of the day. 

North of the village near the San Mateo 
Creek is St. Matthew's Military School, 
under the charge of Rev. Mr. Brewer. 
This fine building with the Rectory and 
ivy manteled stone Church forms a pic- 
turesque gothic group that must please 
any landscape architect. The scene is en- 
livened and of living interest when the 
"tap of the drum" calls the boys to "drill." 
The exercises as a late "dress parade" 
would have honored the "Regulars." Lau- 
rel Hall, a cut of which accompanies this 
article, has a lovely location upon the 
banks of the Mocho Creek, adjoining the 
country residence of the late F. L. A. Pi- 
oche and about half a mile from the ele- 
gant groiinds of Alvinza Hayward. The 
entrance is over a rustic bridge guarded 



Beecher on Housekeeping. 

We confess that we have more than 
once fancied that_we saw the soul of good 
in that thing of evil — the modern servant. 
We have never found fault with her insta- 
bility. Master and mistress spend ' eir 
days and nights in the efi'ort to ' oetter 
themselves," to get more money for the 
same work, or more distinguished society 
for the same servitude. Bridget and Dina 
are of the same blood, as we remember on 
Sundays and forget through the week; and, 
afar off, they follow us. But this very fu- 
gacity, and thriftlessness, and want of 
ductility are posibly the limit that heaven 
sets to our honest house-keeping. We 
would like to have supposed that we were 
born to the purple, and should not be in 
the least decomposed on being bidden to 
dine at Catsworth, having the elegance, 
though not the vastness of Catsworth un- 
der our own roof . And in comes blunder- 
ing, candid bridget, with a wrecked am- 
bition in the shape of an omelette souffle, 
and unwittingly reveals to the visitor that 
we never had one before! It is our deep 
hope, as it is our conviction, that these 
rough-shod ministers of truth and sim- 
plicity will never cease to plague us with 
the pictorial exhibition of our small sins 
against those divinities, until every house- 
hold in the land is willing to lead a life no 
more showy than it can easily afford, and 
to attempt no difficult and unfamilliar 
pretences, tj^ impress visitors. 

The air is full of rumors on public and 
private coruption, and disgraceful get- 
ting and keeping of gold. We must pur- 
ify our legislation, it is said. We must 
winnow our civil service. We must in- 
sist on virtue in high places. But reform 
must begin far back — at the fire-sides. By 
example, our boys and our girls must 





by the laurels, which, with oaks and buck- 
eyes fringe the creek and invite the roman- 
tically inclined to many an hour of out- 
door rest— reading or study. The coast 
range hills rise not far south of the house 
and offer, by the fine views— glades and 
glens — inducements for the healthful ex- 
ercise of walking. 

Within the building are found high, 
large and airy chambers having fine views 
and sunny, pleasant schoolrooms. The 
gymnasium has all the appliances for vig- 
orous and pleasurable exercise and the cro- 
quet ground is the scene of many a blood- 
less contest. Those who believe that 
beautiful surroundings have great influ- 
ence in the education of the young surely 
need no recommendation to such a place 
as this. The Principal of this school, Miss 
Buckmaster, has lately incorporated the 
cosmopolitan system within the course of 
instruction by which young ladies who wish 
to become proficient in French or German 
can readily attain that end by the |exellent 
instruction received and the daily* use of 
those languages as here practiced. In 
every particular connected with the de- 
sired mental culture, physical training and 
homelike care needed by girl students, a 
satisfactory condition of things is plainly 
apparent. Let all who are interested in 
schools and their work — whether parents 
or educators— spend a day in San' Mateo 
and see and approve for themselves, h. 

Did not TruI/J Love.— A woman was 
walking, and a man looked at her and fol- 
lowed her. The woman said, "Why do 
yon follow me?" He answered, "Because 
I have fallen in love with you." The wo- 
man said, "Why are you in love with me ? 
My sister is much handsomer. She is com- 
ing after me ; go and make love to her." 
The man turned back and saw a woman 
with an ugly face. Being greatly dis- 
pleased, he went again to the other woman, 
and said, "Why did you tell a story?" 
The woman answered, "Neither did you 
speak the turth; for if yon are in love with 
me, why did you go after another woman?' 

When are a young lady's earrings like 
people in debt ? When they are in her 
ears (arrears). 



learn that money is not the supreme good 
of life. They must grow up in homes so 
simply and finely ordered, that not furni- 
ture and not viands, but the quality of 
the master and mistess rdraws many noble 
guests thereto, contact with whom is the 
children's best education. " The ornament 
of a home is the friends who frequent it." 
And as we learn simplicity, we shall have 
leisure for the highest friendships. It is 
this home life, and only this — cheap, pos- 
sible to all — the source of robust manhood 
and sincere culture — that will keep the 
republic sweet. Without it, though we 
pile up our millions, and double our terri- 
tory, and open our gates to all nations, 
we shall bring up at last whither we seem 
to be tending, in a general almshouse for 
souls. 

Nursing Troubles. 

Some people are as careful of their 
troubles as mothers are of their babes; they 
cuddle them, and rock them, and hug 
them, and cry over them, and fly into a 
passion with you if you try to take them 
away from them; they want you to fret 
with them, and to help them to believe 
that they have been worse treated than 
anybody else. If they could -they would 
have a picture of their grief in a gold 
frame hung over the mantle-shelf for ev- 
erybody to look at. And their grief makes 
them really selfish; they think more of 
their dear little grief in the basket and in 
the cradle than they do of all the world 
besides; and they say you are hard-heart- 
ed if you say "don't fret." Ah ! you don't 
understand me— you don't know me — you 
can't enter into my trials ! The foregoing 
is a mirror in which certain persons may 
see themselves reflected. As though oth- 
ers had no trials! They lack hope. They 
give way to foolish fear; are cowardly, 
without faith and fortitude. They are 
poor things; will not amount to much. 
Still, it is our duty to help get them out 
of the rut, and encourage them to throw 
off cares. 



Pat was asked the other day if he under- 
stood French. "Yes, yer honor, if it's 
spoken in Irish." 



" If We Were Only Rich." 

A Story for the Young Folks. 

"Minnie, don't you wish we were rich?" 
asked Charley Knight, looking up at his 
sister, as she sat by the fire, knitting a 
mitten. 

Minnie was a sweet, blue-eyed, rosy lit- 
tle girl, and as contented and happy as she 
was pretty; and she was always thinking 
how well off she was, and how thankful she 
ought to be, so that she hardly had the 
time to think about being rich. When 
Charley asked her if she did not wish she 
were rich, she looked at him a minute, and 
then said; No, not any richer than we are 
now. We always have enough to eat and 
drink, and we have all the clothes we want, 
and we have something to give away, too. 
Besides, if we were rich, may be we'd be 
hard-hearted and proud. A great many 
rich people are." 

"Well, I wish we were rich," replied 
Charley. "I'd be willing to risk it any 
how. And I'll tell you what I'd do, if we 
were rich. Father would keep a pair of 
smart horses, and a fast little pony besides, 
—of course he would, — and then I'd drive 
around all the time, and I'd take you out 
riding whenever you wanted to go. If you 
were afiaid of the big horses, why, I'd just 
order up the little pony, and away we'd go. 
And then, if we were only rich, I'd always 
have a purse full of money all the time. 
Oh dear, I wish father would hurry upand 
get rich, if he's ever going to, for I'm 
fourteen jears old, and I've never driven 
a good smart horse, or had over fifty cents 
in my pocket at once in all my life." 

"May be it would have been bad for 
you," said Minnie, and her little laughing 
face began to look very sober and thought- 
ful. "You oughtn't to say, Charley," she 
said, "that you'd risk being rich, for may 
be it would hurt you. It spoils some boys, 
and some girls, too. Willy Hawkins' fa- 
ther is rich, and don't you know what fa- 
ther said about Willy the other day? He 
said he'd never be good for anything, for 
his father was bringing him up to think 
that he never need do anything, because 
they had so much money. I should be 
worried about you all the time, Charley, 
if we were rich." "I love to hear you talk, 
little sister, for you talk so wise, and you 
are only eleven years old. But I can't 
help wanting father to be rich, for if he 
were, we'd have a good time." "I'm sure 
I don't think Willie Hawkins has a very 
good time," replied Minnie. "He always 
acts as if he didn't know what to do with 
himself. And there's Mary Benton; her 
father's as rich as he can be, but she's 
never pleasant, and never suited with any- 
thing. She thinks everything in the 
world js hers, and she treats poor little 
girls rer.l badly. I don't like to play^ith 
her at all. She treats me well enough, 
but she hardly ever speaks to a very poor 
little girl, and I don't think it's a very good 
thing to be rich, if it makes people proud 
and hateful." 

There was a long pause, Minnie was 
knitting away quietly, but busily, to fin- 
ish her mitten, and Charley sat leaning on 
his hands, thinking to himself, "If we 
were only rich." The room was very still , 
for C'harlie and IMinnie were both think- 
ing. 

At length Minnie said, in her sweet, 
quiet voice, "Don't you know how much 
father says about a contented spirit, and 
how often, in his prayers, he says, 'Give 
me neither poverty nor riches'? Don't 
you remember he said in his prayer yes- 
terday, 'Having food and raiment, Int us 
be therewith content'? And don't you rec- 
ollect that he told us, the other day, that 
it was very foolish to want to have a great 
deal of this world, because we couldn't 
carry anything with us when we died — not 
even our bodies." 

Charley looked almost convinced, but 
ventured to sa.y once more — "If we were 
only rich;" atlding, "if everybody was only 
rich !" 



A Citizen of Gosport, the other night, 
mistook his wife's ^east bottle for his fa- 
vorite "little brown jug," and took a"long 
pull and a strong pull" therefrom. He is 
now regarded as a rising man. 

This generation has grown so lazy that 
it is proposed to have elevators in the 
churches to take the people up into the 
galleries. 

Some people act as if their newspaper 
debts were like coffee, and would settle 
themselves by long standing. 



July 5. 1873.] 



Ju igJwAV et J^' jl*K' £\s, LJ JbU ifiAj JL> 



T1 



DEWEY & CO. 
American & Foreign Patent Agents, 

OFFICE, 338 MOHTGOMERY STREET, S. P. 



PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats filed 
expeditiously; Patent reissues taken out; 
Assignments made and recorded in legal 
form; Copies of Patents and Assignments 
procured; Examinations of Patents made 
here and at Washington; Examinations made 
of Assignments recorded in Washington; 
Examinations ordered and reported by Tele- 
graph ; Rejected cases taken vip and Patents 
obtained; Interferences Prosecuted; Opinions 
rendered regarding the validity of Patents 
and Assignments; every legitimate branch of 
Patent Agency Business promptly and 
thoroughly conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various in- 
ventions of this coast, and long practice in 
patent business, enable us to abundantly 
satisfy our patrons; and our success and 
business are constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventors 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals — 
thereby facilitating their introduction, sale 
and popularity. 

Foreign Patents. 

In addition to American Patents, we secure, 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign counti'ies which grant 
Patents, including Great Bi-itain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Victoiia, Peru, 
Russia, Spain, British India, Saxony, British 
Columbia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland, Den- 
mark, Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wurtemberg, New Zealand, New South 
Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
Grenada, Chile, Argentine Republic, AND 
EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD 
where Patents are obtainable. 

No models are required in European coun- 
tries, but the drawings and specifications 
should be prepared with thoroughness, by 
able persons who are familiar with the re- 
quirements and changes of foreign patent 
laws — agents who are reliable and perma- 
nently established. 

Our schedule prices for obtaining foreign pat- 
ents, in all cases, will always be as low, and 
in some instances lower, than those of any 
other responsible agency. 

We am and do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific States from two io six months 
(according to the location of the country 
sooNEK than any other agents. 

Home Counsel. 

Our long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the inventions 
already patented; hence we are frequently 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing them to the same 
thing already covered by a patent. We are 
always free to advise appUcants of any 
knowledge we have of previous applications 
which will interfere with their obtaining a 
patent. 

We invite the acqiiaintance of all parties con- 
nected with inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business and professional men is 
mutual gain. Parties in doubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents, or pur- 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advice of importance to them from a short 
call at our office. 

Remittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the Government, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened that 
applicants have not only lost their money, 
but their inventions also, from this cause and 
consequent delay. We hold ourselves re- 
sponsible for all fees entrusted to our agency. 

The principal portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is still being 
done, through our agency. We are famiUar 
with, and have full records, of all former 
cases, and can more directly judge of the 
value and patentability of inventions discov- 
ered here than any other agents. 

Situated so remote from the seat of goverrmient, 
delays are even more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of the Pacific Coast than to applicants in 
the Eastern States. Valuable patents may be 
lost by the extra time consumed in transmit 
ting specifications from Eastern agencies back 
to this coast for the signature of the inventor. 

Confidential. 

e take great pains to preserve secrecy in all 
confidential matters, and applicants for pat- 
ents can rest assured that their communi- 
cations and business transactions will be held 
strictly confidential by us. Circulars free. 

Engravings. 

We have superior artists in our own office, and 
all facilities for producing fine and satisfac- 
tory illustrations of inventions and machinery, 
for newspaper, book, circular and other 
printed iUustrations, and are always ready to 
Bssist patrons in bringing their valuable ^li s- 
coveries into practical and profitable use. 

DEWEY & CO., 
United States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub- 
lishers Mining and Scientific Press and the 
Pacific Rural Press, 338 Montgomery St., S. 
E. comer of California St., San Francisco. 




E E D S. 



VEGETABLE AND FLOWER SEEDS, GRASS AND 

CLOVER, ALFALFA, ETC. EUCALYPTUS 

GLOBULUS OR BLUE GUM, NATIVE 

CALIFORNIA FLOWER AND 

EVERGREEN SEEDS. 



L A N T S 



Greenhouse Plants— Fine and Healthy; Camellias 
and Magnolias— Fine Plants; Finest Newr 
Fucbsias, Double Geraniums, 
Coleus, Dwarf and 
TREE EERPfS. 
FAN PALMS, one to six feet high; CYCAS REVOLUTA, 
or SAGO PALM; Choice GLADIOLUS; Rare 
LILIES, ROSES, EVERGREENS, 
SHRUBS. ETC. 
Kvtstlc and Wire ZSa/Shets. 
We are selling a large part of our fine stock less than 
Half Catalogue Peices. 
Goods packed with care for shipment. 

E . JE2 . IM O O K E , 

Seedsman and Florist, 

21v5 425 Washington street, San Francisco, Cal. 



SEEDS! SEEDS! SEEDS! 

W. R. STRONG, 8 and 10 J St., Sacramento. 

Gaeden, Flower and Field Seeds ; Fbuit, Shade, 

FOEEST AKD EVEEOBEEN TEEE AND SHEUB SEEB ; TBEES 

AND Teee Seedlings, Fbuit, Timber and Ornamental, 
supplied at the very lowest rates, from the largest and 
best nurseries 'here and in the EasternStates. 

Vick's Flower Seeds, Bulbs, Chronics and Catalogues 

on hand and supplied at strictly his rates. Seeds and 

small seedlings forwarded by mail to any part of the 

United States. Catalogues furnished tree on application. 

lHv5-3in 



WHAT IS HOME WITHOUT AN ORGAN ? 

And what will an Organ now be, without a copy of 
DITSON & CO.'S new, delightful, complete collection 
of Keed Organ Music, called the 

ORGAN AT HOME ! 

Every Organ needs it ! The 

W rgan at Home ! Best Oollection for Reed 
o " gang 1 Two hundred not difficult pieces, 
so or" an-iz d that no dull music is in them ; 
the orj;' " n, smooth, legato style used, but 

N 

as an orga '■ at Hnme. should be cheerful, 
light " nd staccato mu.sic is not excluded, At 
present ' he Organ in a Home is often silent, for 

H 



hO 



ome music is not provided for it. Here is 



omc-like, easy, familiar, new music, 



at hol'le in every nation, in fact all kinds by 

F" 

w - h o m ^ verybody considers the best composers 

The publishers take pride and pleasure in presenting 
such a superior book to the public, and believe it 
worthy to be at home in every family. 

Price, Boards, $2..'>0; Cloth, $3.00; Full gilt, #1 00. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., Boston. 

CHAS. H. DITSON & CO., 711 Broadway, N. Y. 



TO BUILDERS AND ARCHITECTS. 

Brooklyn Freestone Quarries, 

Three miles from the Brooklyn R. R. Depot ahti Land- 
ing, and 4?^ miles from Oakland City Hall. 

Having ju3t completed a good road to these quarries, we 
are prepared to furnish lar^je or small order>i lor either di- 
mension stone, or roble stone, in San Francisco, Oakland, 
or brooUlyn, at such prices as cannot be competed with, 
for equal quality of stone; for base and elevation walls, for 
public and private buildings, monuments, fence walls, cop- 
ing, window caps and sills, doorway trimmings and steps, 
stepping stones, curbing for streets and sidewalks, pave- 
ments ' or streets and street-crossings, bases for gravestones 
and plain and ornamental work lor cemeteries, etc. 

We can furnish cellar and basement walls of roble stone 
of superioi quality in San Francisco at about ihe cost of 
brick work for the tame. 

The gray freestone from the.se quarries is considered far 
superior to that of any other within practical distance of 
San Francisco. It is readily worked and imperishable. 

For samples we refer to the tlrst ptory ot the City Hall, 
Oakland, erected lour yearssince, and ihe window caps and 
sills, and other tinished work in the Deaf and Dumb Asy- 
lum, Oakland; in the Oakland Cemetery around the lot of 
J. S. Emory. Aho small specimens in the offices of Augus- 
tus Laver, (Architect of the S. F. <-ity Hall) Kearny 
St.: Djvid Farquaharson, Architect, Cor. Kearney and 
California St., S F. 

Orders may be left with George W. Thompson, on the 
premises, or A. T. Dewet, Scientific Press oific^s No. 
Si'i Montgomery St. S. F., where samples of the atone may 

*"^^'"' THOMPSON & DEWEY. 



H. K. cuMMUraa. 

1858. 



H. Q BAL8TON. 
1873. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1868. 
415 and 417 Eavls street, cor. ol Oregon, San Francisco 

Our buslniss being exclusively CommlBKlou, we have 

aointeresfgftat will conflict with those of the producer. 

4v23-ly 



THE 

PEOPLE'S PRACTICAL POULTRY BOOK. 

A work of 224 pages on the 

Breeds, Breeding:, Bearing: and G-eneral 

Management of Poultry. 

By WM. M- LEWIS, New York, 1871 ; with over One 
Hundred Engravings. Sold by Dewey St Co., £ural 
PreBS ofBce iox $1.76, or sent postage paid for $2.00. 



C. p. SHEFFrELD. N. W. 8PAULD1MO. 



3. PATTEESON. 



PACIFIC 



Saw Manufacturing Company, 

NOS. 17 AND 19 FRONT ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 




REAPER AND MOWING SECTIONS, 



Planing Knives, Curriers' Knives, 



SAW MANDRELS AND SAWS OF EVERY DESCRIP- 
TION MADE TO ORDER. 
IBv.-iam 



TO GRAIN, COTTON AND WOOL 

GROWERS. 



The undersigned are prepared to extend every fai-ility 
to FanuerB who desire to ship their produce abroad. 

We will advance liberally on any shipjients, only 
charging interest at the rate of 5 per cent, per 
annum. Freight at the chartered price paid the ship, 
insurance and other charges at the lowest rates obtain- 
able, thus netting the shipper the full value of his 
crops, while paying at the lowrest interest for his 
funds. Any further information desired will be 
promptly furnished. 

J. C. Merrill & Co., 

204 and 206 California St., SAN FRANCISCO. 



The Pacific Irrigating Pipe and 
Pump Co., 



A. M. JEWELL, 

Superintendent. 

Of.iee and Fa<-tory, South Point 

Mills, Berry street, between 

Third and Fourth sts., 

San Fkancisco. 

I call the attention of Farmers, 
Stockmen and others using wooden 
I^umps and Pipes, t<.) the fact that 
they are now prepared to furnish all 
kinds of House and Farm Pumps, 
also Wooden Pipe of from 1 >5 to .'> 
inches diameter, at prices much less 
than any others in this market. 

Pkices of Pcmps . . .from $3.25 to $0. 

Peices of Pipe, from 10 to 50 cents 
Ijer foot. 

B^Agents wanted in every town. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 
2:jv5-3m 




GREAT Y^KIERN 




_ TMITH Fl ELD SI f ITTSBUBGII PA- 

Breech-Loadiijg aliot Ouns, flu to JiiOO. Double Shot 
Guns, $8 to $150. Single Guns, S3 to $20. Rifles, $8 to 
$75. Revolvers, $0 to $25. Pistols, $1 to $8. Gun Ma- 
terial, Fishing Tackle, &c. Large iluroiints to dealers or 
cluhs. Army Guns, Revolvers, etc., bought or traded 
for. Goods sent by express C. O. D., to be examined 
before paid for. 



CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DANIEL. & CO., 

Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 

MANTEL PIECES, ETC., 

411 Pino street, between Montgomery and | 

Kearny, Sa» FbaNOIsoo, 

21v2-ly 



Buyers' Directory. 

Under this head will be found the names and address of 
some of our most enterprising and reliable business men. 



Lin$ley & Collins, Commission and Pro- 

ducc .Merchants. Particular attention given to the sale 
ot Dairy Produce, Smoked Meats, Lard, Poultry, Egga, 
etc. ^7 Sanaome st., Niantic Building, San Francisco- 



T. R. Church, 223 Montgomery Street, 

{Ru«s House Block,) Sftn Francisco. Wholesale and rs- 
taiL deal !r in Mens', ycutlis* and Boys' Fine Ouatom- 
maae Clothing and Furnishing Goods; also Trunks, 
Valises, Baps, etc. 

Luke G Sresovich & Co., Importers, 

Wholesale Dealers and Commission Merchants in Foreign 
and Domestic Fruits, 519 Sansome street, S. F. All 
^rders promptly attended to. 

A. Giorgiani, Importer and Dealer in 

Tropical and Dry Fruits; also California Wines. Bay Salt, 
and Lime Juice in ten-gallon kegs. Nos. 419 and 421 
Washington street, San Francisco. 



Brittan, Holbrook & Co., Importers of 

Stoves and Metals, Tinners' Goods, Tools and Machines, 
111 and lis California, 17 and 19 Davis streets, San Fran- 
cisco, and 178 J street, Sacramento. 

Jacob Schreiber, Dealer in Live Geese 

Feathers. Furniture Springs, Curled Hair, etc. The 
Cheapest House in the northern part of the city. No. 
520 Washin^^tm street, San Francisco. 



Mrs. Curtis' First Premium Models, for 

sale, wholesale and retail, by Mrs Barringer, 64 Fourth 
street, S. F. Patterns cut. and Teacher of her system of 
Cutting all kinds of Garments in the latest styles. 

Henry A. Gullixson, Importer and Dealer 

in Carpets, Oil Cloths, Matting:, etc., No. 

ti87 Market street. San Fr ancis co. 

Lewis & Pander, Dealers in Stoves, 

Ranges, Tinware, and all kinds of Kitchen Utensils, For 
the best and the cheapest, go to No. 32 Geary street, be- 
tween Kearny and Dupont, S. F. 

Wm. J. Heney & Co., Importers and Man- 

ufacturer-H of Rich, Medium an<i Low Priced Furniture, 
Bedding, Dental and Barber Chairs. Piano Stools, etc., 
T2fi Market street (Bancroft's Building,), San Francisco. 

San Francisco Wire Works. 665 Mission 

St., S. F. O. H. Gruenhagen A; Co., Manufacturers of all 
kinds of Wive Work lor Gardens, Cemeteries, Flower 
Stands, Baskets, Tree Boxes, Arches, Bordering and 
Riiilmg. 



A. Lusk & Co., Wholesale Commission 

D.'hKi.s in Calilornia and Oregon Fruits. Oranges, Lem- 
(JUS. arid all kinds of Canned and Dried Fruits, etc. Pa- 
^ eitic Fruit Mark et. Clay st., b elow Mo ntgomery, S. K. 

Saul & Co., 579 Market Street, San 

Francisco. Manufacturers of Carriages, Wagons and 
Stage Work, of the most improved and practical styles. 



Heywood & Hendiey, General Commission 

Merctiaul-, and Wholesale Dealers in Butter, Cheese, 
Lard, Hams, etc , etc., No. 224 Clay Htreet, San Francisco. 
Agents for the Crystal Salt Works. Agents for Santa 
<'lara Crackoi 3. 

On Sing, Chinese Intelligence Office, 624 

Jackson street, between Kearny and Dupont. San Fran- 
cisco. Particular attention paid to orders toi all kinds of 
Servants. Cooks. Waiters. Labo- iiig Men, etc. 

Warner & Silsby Manufacture all kinds of 

Bed Springs, including the Obermann Self-Fastening 

Spring, and the VVcstly Double Spiral, 147 New Mont- 
gomery street. 

Davis & Sutton, Commission Merchants, 

For California Fruits; also (or the sale of Butter, Eggs, 
Cheese, Hops, Oreen and Dried Fruits, etc., 75 Warre i 
street. New York. Refer to Anthony Halsey, Cashier, 
Tradesmen's National Bank, N Y. ; tllwanRer A Barry, 
Rochesiir, N. Y. ; '". W. Reed, Sacramento, Cal.;. A. 
Lusk & Co., PaciHc Fruit Market, San Franoisco, Oat. 



WE NOW OFFER TO THE FARMERS 

The Best Horse Fork in Use. 

The Fork is made in the most substantia! manuer, of 
steel, with hickory heads. They are so cotistructcd 
that the Fork does not drop its load until the Fork man 
is ready to unload his Fork. Many maimed men can 
appreciate the value of this improvement who have 
been injured by the old style Forks. 

For sale by 

BROWN & DOANE, 

209 El Dorado street, Stockton, Cal. 



Carpets, Oil Cloths, Etc. 

THE CHEAPEST PLACE IN SAN FRANCISCO TO BUY 
Carpets, Oil Cloths and Upholstery Goods, 

IS AT 

SCHLtTETER & VOLBERG'S, 

14 Third Htreet, Three doors from Market, 

Sad Fbancisoo. 

6T5-3m 

AVERILL'S 

Of any desired Shade or Color, 

Mixed ready for application, and sold by the gallon 

It Is Cheaper, Handsomer, mors Durable and Elastic 
than the beet of any other Paint. 

Offlco, corner Fourth and Townsond streets, Ban 
Francisco. Send for sample card and price list. 

16V23~Sn)OOWbp HEALY b JEWELL, AKenta. 



TOBACCO GROWERS! ^^^X^Ha^gr 

Saves Tobacco, Labor, Time and Annoyance. No 
Tobacco Grower will do without, having once tried it. 
Pays for itself Hist year. Send for circular for par- 
ticulars. E, KEMPSHALL & CO., 

23v5.3m New Britain, Conn, 



12 



PJu#»ll 



[July 5 1873. 



Milk Supply of New York. 

Our object in continuing the subject of the 
milk supply of some of the larger eastern 
cities, is to show that there is first, a con- 
stantly increasing demand for pure milk, that 
the sources of supply are wholy inadequate to 
the demand, -without extending the area of 
production. Secondly to show from what 
greatly increased distances, by rail, milk can 
be delivered profitably, where the expense of 
freight is not exorbitant ; and thirdly, to draw 
such deductions from the facts presented as 
will make it apparent that milkeries can be es- 
tablished along the lines of railroads tending 
towards San Francisco that will not only pay 
largely upon capital, but add to the present 
facilities for obtaining a cheaper and better 
article of milk. 

Milk Production Near New York. 

We learn from Agricultural Report that in 
Essex and Union Counties, New Jersey, lying 
a short distance from the city of New York, 
and including within their bounds a large city 
and town population, the production of milk 
has become the leading agricultural interest. 

Although the soil of these counties — a clayey 
loam, well watered by springs and streams — 
is admirably adapted to grazing, the high 
price of land, averaging about $300 per acre, 
necessitates a special system of feeding. The 
larger number of those engaged in milk pro- 
duction own only a few acres each, on which 
are kept from six to ten cows. A few herds 
number from twenty-five to thirty head, but a 
herd numbering fifty cows or more is rarely 
seen. 

From early in May to the middle of July, 
pasturage is largely supplemented by stable 
feeds of green rye, meal, bran, and brewers' 
grains. During the subsequent three months, 
corn-fodder is the main food, eked out with 
brewers' grains, etc. Rowen pastiire is ob- 
tained in Octoljer. From November to the 
last of April, hay, turnips, grains, meal, and 
bran are fed, with the addition of corn-stalks 
daring a considerable part of the time. 

Turnips are raised largely for food, chiefly 
the white or "cowhorn" variety, and are 
highly valued as an auxiliary during winter, 
giving the cows a good appetite, and thus aid- 
ing to keep them in good condition. They are 
especially nutritious when fed with meal or 
other ground food. One hundred bushels of 
turnips are considered a full supply for one 
animal during the winter. In the same season 
the quantity of brewers' grains fed to each cow 
in milk amounts to about six bushels. 

The majority of those who s'ock heavily with 
cows purchase city manure in addition to that 
made on the farm. Under a prevailing system 
of liberal dairy management, the land is an- 
nually increasing in value, and it is estimated 
that the crop production is now double the 
yield of the same land twenty-five years ago. 
There are between 3,000 and 4,000 cows in the 
two counties, costing, when purchased, from 
$75 to $100 each. An estimate for the entire 
season puts the aver ige yield per cow at eight 
quarts daily. The average price obtained for 
the milk at the farmer's door is 5% cents a 
quart. The gross income from milk ranges 
from $125 to $200 per cow per annum. 

Supply of Milk by Railroad. 

The following information is furnished to 
the Department by Mr. K. Rockwell, of Cole- 
brook, Connecticut : During the month of 
January, 1870, 1,400 quarts of milk per day 
were sent from Colebrook to the city of New 
York. The farmers received 6 cents per quart, 
delivered at the Winsted depot, distant one 
hundred and twenty-one miles from New York 
by rail. The freight from Winsted to New 
York was 1% cents per quart, and the com- 
mission paid in New York was one-half cent 
per quart. 

The milk was sold to dealers in that city at 
8 cents per quart. The quantity sent in the 
early part of June, was about 1,000 quarts per 
day, delivered at the Winsted depot at 2% 
cents per quart. The average price at that 
point, for the year ending April 1, 1870, was 
i% cents per quart. For the same period the 
average receipts for the product of each cow of 
different dairies ranged from $C0 to $120. Mr. 
Rockwell's dairy of 12 cows averaged $116.81 
per cow. 

In a letter to the Department, dated July 20, 
1870, Mr. E. S. Woodford, of West Winsted, 
states that at that depot farmers were then 
receiving 3^ cents a quart for milk. 

A correspondent of the Department in Berk- 
shire County, Massachusetts, writes that the 
number of cows in that county has increased, 
and that the sending of milk" to market is a 
profitable business, much more so than its 
manufacture into butter and cheese. Mr. J. 
Z. Goodrich, of Stockbridge, in the same 
county, in a letter addressed to the farmers of 
his section, states that during the season of 
1869, and even during the summer months, 
milk was carried every day on the Housatonic 
Railroad from Dalton and Pittsfield to New 
York City, a distance of about one hundred 
and seventy miles. 

It was brought to the station in the afternoon, 
and delivered in New York the next morning, 
in good condition, and in time to be served to 
customers before breakfast. The milk train of 
the Housatonic Railroad commenced running 
October 1, 1867, carrj'ing 44 cans of 40 quarts 
each. The number increased to about 230 
cans per day in 1868, and to 390 in 1869. Mr. 



Goodrich adds that the demand is yearly in- 
creasing. In his opinion the business will im- 
prove the farming lands of that section more 
than any other agricultural specialty ; and he 
thinks the county ought to raise its milk pro- 
duction to 40,000 quarts daily within three 
years. 

As an illustration of the tendency of this 
business to enhance the value of land, one 
farmer on the Housatonic Railroad acknowl- 
edges that it has already added $3,000 to the 
value of his farm. Mr. Goodrich estimates 
that it has added $20,000,000 to the value of 
farms on the Harlem Railroad. 

From the foregoing it appears to us that the 
present area of milk production for the princi- 
pal cities of the Pacific Coast, might be greatly 
extended, and with many producers pay better 
than to make butter and cheese, and particu- 
larly during the more difficult season of butter 
making, the long and torrid summer. 

What we need to enable us to furnish fresh, 
pure milk to San Francisco at the same price 
that is now paid for milk-and-water, are, addi- 
tional rail road facilities, at something near 
eastern rates of transportation. 

Wayside Gleanings. 

Alameda, Stanislaus and Merced Counties. 

Written for the Pbesb. 

From Haywood to the San Joaquin Valley we 
follow the San Lorenzo Creek through a beauti- 
ful CaBon, to the San Ramon Valley. The first 
thing worthy of notice is the forest of Austral- 
ian gum trees — Eucalyptus — planted by Mr. 
Stratton on a hillside, said to be too poor and 
dry to produce a paying crop of any kind of 
grain. Judging from this experiment, we have 
thousands of acres of waste land in this State, 
that might be utilized, and in a few years made 
to pay a handsome profit. The time is coming, 
and not very far distant either, when the farm- 
er will feel the need of these timber belts, that 
everyone should have; besides it would add 
beauty to their homes. 

Following the banks of the 

San Lorenzo Creek 
We pass many clumps of sycamore, laurel 
and live oak trees as also buckeye and hazel, 
which furnish hiding places for the thousands 
of quail and rabbits that are to be found among 
these beatiful hills. In five miles we reach the 
forks of the creek; here is a narrow belt of 
valley land which furnish gardens for several 
families who farm and raise stock thstt fatten 
on the wild oats that grow spontaneous in this 
region. In seven miles we reach the summit 
of the divide that intervenes between the Ala- 
meda and San Ramon valleys; taking a hearty 
draught from an icy cold spring that comes 
gurgling from the mountain side. We start on 
the down-grade and soon reach the San Ramon; 
turning to the right we enter 

Livermore Valley 
Through which we travel some twenty miles. 
The town of Livermore is centrally located in 
the valley on the line of the W. P. R. Road, 
and has a population of about five hundred; 
has good hotel accomodations and several 
large stores, etc. 

The farmers' estimate of the wheat crop is 
about one-half crop. The merchants put it a 
little higher. We were here advised by a good 
old farmer with the best of intentions, to take 
a cut-off via Corral Hollow, and thereby save 
eight miles to Grayson, on the San Joaquin. 
We reached the summit with great difficulty, 
locked the wheels of our wagon and started 
down a fearfully steep mountain, theroad hav- 
ing been worn in deep chasms by the previous 
winter rains. 

The Upset. 

We had scarcely gone two hundred yards 
when the wagon upset, scattering the contents 
of the same down the mountain in every direc- 
tion; fortunately no damage was done. With 
great difficulty we reached the foot of the 
mountain, fully convinced that the old adage 
—"the farthest way around is the shortest in 
the end," — is a true one ; at least it so proved 
ia this case. 

At the foot of the mountain is located the 
Eureka Coal Mine, owned by Mr. O'Brian, but 
he not being at home, we were unable to get 
any information concerning it. Sixteen miles 
brought us to the farm of Mr. Holt, on the 
banks of the San Joaquin river, in 
Stanislaus County. 

He estimates the crops in his neighborhood, 
on the west side of the river, at 5 sacks per 
acre. Ten miles above this, there is at least 
two townships in a body, that may be consid- 
ered an entire failure. The balance of the 
wheat region, which commencing ten miles be- 
low, and extending ten miles above Hills' Ferry, 
the yield wil be so small that it can scarcely be 
estimated. About one-half the ground we vis- 
ited was completely withered ; scarcely a head 
to be seen. The other half, was being gar- 
nered, though we were assured that it would 
scarcely pay for the harvesting. The drouth 
of the present season, has taught ns another 
lesson, to fallow our lands and dust the seed 
in, in the fall; and not depend on late sowing. 

Hills' Ferry 
Is located on the San Joaquin river, opposite 
the mouth of the Merced river, and close to 
the north line of Merced county; and connects 
by stage with the railroad at Modesto, 14 miles 



distant. It has one good hotel, several stores, 
2 livery stables, blacksmith shop. Post Office 
and Wells, Fargo ct Co.'s Express. 

Seven miles above in 

Merced County 
Is the farm of Mr. G. B. Clark, whose house, 
yard, and barnyard is nicely shaded with large 
Cottonwood trees, which were planted sever- 
al years ago, and have'attained a large size; 
and may be said to be an " Oasis in the De- 
sert, " where the weary traveler may find shade 
and cooling draughts from a well of cool wa- 
ter. Mr. Clark lives on a farm of 100 acres, 
keeps 7,000 sheep for which he pays Chapman 
& Page of your city, 15 cents per head. 
The Largest Wheat Field in the World. 

From here to Antioch, it is about 100 miles, 
by ten wide; nearly every acre of which was 
sown to wheat or barley, and as there are no 
fences to distinguish lines, i.t seems to be one 
continuous grain field for that distance. When 
this vast plain can be irrigated, and the roads 
and by-ways planted to trees, it will make one 
of the most beautiful places on the Continent. 

From Hill's Ferry to Visalia in my next. 
Jno. Mavity. 



The Canadian Pacific Railroad Survey. 

We had the pleasure of a call, a few days 
since, from Mr. Marcus Smith, the engineer 
in charge of the Western Division of the 
Canadian Pacific Railroad, extending from 
Fort Edmonton, near the Eastern base of the 
Rocky Mountains, to its terminus on Paget 
Sound — about one thousand miles in extent, 
and comprising all the difficult engineering 
points on the line of the road. 

Mr. Smith was returning to his field of labor, 
after having visited the Canadian Capital, to 
make a report of the progress thus far npon 
the work. In addition to the main trunk, the 
survey embraces two branches, — one to the 
north, 120 miles to Butte Inlet; the other 
to the south, by way of Eraser River to 
Burrard's Inlet. The engineering difficulties 
over the Rocky mountains, are much lighter 
than was apprehended. The highest elevation 
is found in the Yellow Head Pass, 3,800 feet 
above the sea level, which is reached by a 
grade of 300 miles, the maximum of which is 
52 feet per mile, and that not covering more 
than one-tenth of the distance. Three or four 
short tunnels will be required, but a little over 
8 mile in length, altogether. 

The work over the Cascade Range is heavier 
and more difficult. The best line yet found 
requires about fourteen miles of grade, 100 to 
the mile, including much rock cutting and 
some four miles of tunnel. Mr. Smith will 
look for a better route over the Cascades. Less 
difficulty is anticipated from snow than is met 
with on the Union Pacific. We are assured 
that there is no truth in the reports heretofore 
circulated with regard to the letting of contracts 
for grading, etc ; but it is the intention to com- 
mence active operations this season. 

There seems to be a ver.y erroneous idea 
abroad with regard to the agricultural capaci- 
ties of the country to be traversed by this 
road. East of the Rocky Mountains. Instead 
of its being a barren, dessolate region, it is, if 
anything, superior to the great plains near the 
same meridian traversed by the Union Pacific, 
and contains as large if not a larger area of 
cultivable land, with a climate in no way in- 
ferior. AVe are assured that the region traversed 
by this road is capable of sustaining fully 
twenty-five millions of population. 

American Inventive Genius. 

There seems to be a peculiar disposition 
manifested among American mechanics and 
inventors to accomplish everything possible 
by automatic machinery. An observer in an 
American machine-shop or factory will see 
many things done by machinery here, which 
in other and older countries is done by hand. 
This fact is becoming very marked; but 
whether to the healthful advantage of mechan- 
ical progress or not, is not yet altogether 
clear. 

This desire to carry machinery to the utmost 
limits of mechanical possibility, in the way of 
automatic action, not unfrequently leads to 
complication in our machinery, a desire or 
necessity for building it too light — to crowd 
in the greatest number of movements and 
largest amount of efficiency, with the least 
weight of metal. This practice is made more 
urgent by reason of the higher price of labor 
here. Our inventive faculties are seeking to 
make us independent of cheap lal>or. 



A CEMENT of great adhesive quality, particu- 
larly serviceable in attaching thu brass mount- 
ings on glass lamps, as it is unaffected by pe- 
troleum, may be prepared by boiling three 
parts of resin with one part of caustic soda, 
and five parts of water, thus making a kind of 
soap which is mixed with one-half its weight 
of plaster of Paris. Zinc white, white lead, or 
precipitated chalk, may be used instead of the 
plaster, but when they are used the cement 
will be longer in hardening. 



The Mining and Scientific 
Press Marching Onward! 

Our careful system of compiling, JudlciouBly con 
densing, and conveniently arranging into regular de 
partments, has been heartily endorsed. It renders th 
paper worth more to readers, who can find handily tba 
which interests them most. 

The weekly Issues of the PaKss will contain reliable 

Information for Practical Miners, 

Treating on the Opening of Mines ; Mining of Ores ; 
Milling of Ores; Smelting of Ores; Separation and 
Boasting of Ores ; Amalgamation ; Saving of Gold and 
all precious Metals ; New Processes of Metallurgj-; New 
Discoveries of Mines; Mining Engineering and Hy- 
draulics. 

For Inventors, Mechanics and Manufac- 
turers. 

All new and Important developments In Scientiflc 
and Mechanical Progress ; Patents and Inventions of 
the Pacific States ; Progress of Home Industries ; Hints 
for Local Manufacturers ; Illustrations of New Ma- 
chinery ; Reports of Popular Scientiflc and Industrial 
Lectures. 

Our Mining Summary 

Gives the progress of mining work from week to week 
in the various counties and districts throughout the 
principal mining regions of the United States, arranged 
In alphabetical order. It Is the most extensive record 
of mining operations published In the world. It affords 
the intelligent miner a rare opportunity to know and 
profit by the work and experience of hia neighbors. 
Miners have few sources of practical information in 
their calling, and shovild embrace every reliable means 
for improvement. Mining Operators and Shareholders, 
at home and abroad, weekly examine our Sxunmary with 
increased interest and profit. 

Our " Domestic Economy" 

Embraces new and important facts which should b« 
known in every cabin and household. Short and inter- 
esting — the articles under this heading are freely read 
and practiced with profit and improvement to the read- 
ers. 

The Pbess 1 not strictly s " paper for professional, 
scientific men," but rather a 

Liberal and Popular Scientific Journal, 

Well calculated to make practically scientific men from 
our intelligent masses. This is our stronghold for ac- 
complishing good. Plain, correct and pleasing language, 
easily comprehended by all, confined mostly to short 
articles, is our endeavor. 

For Self-Improvement, 

Every issue of the Pbess abounds with articles of an 
elevating character, to stimulate the higher virtues and 
natures and progressive intellects of both men and 
women. 

Hundreds of Dollars 

Are oftentimes saved to the readers of this paper by a 
single hint or article of information in its columns. 
Such instances have been repeatedly reported to the 
editors and proprietors during their long connection 
with the Pbesb. Onr paper presents 

The New and Novel Developments 

In the progress of this comparatively new section of the 
Union (but recently settled and now rapidly increasing 
with a population of the most intelligent and venture- 
some people, attracted from nearly every quarter and 
clime on the globe) , enable us, with due enterprise, to 
display vigor and freshness in our columns not met 
with in similar journals elsewhere. The same circum- 
stances also render such a paper more especially valu- 
able to its readers in a new, and to a certain measure, 
untried field, where the best methods and processes of 
industry are not so well established or traditionally 
known as in older communities. Published experiences 
often save costly experiments and disastrous results. 

A Great Variety of Industrial Information, 

In brief and fresh form, suited to the wants and tastes 
of the readers of this coast, which is not obtainable 
otherwise so timely, or in so cheap and convenient 
form. As an industrial publication, meeting the wants 
of so many kindred industries, this journal stands pre- 
eminent and without a precedent. 

Subscriptions payable in advance — $4 per annum. 
Single copies, post paid, 10 cents. Address 

DEWEY & CO., 
Mining and Scientific Pbess and Pacutc Rc- 
BAL Pbess Office, 338 Montgomery St., S. F. 



Journal of Commerce 

— AND— 

IHERCANTILE DIRECTOR. 

We desire to draw public attention to'the fact that the 
"Pacific Ooaht Mercantile Dibectob" is now known 
aH the Han Frunclaco Joanuil of Commerce and 
Mercantile Director.** 

It 14 a new 8-paee monthly newspaper, of special in- 
formation for wholesale and retail tradesmen. It also 
contains reading matter of interest and importance to all 
business and professional men on the coast 

OUR TABLE OF CONTENTS 
Comprises Full Prices Cnrrent and Monthly Review of 
the Wholeaale Markets; Diagrams of the Fluctuations of 
the Wheat Markets; liates of Ocean Freight— corrected 
monthly; Illustrations and Sketches of Prominent Men 
and RuildinKs; Kditorials on Manufacturing and Industrial 
ProKress; Departments containing appropriate reading 
matter and reviews for various branches of trade, including 
"Grocery and Provision;" "Dry Goods;" "Drugs," "Build- 
ing;" "Trades and Manufactures," etc., etc. 

Our first issues consist of 8 pages, embracing FORTY- 
EIGHT Columns of important reading matter forTrades- 
men— mostly original and by first-class writers. Sample 
copies, post paid. 10 cU. Yearly subscription, in adrance, 
$1.60. Subscribers to the Mining and Scientific Pbess or 
the Pacific Rural Pbess will be supplied at half price. 

PubUsbedby MTTRRAY, DE"WEY & CO., 

At the Publishing Office of the Mining and Scientific Press 
and Pacific Rural Press, San Francisco. 



ErEBT farmer in Callfomia ahould be a reader of the 
Paoifio Bukal Pbksb. It Is an agricultural paper of 
great excellence. The subBciiptlon price is $4 a year, 
but we have made arrangements with the publishers 
whereby we can furnish the Rural Pbess and the Flag 
together for $6 a ye^r.—Healdsburg Flag. 

We will change the address free for an/ subscriber 
who notifies us in writing of his netc address, with the OLD 
P. O. address to enable us to find his name among thous- 
ands of others. 



No Life Insobance Company has a betterrecord or more 
permanently popular reputation than the CoNNEiTiroT 
Mutoal Life Insurance Go. J. B. Roberts, 315 California 
Street. San Francisco, is general agent for this Coast. 
Send to him for circulars and Intormatlon of this reliable, 
flrstr-class company. 

Jesse A. Piebce is not our agent at present* 



July 5, 1873.] 



^Ami 



1? 



Wheat Market Quotations Compared. 



Apa.19. 
•• 21., 
•' 22., 
,. 23. , 
" 24.. 
" 25., 
" 26. . 
" 28.. 
'• 29.. 
" 30.. 

May 1 . 



9 . 
" 10.. 
'■ 12.. 
" IS.. 
'• 14.. 
" 15.. 
" 16.. 
'• 17.. 
" 19.. 
" 20.. 
" 21.. 
■• 22. . 
" 23.. 
" 24.. 
•• 19.. 
" 27.. 
" 28.. 
" 29.. 
■• 30.. 
" 31 . 
.lUN. 2.. 

3.. 
" 4.. 

.■) . 

6.. 

7.. 

9.. 
•• 10.. 
" 11.. 
•• 12.. 
" 13. 
'■ 14.. 
" 1».. 
" 17.. 
" 18.. 
" 19 . 
" 20.. 
•• 21.. 
" 23. . 
" 2t.. 
•' 2!).. 
•• 26.. 
" 27.. 
" 28.. 



•• 30... 

JULT I... 



8. F. 



1 825^ 

182;^ 

1 82H 
1 82^ 
1 82Si 
1 82!^ 
1 82Ji 
1 BI2'4 
1 »Hi 



1 82'.^ 
1 82J^ 
1 82!,^ 
1 91',^ 
1 91S^ 
1 90 
1 00 
1 90 
1 90 
1 90 
1 90 
1 90 
1 92M 
1 92)i 
1 90 
1 90 
1 90 
1 90 
1 821^ 
1 82;^ 
1 80 
1 80 
180 

1 aVA 

1 »2'A 
1 82'A 

1 e2H 

1 82*^ 
1 82'^ 
1 80 
1 80 
1 80 
1 80 
1 77^ 

1 va 

1 72^ 
1 «7,'--i 

1 er'i 

1 (iT'i 

1 Rm 

1 my^ 

1 65 

1 6.5 

1 65 

1 85 

1 6TA 

1 67>^ 

I Ria 

1 6TA 
1 67K 



1 6VA 
1 67>^ 



Xilverpool. 



2 8.!@2 95ii 



2 81 32 93^ 
■2'85@2'98" 
'2'89@3 62' 
'2'87@i'66" 



2 89®2 93 
'2'9i@303' 
'2'95@3'd3' 
■2'99@3'ii' 



3 01@3 13 
'2'99®3'ii' 
'3'6i@3i3' 



2 87@2 91 1 21^ 

2 87(i2 91 ' 1 2\'A 



siar. Bet. 



Mail S. F. 
& Tel & Tel. 



9 



'iiii 



'li 



9i'A 

9515 

96|i 

99'| 
1.02>^ 
IM'A 
1.02M 
1.04 '4 
l.Wi 

1.04^ 

lOii 1.04M 
IMA 
1 9H'/2 

95 



1.01 
1.01 

"\m" 

1.05 

1.01^ 

1.03!^ 

1.06 

1.05 

l.OS 

1.08 

I.IOJ^ 

\.WA 

1.13 

1.13 

1.13 

1.10;^ 

1.14^ 

1.14!^ 

IM'A 

IM'A 

IMA 

1.21 

1.20 

1.20 

1 20 

1.22!^ 

1.22!^ 

1.22'^ 

1.26)^ 

1.26,'-^ 

1.23'4 

i:a'A 

1.23A 

1.26 

1.26 

1.26 

1.26 

1.25^ 

1.25)^ 

1 22!^ 

1 21!^ 

1 21!^ 



*— The quotatioDsgiven by telegraph to the AsBoctated 
Press are mainly those of what are called by the agent of 
the Associated Pre?f8 Average California Wheat. In a 
few instances Ciub are given. 

+— These are quotations of California wheat in Liverpool, 
taken from the " Mark Lane Express." 

II — These ditferenccs are those between the mean price of 
California wheat in Liverpool as annou.icod by telegraph 
to the As.-^ociutcd Press and aspublished in thC'MarkLane 
Express,'* In all cases the "Mark Lane Express" shows 
higher price.s than the telegraph. 




At wholesale when not otherwise Indicated. 



Weekly Market Review. 

[By our own Reporter.] 
DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

San Fkancisco, July 1, 1873. 
The old harvest year Ib now closed, and the new one 
is in. Comparing it with the previous year, the results 
of the former sink into insignificance, we having ex" 
ported more than four times as much Wheat in the 
harvest year of 1872 and 1873, as in that of 
1871 and 1872. The price obtained, however, has 
been far less — even the market price for export 
Wheat is considerably lower than it was at this time 
last year. Such a year of abundance, and withal dissatis- 
faction, monetory scarcity and business depression, has 
not been seen for a long time in California. And th e 
former, strange as it may seem, may be attributed in a 
great measure to the latter. The quantity of Wheat 
that had to be paid for in gold coin tended 
to make money scarce, the prosi)ect of a great 
crop caused excessive importation of foreign 
goods, and the great quantity of wheat requiring 
to be moved caused freight to rise to an un- 
precedented figure. In the latter matter the Rural 
Pbess fought well the battles of the farmer, and hrl the 
Katisfaction at last to find that owing amongst other 
things to its exposure of freight rings, that freights 
were brought down at last to a reasonable standard. 
Also in the matter of the correctness of the Market Re- 
ports sent here by telegraph through the medium of the 
Associated Press, it brought home the fraud to the per- 
petrators despite their efforts to cover up their tracks 
But in this matter as in many others, private interests 
continue to outweigh the weight of public opinion, and 
the practice is still continued unblushingly. We also 
advocated the utility and necessity of California own- 
ing ships of her own, built on the Pacific Coast. 
This matter needs attention now as much as ever, 
especially when it is considered that, in anticipation of 
tonnage demands, freights have al eady, and early in 
the beginning of the season, gone up to £5. The year 
begins with good business and crop prospects, but the 
same fight has still to be made, as there had to be made 
last harvest year. 

Receipts. 
Receipts being for only five days of the week can- 
not well be compared with those of last, we may say, how- 
ever, that in most articles of Domestic Produce, they 
show a decrease when compared with it. Flour, Bar- 
ley, Onions and Potatoes show a slight increase, while 
the receipts of Wine, even for the last five working days , 
show au increase more than double that of the previous 
week. But receipts of Wheat, Hides, Hay, and Bran 
are decidedly small. 

We summarize receipts of Bay Produce for the week 
up to date as Flour, 11,830 quarter sacks; Wheat, 35,302 
centals; Barley, 6,110 do; Oats, 100 do; Potatoes, 10,633 
do; Beans, 6 do; Bran, 2,C24 do; Middlings, 01 do; On- 
ions, 794 do; Hydes, 1,434; Wool, 6fi bales; Hay, 585 
tons; Straw, 29 do; Wine, 47,235 gallons; and Brandy, 
190 gallons. 



Receipts of Wheat at Oakland Wharf aggregate 15,400 
centals, or 77 car loads. Receipts of Coast Produce ag- 
gregate 160 centals of Wheat; 2,377 do of Barley; 4,600 
do of Oats; 2,517 do of Corn; 1,502 do of Potatoes; 431 
do of Beans ; 7 bales of Wool; 171 centals of Rye; 10 
barrels, 11 puncheons, 4 casks, pipes and one three- 
fourth pipe of Wine, and 1 barrel and 1 pipe of Brandy. 
Barley. 

Receipts aggregate 8,487 sacks. The new crop will 
be good. Prices have not improved. We note sales of 
1,800 bags Dark Coast at $1.12 J<i; 2,500 bags do of Coast 
andjNew Feed at $1.15; 1,050 do Bay Feed at $1.15 to 
$1.17 Jii; 380 do Bay Feed at $I.17J!i; 1,000 do at $1.20; 
300 do Brew at $1.25, and 400 at $1.32Ji. 

From Portland, by the " John L. Stephens," we have 
received 406 cases, 735 packages, and 2 tierces of Salmon ; 
5,73f quarer sacks and 2,209 half sa-'ks of Flour; 477 
bales and 266 bags of Wo il and 30 Hides. 
Butter. 

Receipts have been fair this week. Eastern is not 
quoted. Prices remain without change. 
Cheese. 

There is enough Cheese in the market, and there is 
good demand, but last week's prices still holds good . 
Flour. 

The market continues dull and monotonous, and 
without change in prices. Exijorts have been only 
nominal, consisting of 204 barrels, 140 half sacks and 
500|quarter sacks to China and Japan, by the " Mac- 
Gregor." 

Hay. 

Receijjts chiefly of Wheat have fallen oft' this week. 
Prices are a little firmer. We note sales of 2 cargoes of 
wild and tame Oat at $12.50; a cargo of Volunteer at 
$11.50; a cargo of good Clover at |$12; 25 tons of choice 
Wheat at $15; 2 cargoes of good Wheat at $15; and one 
of tame Oat at $13.50. 

Hops. 

In England and Germany the hopes of a good season 
have been disappointed. Emmet Well's New York cir- 
cular of June 19th, says: 

The almost entire abscence of demand in the face of 
the threatening aspect of the Euglish crop is something 
unprecedented in the history of the trade. There is 
literally nothing doing. The receipts have fallen oft' to 
almost nothing, and no concessions in price appear to 
offer any inducement for buyers to take hold. Our quo- 
tations, therefore, are merely nominal. Nothing sliort of a 
bad turn to our own crop will be likely to add stimulus to 
this market. At this writing, the prospect bids fair for 
as good a yield as last year. If it don't exceed la^t 
year's, of course we must depend largely upon Europe 
to make up our deificiency. True, many new yards have 
been set out all over the country, yet it is believed that 
the acreage has been equally reduced by the freezing out 
and ploughing u;) of old yards. Under the most favor- 
able circumstances the American crop must be light; 
even should we escape the ravages of vermin and honey- 
dew, and prices are likely to rule quite as high as at any 
time during the past year. 

Taking all this into consideration, the California 
crop of 1873 should ommandgood profits. 
Oats. 

Oats will be lower when the new .'rop comes iu. We 
note sales of 700 bags of California Coast at $1.75; 300 
do free storage at $1.80; 300 do Oregon al $1.90, and 700 
do at $1.90 to $1.95. A large shipment from Coast Ports 
arrived yesterday. 

r'otatoes. 

Rrceipts of 5 days aggregate 12,175 sacks, chiefly Bay 

and interior. Prices have been di'oppiug a little during 

the week. We note sales of 200 bags of Half Moon Bay 

at $1.50 to $1.65, and 500 do Mission at $1.75 to $1.80. 

Wheat. 

Prices are weaker than they were last week, as the tone 
of the Liverpool market, according to telegrams received 
by Associated Press and Merchants' Exchange, has also 
weakened, the price there being now $2.87 to $2.91. 
Freights are nominally the same. We note sales of 400 
bags at $1.02 k; 7,000 do at $1.65 ; 3,000 do of Milling at 
$1.70; 7,000 do Choice Milling and Shipping at $1.75; 
400 do Distilling at $1.7754; and 13,000 do at private 
r.iti8. 

Exports this week have been confined to one cargo, 
that of the "Sebastian Bach," to Cork, of 25,104 centals, 
worth $44,000. 

Wool. 

Wool remains without much change. New York 
advices report the market quiet, without any particular 
activity. Manufacturers were buying slowly, just as 
they needed it. Western Wool, and those of Ohio, 
Pennsylvania and Michigan, brought 38c to 45c. 

GENERAL. MERCHANDISE. 

This being Fourth of July week m-ttters are rather 
quiet. Bags have improved in price during the last week. 
Detrick's machine sewed locally manufactured Grain 
Bags are helping a good deal to keep down the market. 
The stock of Case Goods is running low. Red Lead 
and Litharge have fallen 2 cents, while Venetian Red 
has fallen H cent. Exports have been small, only ag- 
gregating 5 cargoes, valued at $109,539. 

FRUIT MARKET. 

Fruits of all kinds are in plentiful supply, but the 
demand has advanced on account of the approach of 
the holidays, so that all save Apples and Oranges have 
advanced in price. 



San Francisco Retail Market Rates. 

Wed.vesdat Noon. July 3, 1.173 
FKUITS. VEGETABLES, ETC. 

All kinds of fruits are plentiful save Cherries, which 
are now getting scarce. Peaches are plentiful. Black 
Currants are just in and are 35 to 50 cents per pound. 
Vegetables of all varieties are plentiful. 



FKUIT MARKET. 

Tahail.Or."# luOO ^45 — 

Col. do @ 

Limes, ipiM.... @Z0 — 

Cal.Leraous,10U0.60 — @- — 

Messina do 8U — @ 

Bananas. 'J* bnch 3 Si 4 — 

Pineapples, '^ dz S 7 .iO 

Apple.-.eal'K, bx 1 00 ml .50 




Early Pear 

C'lierries 

Strawl>erries. 
'.Jooseberrlcs. 
Raspberries.. 

Currants 

Apricot-' 

Pears, Eatinu 
Pomegran's.'SlOO 



00 Wi 110 
(o\ 20 
(016 00 



- (m 

- 6f 
6 (& 

- '.oj 

- ® 



Grapes. Mis-'lon. — (3) — 
J)KIE» FRVIT. 

Apples, ij* «> 8 (* 9 

Pears, 1* BO 6 B» 



Peaches,^ lb.. 
Apricots, TS 111.. 

l"lums,# tt> 

Pitted, do fl lb. 
Raisin,", !}« lb... 
Black FiKs, 1* B) 

White, do 

VEG ETABI^ES. 

OabbaRC, W dz .50 ^{\h 

ciarlicl* tti 5 fqi 6 

Green Peas 2!-^fgi w 

Green (Jorn H doz.. 18 @25 
Marrowlat Siiuiish 

per ton T .W^- 
Artichokes. |( lb.. .. 2 M— 
Sirlni; Beau8,'|(n) ... 3 (^8 

Lima Beans \u. 

Peppers dry '20 ffl'iS 

Okra .10 ro)35 

Okra, Oreen — m(o 

Cucumbors.dz '25 (a35 



Apples, pr lb 6 

Pears, per lb 6 

Apricots, lb 8 

Peaches, lb 10 

PlneApples.eaL-h .50 
Bananas, ^doz.. "' 

Canteleups 

iilackberries. . .. 
C'al. Walnnts. lb. 
Cranberries, ^ g 
Strawberries. lb 
Raspberries, tb.. 
Gooseberries'*. .. 

Currants 

do Black 

Cherries,^ lb,.. 
Oranges,^ doz.. 75 
Limes, per doz .. 25 
Kigs. dried I'al. • 15 

Figs, fre.^^h 15 

Figs, Smyrna, tb 25 
Asparagus, lb.* lo 
Artichokes, doz. 25 

Beets, ?idoz '20 

Potatoes. New ^tti 2 
Potatoes, sweet,* 5 
Broccoli, "f, PC. 10 
Caulitlower.t .. 10 
Cabbage,^ doz.. 75 



25 § 
1'2^@ 



10 



25 @ 35 



Carrots, ^ doz. . . 
Celery,^ doz ... 
Cucumbers, d/.. . 
Tomatoes, ^ lb.. 

Green Peas 5 

.String Beans 5 

Egg Plant, tb.... - 

Cress, 3B doz bun 25 

Dried Herbs, doz 25 

Garlic 'j* tb - 

Green (Jorn, doz. 15 

Lettuce, fi doz. . '20 

Mushrooms,** lb 75 

Horseradish,^i{* B. — 

Okra, dried, it* lb 50 

do fresh. J* lb. 50 

Pumjikins. f* lb. 2 

Parsnips, doz .. . 21) 

Parsley '20 

Pickles,^ gal... .W 

Radishes, doz.. 20 

Summer Squash — 

Marrowfat, do. 2 

Hubbard, do. . 2 

Dry Lima. shl... — 

Spinage, IP bskt. 25 

Salsify, ^ bunch — 

Turnips.^ doz.- 20 

Rhub..rb 6 



25 CS 



\\ On 



POCLTKY. GAME, EISH. M FATS, ETC 

Chickens are rather scarce but the price is low. Poul- 
try of nearly all kinds are plentiful, but no prices can 
be obtained. The same may be said of Hare and Rab- 
bits. Salt Water Perch, Shrimps and Tom Cod are in 
good supply. All other Fish are scarce. There is, how- 
ever, no large demand, consequently prices are down. 



Chickens, apiece 50 

Turkeys, # lb. . 35 

MalACanvBk.pr. — 

Tame, do 1 00 

Teal, ^ doz.... — 

Geese, wild, pair. — 

Tame, ^ pair.. 75 

Snipe, % doz ... — 

Pigeons, dom. do — 

Wild, do — 

Hares, each ... — 

Rabbits, tamet, 75 

Wild,do,l(dz. 75 

Beef, tend. 1* lb. 20 

Corned, W lb.. 6 

Smoked,* Bi . 12.'; 

Pork, rib, etc.. Tb — 

Chops, do, i( lb 15 

Veal,§ lb 15 

Cutlet, do 15 

Mutton— chops.* — 
LegMutt.in, % lb 



&>.. 



50 

Jl 00 



20 ® — 

- @ - 

12'^ a - 

15 (a - 

12!^® — 

10 (o) - 



10 @ 

'■■5 



Lamb. H lb...... 12;2 



Tongues, beef. 
Tongues, pig, tb 
' d., % lb 



75 

10 @ - 

- @ 18 



16 



Bacon, Cal 
Hams, Oal, % !b 
Hams, Cross s — to 

Choice D'fBeld 20 ft) 

Whittaker's 



18 



Flounder, 
Salmon, ^ lb 

! Smoked, new,* 

Pickled, "# lb , . 

SalnK.iii bellies 

Rock Cod, *tb.. 

ICod Fish, dry, lb 
Perch, s water, lb 

' Fresh water, lb 
Lake Big. 'front* 
Smelts, laige1[*a> 
Herring, Sm'kd. 

iTomcod, ?f( lb.... 

Terrapin, %* doz.3 00 
Mackerel, p'k.ea 12, 

Fresh, do lb ... — (5) 
Sea Bass, ^ lb... — @ 

iHalibut 60 % 

Sturgeon, * lb.. 4 @ 

^Oysters, ft 100... 1 00 @ 
Cheap. ^ doz.. 75 a 

Turbot 50 @ 

Crabs » doz....l 00 @ 

Soft Shell 37H® 

Shrimps 10 

Sardines — 

Soles — 

Voung Trout — 

Young_SaIinon.. — 



8 10 

to ;)j 

m — 



m;isceli.a]veotjs. 

Corrected weekly by B. Sbardoko A Bko., Grocers, No. 531 
Washington street, San Francisco. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 



Butter, Cal. pr tb 25 
Cheese, <'al., lb.. 15 
Lard. Cal.. lb.... 12V^ 
Flour, ex.fam, bl 5 75 B>G ( 
Corn Meal, ».... 2;-<g^ 
Sugar, wli.crsh'd \\A 

do lt.brown,lb 10 
Coltee,Sbarboro's 

family gr'nd, lb 
Cofl'ee, green, tt... 18 
Tea, tineblk,.50,G5,75 
Tea,finstJap,.5,5,7.5, 90 
Candles, Ad maiit'e 17 

S'tap, Cal.. lb 

0an'd0-vsters,dz.2 50 „ 
* Per lb. tPer dozen 



Syrup.S F.Gol'n. 
Dried Apples.... 
Dr'd Ger.Prunes 
Di'dFigs, Oal... 
Dr'd Peaches.. .. 
Oils, Kerosene .. 

Ekbs 

do Eas^tern _ 

Wines. Old Port 3 .50 

do Fr. Claret..l UO 

do Cal ,dz.bot 3 00 

Whisky,O.B,gal.3 ,50 

Fr. Brandy 4 00 

Rice, lb 10 

Veast Powders, dz.l .50i 
If Per gallon. 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 




BAGS. 

Eng. stand. Wh't I4M@ HJs 
Detrick'sMacli'e 

Sewed. 22 x 36, 

Gilroy E 13!4i 

do, 2'.!x36, do W 14 

do. '22x10, do... 
Flour Sacks A^-- 

" yis. 

stand. Gunnies.. 

" Wool Sacks. 

" Barley do... 
Hessian 15-in.gd8 

do 60 

Burlaps, vard „ ^, 

CAJVifEB GOO 
Asst dPie Fruits 

ill 2'6 lb cans. 3 00 

do 'Table do .. 4 — @ 4 
Jams & Jellies 4 — @ 4 25 
Pickles S gl.. — ® 3 60 

COAL— JobtolnB. 
Australian, ^tolil3 — toU — 
Goose* Bel. Bay. 8 60 @10- 

Seattle 13 (lO (g) — 

Cumberl'd, cks..25 00 (a> — 

do bulk... M'25— 

Lehigh .20 00 @ — 

Liverpool 11 00 @12— 

West Hartley. ...14 00 (od'j- 

Scotch 12 00 @14— 

Scran ton .,15 00® — 

Vancouver's Isl.. 12 00 @14 — 
Charcoal, '^sk... 75® — 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Island 19>^@ — 
Gosta Rica per lb 

Guatemala 

Java 

Manilla 

Ground in cs. . . 

i;hicory 8 

FISII. 
Pac.Dry Cod, new — 

cases 8 

Eastern Ood 9A 

Salmon inbblB..8 00 1 

do A bbl84 50 ( 

do 2J^ft cans — 

do 21b cans.. — 

do lib leans .2 00 

Pick. Cod. bbls.. — m — 

do A bids. — @ — 

Boson Smoked.. — ® — 

Herr'g, box — 60 @ — 
Mack'l.No.l.'^bls - (<fi 9 80 

Extra — (5) — 

in kits.... 2 00 'ga ISO 
mess 2 8;>^@2 .50 

" ex. mess.. — toi4 00 

1VAI1.S. 

Assorted size. lb. !>%(^ 9 — 

OILS. 
Pacific Glue Co. 

Neat F't No. 1. — fn) — 

Pure 1 25 (^ - 

Castor Oil, No. 1..1 45 tol .50 

do do N0.2..1 35 '-' "' 

Cocoa Nut t.0 

Olive Plagniol..5 00 

do Po.sBel....4 75 
Palm 9 

do Bagicalupi. — 

Linseod 1 05 

t'hina nut in cs.. 75 
Sporm, crude, ...I 25 

do bleached. 1 90 «!) 
Coast Whales... 40 (a» 
Polar, refilled.. . . 65 (a/ — 

Ijird 9.5 (s» - 

Coal, refined Pet 37>4(3» '" 

Oleophine yiA°i 40 

Devoe's Bril't... 43 M 45 

Long Island iViM 40 

Eureka 37>iW 40 



20 @ - 

- @ 23 

19 a - 

•nA» — 

8 ® - 



§5 00 



3)3 .50 

2)2 20 




m 40 
a - 



bl 10 



80 



45 



Downer Kerose'e .'iO @ .52'o 

Gas Light Oil.... 37,'«r«) 40" 
rAINTS. 

Allan. W.Lead. ll,',^Ca 

Whitening 

Chalk 

Paris White 

Ochre 

Venetian Red... 

Red Lead 

Litharge 

RICE. 

China No. 1, ^ lb 6,',;iS) 
do 2. do. 6 & 

Japan 5}-!® 

Patna '' @ — 

Hawaiian 8 @ 8K 

SALT. 

Cal. Bay .per ion. 5 00 @15- 

Carnien Island.. 14 00 f«.10— 

Liverpool line.. .'25 00 (<i26— 
do coarselO 00 ©20— 
SOAP. 

Castile ^ lb 9A@ U 

Local brands 5?4® 7 

SPICES. 

Allspice, per fi).. 153^@ 16 

Cloves 35 @ 37',^ 

C.issia 30 (ax 

Nutmeg. 1 15 iT 

Whole Pepper... 

Ground Allspice 
do Cassia . . 
do Cloves.. 
do Mustard 30 
do Ginger.. 2.5 
do Popper.. 27 '^i 
do Mace....l 30 (c 
do Coll'ee.. — wft — 
StJGAK, ETC. 

Oal. Cube per lb. 11 (^ — 

Circle A crushed H ™ — 

Dry granulated 10'i@ — 

Extra do lO'n® — 

Golden O 9'i.(rtt — 

Hawaiian '20 "(5) 22',^ 

Cal. Syrup in bis. .52'ij@ — 

do in A bis. .55 (S — 

do In kegs., eu 0) — 

TEA. 

Oolong,Canton,lb 19 @ '25 
do Amoy... 28 ® .50 
do Formosa 40 wt 8il 

Imperial, Canton 25 (m 40 
do P.ngsuey 45 
do Moyune . 60 

Gunpo'dor.Oant. 
do Pingsney 60 
do Moyune. 65 _„ 

Y'ngHy., Canton 28 @ 40 
do Pingsuey 
do Moyune.. 65 ^ 86 

Japan, A onests, 
bulk 30 @ 76 

Japan.lacquered 
bxs,4,'^and51bs 48 (tj) 67 

Japan do,3 lb bis 45 ($ 90 
do prnbx,4)^Ib 35 M 65 
do ^Al lb paper 30 (rS .55 
TOBAi'tO— Jobbliiit. 

Brillllt Navys. . 

Dark do ... 

Dwiuf Twist... 

12 inch do . . . 

Liuht Pressed. 

Hard do 

Conn. Wrap'r.. 

I'enn. Wrapper 

Obi.) do 

Vrigi'aSmok'g 

Fine ct che'g,gr..8 .50 S'O '2.5 

Fine cut cliew- 
l-..g, bnc't8.'PIb..75 M HO 

Banner line cut.. 9 25 @ — 

Eureka Gala 9 60 @ — 





Wednksdat m., July 3, 1873. 




BEANS. 

Beans, sm'l wli. lb Ol^^fd) 7 

do, butter 6 (w — 

do, large, do... 7 @ — 

do, bayo i^a® '^'M 

uo, pink i\i^ 3 '4 

do, pea 6'-(^ 7 

BKOOM CORN. 

Per ton «60@1.5I) 

BAIRY PRODUCE. 
Butter,Cal.lr.<h. lb- 
do, ordin'y roll 2S 
do, choice .... 
do, new tlrUin. 
do. pickled . . . 
do. Western ... 
Cheese. C'al new 
do. Eastern . .. 
Eggs. t'al. fresh 

do, Oregon 

do. Eastern . . . 

FEED. 

Bran per ton '22 6"@ 

Middlings 29 —($ 

Hay 12 -.316 - 

Straw 12 60a 

Oil cake meal... 30 — M— — 

Corn Meal 31) -i^ 

FLOUR. 
Alviso Mills, bbl .4 26 (a)5 75 

Calil'oi'nia 4 25 (*5 75 

Oily .Mills 4 .50 @5 75 

Comme'l Mills.. 4 SO (<}!5 75 

Golden Gate 4,50 «J5 73 

Golden Age 4.50 @5 75 

National Mills, ,4 .50 @5 75 
SanteClaiaMills 4 .'Jl ®5 75 
Genesie Mills... 4 .50 ®5 15 

Oregon 4 50 fe5 75 

Vallejo Star 4 ,50 tas 75 

Venus, Oakland, .4 .50 ® . 75 
Stockloii City...4 to ®5 75 
Lombard. Sue. .4 50 ^75 

FRF>iH BIEAT. 

Beef, fr quality. .lb 7 @ 8 

do, second do. . 6 to — 

do, third do.... 5 ® 6 

Veal 7 g) 8 

Mutton 6 la 6); 

Pork, undressed. 7K@ 7J. 

do, dressed 10 (j2) 11 

GRAIN, ETC. 

Wh'tC.-d. c'st.cl.l 60 m K5 

do, shinning.. 1 85 @1 TO 

do, milling I 7ii fc,- — 

Barley. DarkO'stl 12'i;@i 15 

do. Light .1 15 @1 17'; 

do. Brewing... 1 '25 @1 35 

Oats, Dark 1 70 (8|1 HO 

do, Light I 70 @i 80 

do Oregon 1 80 f« I ;H) 



SiA 



32 (n) .33 

ill iS tlii 
VV^ai \-iA 




Corn, While I n'iM 30 

do. Yellow 1 2JJ^(ai 30 

Buckwheat 1 '25 (ffi — 

Bye 2 00 S - 

HOPS. 

('aliriirnia,lH7l,lb — (A 

do 1872... 50 l&- - 

i;a=tern. 1972.1b.. liO .^ ... 

MISCELLANEOUS, 
Beeswax. per lb.. 32 
Honey, ehol.-e.. 
Lob Aug. Honey 

New Onions 

Flaxseed 

anary do 

Mustard do, wile 

.I'l, bruwn 

Alfalia 

Ky. Blue Grass.. 

'iraothy 

Italian Rve 

Perennial do 

NUTS, 
Peanuts per llj,.. 
(Jhile Walnuts.. 

P.caii nuts 

Hickory d > 

Brazil do 

Ooc'»«ut8,^10iO.. 
Alm'dsh'rdshc 

do, soft _ ^ 

POTATO KS. 

Sweet, per lb — (SI — 

New - rail 87Ji 

tlo CulTee t'ove — (5)1 60 

do H. M. Bay., I 25 (oil 60 

do Missiiin 1 00 (iil 10 

POULTRY A GAME. 
Live Turkeys lb. '22 (3) — 
Hens, per dz, , , 9 .50 (a) — 

Roosters 7 00 (<Xi — 

Spr".i cliickei.s, . — ^100 

Broilers. — gs OO 

Ducks, tamc.doz7 i^O (^ — 
Geese, per pair. — (mt '25 
Hare, per doz... 3 00 (a) — 
Snipe, Eng., doz — (g)2 25 

Rabbits 1 60 ®1 75 

niso'i. per lb. . — {lii — 
PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, per lb llJi@ 13 
Eastern do 12H(a — 

do sugared 12i^ftl) 13,'3 

Cal. Hams - @ U 

Eastern old 10 Si — 

Cal. Smoked Beef 10 &, 
WOOL, ETC. 
Spriliu, short.tb, 

do choice Nort 

Burry 

Hides, diy 

do wet salted 
Tallow 



11 




LUMBER MARKET. 




PUGET SOUNB PINE 

—Retail Price. 

Rough, tf*M $18 00 

Flooring and Step, ^ M 30 00 
Flooring, narrow, 1^. M.. 35 00 
Floorini;, 2d quality M..'« 00 

Laths, t^M 3 00 

t'urrlng, 17I lineal ft.... '•}% 
RouKli rotuse. ■f,>\ 10 

R ED "WOOB-Retall. 
Rough Pickets, "t* M.... 18 00 
Bough Pieket-s, p'd, M.. '20 00 

Fancy I'inkets, 5* M .10 00 

Sidin;;, "# M 25 Oil 

Tongucd ami Grooved, 

surf.iced, "# M 35 00 

Do do refuse, '»i\ '27 .50 

Hall-inch surfaced. M.. 3T .50 

Rustic, IB M 37 .50 

Battens. f,_ lineal foot. . . 1 
fihingles «* M 3 00 



CARGO PRICES OF 
REDWOOD. 

Rough, f. M »'20 00 

Rough refuse, f. M 16 00 

Rough clear. ^ M 32 .50 

Routth clear refuse, M,. 22 .50 

Rustic,^ M 3500 

Buslic, reluse, iA M 24 00 

Surfaced,^ M 32 .50 

Surfaced reluse, W .M... '22 ,50 

Flooring, if* M 30 00 

Floorini;. refuse, ^ M.. '20 00 
Beaded flooring, %( M... 32 .50 
Beaded tlo:.r, reluse, M. 22 .50 

Haif-inch Siding, M 22 ,50 

Half-inch siding, ref, M. 16 00 
Half-inch, Surlaci'd,M. 25 00 
Half-inch Sur;". rel.. M . 18 00 
H.alf-inch Battens. M,.. '22 .50 
Pickets, rough, T{( M.... 14 00 
Pickets, rough, p'ntd... 16 00 

Pickets, fancy, p'ntd 22 .50, 

Shingles. ^M 3 00| 

Leather Market Report. 

I Reported for the PitEss by Dolliver A Bro.l 

San Francisco, Wednesday, July .I 1873. 
Trade in all kinds of stock has been exceedingly quiet 
and prices are the same, as a general rule. Money con- 
tinues scarce, but an improvemcut is hoped for on the 
incoming harvest. 

City Tanned Leather, ?* lb 26W29 

Santa Cruz Leather, I* lb '26@29 

Country Leather, ^ Si 2.5ia'28 

Stockton Leather,^ lb 26C3'29 

Jodat,8 Kil., per doz t50 OOffli 54 00 

Jodot, 11 tol9Kil.,perdoz 66 00® 85 OU 

Jodot, second choice. 11 to 16 Kil. '^ doz. 55 00(3 70 00 

Levin, 12 and 13 Kil., per doz 68 00(3 70 00. 

Cornellian, 12 to IH Ko S7 00® 67 00 

Oornellian Females, 12 to 13 60 OtKS 64 00 

Cornelian Fi males. 14 to 16 Kil 66 ifl® 72 00 

Beaumcrville, 15 Kil 60 00@ 

Ogeran 'Jalf, fe doz .54 OOTo) 

Simon, 18 Kil..f, doz 80 00@ 62 00 

Simon, -20 Kil. * doz «5 00® 67 00 

Simon. 24 Kil. * doz 72 00® 74 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 35 00(a 40 00 

I'rench Kips, ^ lb I lO® 130 

California Kip, « doz 60 00 to SO 00 

French Sheep, all colors, V doz 8 (KW 15 00 

EastornCalf for Backs, •» lb 1 lOia) 126 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, ^ doz. ... 9 00(S) 13 00 

Sheep Roans for Linings, « doz 5 .50^ 10 ,50 

California Russett Sheep Linings 1 7.5(«) 5,50 

Best Jodot Calf Boot Legs, ^ pair 6 '259 

Good French Ciilf Boot Logs, ',)* pair 4.50(0) 5 00 

French Calf Boot LeKS,W pair I 00® -_— 

tiamess Leather, 1ft lb ~" 

Fair Bridle Leather, "^ doz. 

Skirting Leather, 'fi lb 

Welt Leather, » doz 

UuiT Leather, ^ foot 

Wax Side Leather. * foot.. 
Eastern Wax r,»"»t>«r . . , 



S0(«) 


72 oJ 


48 00® 

34® 

30 00| 


so'wl 


21(2 


2.5 


17^ 


19 


26 





San Francisco Metal Market. 

Wednesday, . I uly ;i, 1873. 
Iron.- 

Scotch Pig Iron.Vlon $.55 00 ® 67 .50 

White Pig, 'P ton .55 00 ® 57 50 

Relinod liar, bad assortment, IHIb ^a — 06 

Refined liar, good assortment, T« B ® — OO.S 

Boiler. No. 1 to 4 — 08)<® — Oh 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 — OB)J® — 07 

Sheet, No. 10 to 13 — 07>4ia 

Sheet. No. 14 to '20 —08 ® — 08>( 

Shoot, No. '24 to 27 — 08 @ — 09 

Horse Shoes, per keg 9 00 m 

Nail Bod II ® 

Norway Iron 9 

Rolled Iron »A 

Oilier Irons for Blaclumittas, Miners, etc. 6)^® 9>t 

OOPl'ER.- 

Braziers — 3* @ — S8 

Cooper Tin'd —60 ® 

O.Nlel's Pat — 55 @ 

Sheathing, W lb ®— 29 

Sheathing, Yellow — 28 ffl — 29 

Sheathing. Old Yellow @ — I2)j 

Composition Nails — 39 ^30 

Composition Bolts — JO — 30 

Tin Plates.— 

Plates. Charcoal, IX * box 14 80 ® 18 — 

Plates, I < 1 < ,'harooal 13.50 l4 - 

Roofing Platfls 13 00 13 1V 

BancaTin, Slabs, !» lb — 40 — J2'~ 

Steel.— English Cast, ?» lb —20 —2! 

Drill 20 

FlatBar '22 

Plomth Point* 16 -17 

Russia (for nioald boards) 17 18 

Zinc 9X 10 

Zino. Sheet — « -10 

Nails— Assortfld sizes — 6H® — 9 



We will chancie the aduhess fiiek for any subscriber 
who no. HI- 8 us in writing of his nnc address, wllh the OLD 
P. (), aildn ss to enable U4 to Hod his name anions thous- 
ands- of oili.-rs. 



For the very Best Photogrraphs go to BRAD 

LEY fc RtJLOFHON'S G.\LLERY, with au "Elevator,' 
429 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 20vl"eowbp3iu 



14 



[July 5, 1873. 



meBWi^ii* aRfiei»i|. 



Fo the Harvest of 1873. 



4lS€M% 








Tlie ".SITNA" i>* tUu latest aud best Mower or Self- 
Rako Reaper in the country. 

It poSHcsses not only aix the advantages of everj' other 
Imiirovcd machine, but has that which no other has— a 
Patent double motion, by which (simply on moving 
a lever at the hand of the lUiver, either a fast or slow 
speed may be given the knives or sickles in a moment, 
and without In the least disturuing the ordinary gait of 
the team. 

Treadwell & Co.'s list of Harvesting Ma- 
chines 
embraces the Standard Improved Machines of Ihe coau- 
Iry, fresh from the manufactory this year. 

.SE T rv ..v 

Mowers and Self-Rake Reapers, 

Haines' Headers, Ithaca Horse Rakes, 

Hoadley's Engines, Pitts Horse Powers, 

Russell Separators, Whtewater Wagons, 

Kirby and McCormick Mowers and Reap- 
ers, Russell Horse Powers, Cultivators, 
Header Trucks, Hay Presses, Barley Forks, 
Hay Cutters, Victor Hay Forks, Hand Rakes, 
Scythes, Snaths, and every description of Im- 
proved 

Agricultural Implements, 

And a fresh stocL nf 
H. A.TX X) \W ^V It >i . 

ȣ7"0ur headers are built this season, and have all the 
Improvements for 1873, with also the Doane Patent 
Adjustable Reel. Our UusscU Separators have the 
LaufenberK Patent End-Shake Shoe when de- 
sired. K^Please send for circulars and prices. 

TREADWELL & CO., 

At the 1 Comer Market and Fremont 8treot=, 
Old Stand,} SAN FRANCISCO. 

VrS-Sm 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 

American Chief Gang Plow. 



Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match In Stockton, In 1S70. 

This Plow l8 thoronghly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what Is re- 
quired in the constmction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adjusted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Oang Plow 
In the world. Send for circular to 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 
Stockton, Cal. 



THE BAIN WAGONS. 




'Ihese Wagons are now recognized as 

Tin Best Farm and Freight Wagons 

IN THIS M.UiKET, 
being made particularly for this climate. 
We are now receiving a full stock of 
Farm Wagrons, 

Freight Wag-ons, .and 

Header Wagons. 

SEND FOR A LIST OF PRICES TO 

BAK£R & HAMILTON, 

19v6-!)m Sacramento and San Francisco, 



THE WHITEWATER WAGON. 

PRICES.— Thimble Skein, 3 inch, $100; :i^ uk1i,$105; :ik iu*^^h.$llO; 3^ inch, $115; 4 inch, $126 
—including, in each cabe, wapon gearing coiuph;te. with whilHetrees, neck yoke and stay chains. Beds, Brakes, 
Seats, etc., $40 to $50, complete, according to style. Iron Axle, $130 to $185, according to size. 

AVe invito the attention of buyer» to the superior workmanship and finish of these justly celebrated WaRODs. They 
are known throughout the West, and have lon»c taken the lead of all others; and ever since fin>t introduced tu the Cali- 
fornia farmer, have given the most complete aatisf action. The timber is of the choicest selection. Accnntl (n*om th, and 



th«* iron used the best that can 
be obtained. The manufactur- 
ers say: "A thorough Hystem 
of inspection is strictly ad- 
hered to. BO that we are pre- 
pared to warrant each i)art to 
ne perfect; if defective, it will 
be replaced without charge. 
Wt! claim by uetuiil te*it a 

SAVIN(» OF FlfTEEN PKK CKNT. 

in DK.^FT over itny other 
Wutfon offered I'or siile. 

This ease of draft has been ac- 
compliHlied after years ;;f close 
study, and nn strictly scientific 
principles, and is a neoret 
Ktioivn only Xn oufMelvc*. 
Knowing that a Wagon, to be 




popular in (.'alifornia, luuat be 
a frood one, and desiring to 
bring out for our trade not 
only the hkst Farm Wagon iu 
the country, but one also that 
could be sold at a popular price, 
we finally (^elected *^ Thf, 
Whitkwatkb" as the wa^nn 
before all others for the Cali- 
fornia trade. The manufac- 
turer?* of these Wagons are 
among the oldest and largest 
in the United States (Win- 
chester* Partridge, of White- 
water. Wis.), and tneir Wagons 
may be found in all parts of 
thecountiy. We are prepared 
nish >V .... 



_ „ . to furnish Wagon beds. Brakes 

and Seats in any style to suit customerd and the trade Uur California Rack Bed is far superior to any in the market. 
Tlio side pieces are made of 'Ix^o oak : the bed is 14 feet long, and the bi'KINu se.\t 4 feet from the boi— giving ample room 
to load wood, sacks, etc . without interfering with the driver. Our California Roller Brake can be used with or wiihout 
a box. These beds. Hs well as the "Whitewater" running-gear, are peculiarly adapted to Calif'»rnia use. The brakes 
have linrdu-ood bitrn, and the seats hai-dnood Stund;u'il« ; the beds are nicely proportioned, well framed and 
bolted tr»gethcr. i)ainted inside and outside. neatl> striped and ornamented, and well varnished. Tlie wheels of the 
■ Wliite\v.it<-r" are t'\tra heavy, with slope-shouldered or wedge-shaped sjmkeh, in larj^e hubs and deep felloes, wide and 
h.-;ivy tires itivrmi f»N THitontiH EVERY joint. The wheels are all snaked in hot boiled oil, twice during working, and 
ii;-Min before beiuir i>ainted. so as to prevent any possible shrinkage of the wood in our long and hot dry seasons. They 
are \varriin(e<l to Hiand Ihe C'lliuute <»f CallComln, being made especially for this market. The axles to our 
Tliinible Skein Wagons are made large and strong, and of th<»roiixhly He:iM>ued hlekoi\v, and the skeins put on by a 
macliine. so thateach one is perfectly true and never works loose The Iron ^vork of " The Whitewater" is UK) pounds 
heavier than on any other farm wagon made. Our Iron Axle Wagons are made expressly tor freigliting and heavy work, 
and we guarantee a better made and stronger wagon for the price than any ever before offered in this market. If you 
want a wagon, and want a GOOD OXE. at a low |>rlce, give the " Whitewater " a trial. TBKADl^'Ei^L. A. CO., 
Han Fruuf|RK>o, (jieueral AgentH for the Pacific StAtes. Uv5tf 



a; 



BILZS PATENT C-SPRIN6 SULKY, 




Fntented r»eo«in1>ex- tJO, 187'S. 

Pronounced the Cheapest, Lightest, Most Durable, and Easiest Riding Sulky ever 

offered to the Public. 

Orders will be taken from any part of the State of California, and the Sulky esnt by Wells, Fargo * Co.'s 
Express, C. 0. D., for tlOC, coin. H it does not prove to be all that is recommendad. It may be ratumad by pre- 
paying freight, and the money will be refunded. 

County Bights will be sold in the States of California, Oregon and NeTada. 

A large supply of iron axle header wagons— three different sizes^ Spring Wagons, Buggies aad Vann Wagons 
constantly on hand. 

All work made from best of materials and warranted. 

Address J. A.. BIIL.Z, 

17v3-lam3m Fleasanton, Alameda Cotinty, Cal. 




The Latest and Best in the Country. 

MK* A DOrBLE MOTION, 
Giving F.VKT or SLOW SPEED to the knife or sickle, besides 
all otiier improvements of Mret-class machines, t^ Send 
tor IllnstrBtod pamphlet, and don't fail to see the .«TNA 
before buying. 

TREADWELL & CO., 
Sole Apents Pacilic States San Franciscc. 
Old Stand. Market, head of Front Street. f2'i-3m 




yiRST PREMIUM AWARDED at the State Fair of 
IW); also First Premittm at Mechanics' Fair, San lYan- 
ciioo, 1S71; and Silver Meilal and First Premium for 
best Farm Wagon, and First Premium for the best Im- 
proved Thimble Skein at State Fair, 1871. Also State 
Fair OOLD MEDAL tor 1871. 



Kffa-'ita 



E. SOULE. 

San Quentin, Oal. 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 

SACRAUSNTO AND SAN FRANCISCO, 

Iiuporter.s of 

M Alt 13 W A. UK, 

Agricultural Implements, 

Harvesting Machinery, etc. 

Offer the latest improved and most reliable machines 
to be found in market, viz: 

CHAMPION MOWERS, CHAMPION REAPERS— Hand 
Rake or Self Rake; WOOD'S MOWERS, BURT'S MOW- 
ERS and Hand Rake Reapers. 

Haines' Qenulne Headers, Bain's Header 
"Wagons, Bain's Farm Wagons. 

The celebrated PITTS IMPROVED THRASHERS and 
Horse Powers. 

Portable Steam Thrashing Engines. 

Hand and dorse Power Hay ITesseg. 

Lock Lovers; HoUingsworth and Whitcomb's Wheeled 
Hay Rakes. 

Wood's Revolving Horse Rakes. 

Hand Rakes. S<'ythes, Snaths, Forks, Shovels, Baling 
and Fencing Wire, Rop«;, Nails, Belting, Machine Oils, 
etc. A full stock of SHELF HARDWARE. 

EXTRA PARTS for repairing Harvesting Machinery. 

Orders by Mail or Express will receive prompt at- 
tention. Send for Circular. Address 

BAKER & HAUILTON, 
15T5-)tm Sacramento or San lYancisco. 

WANTED. 

Orders for good White and Chinese help of all kinds 
for Families, Hotels, (iardens. Farms, Factories, Con- 
tractors, Railroads, etc. Satisfaction guaranteed. 
CHAS. F. BEOHiiKER & CO.'S General White and Chi- 
nese Employment Office, No. 652 Sacramento street, 
n ear Kearny. San Francisco. 15TS-3 m 

Fakmkrs everywhere, write for year paper. 



THE EAGLE HAY PRESS. 




The above is a correct representation of this re lark- 
able EAGLE HAY PRESS, the Invention of J. 
A. MciJillivral, of Illinois, to whom Letters Patei^t were 
issued .Tan. lOtb, 1865, and July 24th, 1«66. 

Several years were devoted by the patentee to the per- 
fection of this powerful press, and its unprecedented 
Sftle in the East induces the proprietors to introduce it 
into California and the Pacific States. 

All who have seen or used these presses pronounce 
them superior to anything used heretofore. The power 
is applied by means of two levers, and it will be seen 
the power increases in ratio to the resistance, as the 
levers approach a horizontal position ihe power can 
scarcely be estimated. It is not ouly a powerful press, 
but has the a<lTuntage of being cheap, and also simple, 
therefore not liable to get out of order. 

Three tnen with one horse can bale from TEN TO 
FIFTEEN TONS PER DAY, each bale weighing 260 to 
300 pounds. It obviates all nrcessity of beating the 
hay before pressing. On account of its great power It 
is well adapted for pressing HYDE8, RAGS, WOOL OR 
COTTON. When a bale is pressed and fastened the fol- 
lower runs down of its own weight, and the bales can 
be taken out on either side. On April 18th, 1871, this 
Press was tested at the State Agricultural Hall, Sacra- 
mento, and stood the test of a bale of wool, 650 pounds. 
Reference, Maj. Rob't Beck. 

We have added to this Press this season an improve- 
ment (patented) which does the stamping, dispensing 
with men to tread down the hay in the Press, facilltaU 
ing the operation, and saving much hard work. The 
additional cost being but $26, paying for iteelf in labor 
saved in a week. 

These Presses are now mannfactuicd in San Fnmclico 
by the 

Kimball Car and Carriage Manufact'gCo., 

Who arc the Proprietors on the Pacific Coast, and will 

endeavor to hare a supply constantly 

on hand. 

12v5-2r»m3lD-2ts 



KELLER ^fc OO., 

43 46, 47 J STREET, TREADWELL BUtLDINO, 
SACRAMENTO. 

AQENTS FOB 

CIJU>P'S BRASS-BEARING WAGONS. 




And also a superior Iron Axle Wagon. 

MKaRITT & KELLOGQ'8 SELT-PROPEIXING 

THRESHING ENGINES. 

Johu Deer M.oliiie I?lo-«v. 

Also COLLINS" PLOW (Smith's Patent). 

THE OORHAM BROADCAST SEEDER AND OTTLTI. 
VATOR. 

EXCELAIOK MO-WEB AND REAPER. 

The " EXCELSIOR" MACHINE took the first pre- 
mium at our State Fair. 

We are Sole Agents fer " Excelsior" BRA88-BEAR- 
tNG WAGON, Merritt* Kellogg'8 TRACTION ENGINE, 

i»" Please call and examine. 17T4-ly 



0. CBEGO. »• C. BOWL*! 

CREGO & BOWLEY. 

Importers and Maiiuft«fturorf« 

—OF— 

CARRIAGES and WAGONS, 

No. 9 Merchant's Exchang'e, 
CALIFORNIA STREET SAN FRANCI.-^L'O. 

Keep constantly on hand top and open Baggies, top 
and open Rockaways, Jump-seat Buggies, Track and 
Road Sulkies, Skeleton Wagons, Basket Phaetons of 
the very latest styles and linest workmanship. 

We would call particular attention to our fine stock 
of light Road and Trotting Wagons, made to order by 
the following celcbiated makers: 

Charles S. Cotlrey, Camden, New Jersey; 

Helfield & Jackson. Rahway, New Jersey; 

Gregg & Bow, Wilmington, Delaware; 
And other Brst-class makers, which we are prepared to 
sell on the most reasonable terms. 

Also, a large assortment of single and double Har- 
ness, of the most celebrated makers: 

C Graham, New York; J. R. Hill, Concord; Pittkin 
& Thomas, Philadelphia. 

Also, a full assortment of Dress and Light Blankets, 
Fur and Lap Robes. Whips, Halters, Sun-ingles, etc., at 
wholesale and retail. 

CREGO & BOWLEY, 

No. 9 Merohants' Exchange, California street, 
34vS-3m San Francisco. 



July 5, 1873.] 




MERINO R^NCH, Niles Station, 



Alameda County, California. 



The Merino Ranch 

Recently purchased 
by U8, is situated in 
the San Jose Valley, 
near the junction of 
the San Jos^ &C.P. 
R. R., and only five 
ininntes walk from 
Nilcs Station ; is ac- 
cessible from all 
points, being only 
twenty-three miles 
from San Francisco. 
Our flock, which 
will be kept upon 
this ranch, was re- 
cently imported from ■ 
Addison County, 
Vermont, and was 
selected with great 
care from the very 
tinest flocks in the 
State, and is com- 
prised of a selection 
from the flocks of E. 
& G. Hammond; S. 
S. Rockwell, Cher- 
bino & Williamson, 
N. A. Saxton, F. H. 
& H. F. Dean and 
0. & R. Lane, in- 
cluding two lots of 
lambs, some of 
which are repre- 
sented in the accom- 
panying cut, that 
took first premium 
last fall at the Ad- 
unsurpassed by an equal number in any State in 



Office, 315 California street, SAN FRANCISCO. 



Union 



SEVERANCE & PEET, 

Importers and Breeders of Thoroughbred Spanish Merino Sheep. 

dison County Fair. 
In every case our 
sheep were picked 
with a view of get- 
ting the best, and it 
is our purpose to 
maintain a flock 
and breed a class of 
sheep that will do 
credit to the State 
as well as ourselveb, 
and offer the trade 
sheep with a style 
and brilliancy of 
fleece that will rap- 
idly improve the 
standard of wool 
grown at large, as 
well as enhance the 
profits of those thus 
engaged. 

At present our 
dock consists of 300 
breeding ewes, aged 
from one to four 
years ; 250 ewe 
lambs, coming year 
old this spring. Al- 
so 100 buck lambs, 
which we shall otter 
for sale. They wUl 
be thoroughly accli- 
mated and in fine 
condition for use the 
coming season; will 
be sold at reasonable 
rates, considering 
quality, which is 
All those interested in Thoroughbred Stock are cordially invited to call and examine our stock, whether they wish to purchase or not. 






Pure Blooded French Merino Rams and 
Ewes, 

For sale by ROBERT BLACOW, of Centieville, Alameda 
County, Cal., near Niles Station, on the Western and 
Southern Pacilic Railroad. 

These Sheep are guaranteed of piu-e descent, from the 
French Imperial Flock at Ramboulllet. 

Also a few well-bred young Bulls of the Diu'ham 
blood. 12v5-3m 



SSSMITH: A: OVERHISETS, 



SUOOEBBOBS TO .J. D. PATTERSON, 



Breeders of First-Class Thoroughbred 



SPANISH MERINO 



FRENCH MERINO SHEEP. 



OUR PRICES WILL BE LESS THAN TUE SAME 
QUALITY can be purchased of any other 
RELIABLE BREEDERS in Cal- 
ifornia and the Eastern 
States. 



Rams will be sent to San Francisco, and Kold by 
Christy k Wise; also at Wm. L. Overhiser's, near 
Stockton; and at Patterson's ranch, near Grayson, San 
Joaquin river. 

C. C. SMITH, 

Orayson, Stanislaus County. 



23v5.tt 



■WM. L. OVERHISER, 

Stockton. 



N. GULMOJRE, 

Importer and Breeder of 

Angora or Cashmere 
GOATS 

— OF — 

PURE BLOOE 

— AND — 
ALL GRADES. 

For sale in lots to suit purchasers. Location, to\.r 
miles from Railroad Station, connecting with all party 
of the State. For particulars address 

N. GILMOEE 
El Dorado, El Dorado county, 
6T3-eow-tf California. 



THOS. BUTTERFIELD & SON, 

Breeders and Importers of the 
CotBWold, Lincoln, Leicester, Texel and 
^^^«^ South Down 

m^F »$ h: £: ID F> . 

mmml^tk — also— 

•rriiE A1VGOR..V GOAT. 

Now offer for sale the Pure Bred and High Grades. 
We have a good lot of Bucks of crosses between the 
Cotswold and South Down, between the Lincoln and 
Leicester, and the Lincoln and Merino. 

THOS. BUTTERFIELD k SON, 

19v4.tf Hollister, Monterey County, Oal. 



WATT & MCLENNAN, 

WOOL COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

625 Sansome street, corner Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO. 

Receive Consignments of Wool, Sheep 
Skins, Hides, etc. Liberal advances made to 
consignors. Keep on hand the best quality of 
Wool Sacks, Twines, and other supplies. 
10v.3-3m 



40 Thoroughbred Angora G-oats for Sale I 

Imported by a native of Angora, direct from Asia Minor. 
For specimens see the flock of Thomas & Shirland, 
Sacramtnto, Cal. Address A. EUTYCHIDES, Spout 
Spring, Appomattox County, Va. 10v4-ly 



SPANISH MERINOS.— We o«for for sale low, about 100 
of our fine Thoroughbreds. Send for Catalogue Orders 
solicited. John Sheldon & Son, Moscow, N. Y. 



HIGH GRADE SHORTHORNS. 

For sale, a few Cows and Heifers, ranging in age from 
three to six years, all in calf to thoroui^hbred Shorthorn 
Bulls, and will calve from September to November, 

Each one guaranteed in the quantity of milk she will 
give. Also, pure bred Shorthorn BuUb coming two 
years. Apply to JOHN B. KE0MOND, 

Sneet Farm, Black Point P. O., Marin Co. 

N. B. — Black Point is 11 miles from San Rafael, on 
the Petaluma road. 25v5-4t 



Pure Berkshire Pigs For Sale 



R. S. THOMPSON, Napa, California, 

Importer and Breeder of Improved 
Berkshire Swine. 

2;Jv.V2m 



FOR SALE. 

Tvro Thoroughbred Durham Bulls. 

Also, a lot of fme POLAND CHINA PIGS. 




We have 145 Pure Breed Angoras and 2,000 grades of 
12 years' breeding to select from. Those wanting Bucks 
will find it to their interest to send for pamphlet on 
Breeding, and to examine our stock of Angora Goats 
and CotswoJd Sheep. 

LANDRTJM & BODGERS, 

20v5tf Watsonville, Santa Cruz County, Cal. 



Address 
23v5-2m 



CANNON k STAPLE.^, 
Si isun, Solano County, Cftl. 



IMPORTANT TO FARMERS! 
Line to Liverpool . 

DIRECT. 
The A 1 Ships 

TWILIGHT— Gates, Master, 

HELEN MORRIS— Chase, Master, 

BLUE JACKET— Grozier, Master. 

Are now loading and intended to sail with 
dispatch. To be followed by other vessels. 
Freight taken in lots to suit shippers. 

Apply to E. E. MORGAN'S SONS, 

320 California Street, 
San Francisco. 

THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 

Sanitary Hotel and Industrial 

COLLEGE ASSOCIATION. 

Incorporated Under the Laws of the State ok 
Oalifornu. 

CAPITAL STOCK $250,000.00 

Divided into 2,500 shares, of $100 each. 

The subscription books of this Association will be 
open on the 24th of this month (May, 1H73|, at the pres- 
ent oHice of the Association, No. 10, Temple Block, Los 
Angeles, California, where copies of the By-Laws and 
Articles of Incorporation can be had. 

President J. R. TOBERMAN. 

Treasuukr F. P. F. TEMPLE. 

Secretary GEO. C. GIBBS. 

Directors— George Stoueman, Thos. A. Garey, and 
Wm. Moore. 
General Superintendent, F. M. Sluiw. 



MINERALS WANTED. 



Liberal prices paid for good ASBESTOS and AMIAN- 
THUS, otherwise known as Rock-Wood, llock-Cork, 
Mountain Leather, Fossil-Paper, Fossil-Flax and Earth 
Flax. Address by mail, giving specimens and price 
per ton, H. D. JARVES, 

10 Devonshire street, Boston, Mass. 



Pdbuhaserb please say adyorti-sedln Par'.So Rural Presfi. 



THE STEARNS RANCHOS. 

ALFRED ROBERTSON, Trustee. 

542 Market Street SAN FRANCISCO. 

90,000 Acres of Land for Sale, 

In lots to suit, suitable for the culture of Or- 
anges, Lemons, Limes, Figs, Almonds, Walnuts, 
Apples, Peaches, Pear.-, Alfalfa, Com, Rye, 
Barle", Flax. Ramie, Cotton, et('. And, also, 
many thousand acres of 

NATURAL EVERGREEN PASTURES. 
Suitable for Dairj'iug. 
Good water is abundant, at an average depth of six 
fett from the surface. On almost every acre of this 
land, FLOWINti ARTESIAN WELLS can be obtained, 
aud the more elevated portions can be irrigated by the 
water of the Santa Ana River. 

Most of these lands are naturally moist, requiring 
only good cultivation to produce crops. 
Terms— One-fourth cash, balance in one, two and 
bree years, with ten per cent, interest. 
I will take pleasure in showing these lands to parties 
Seeking land, who are invited to come and see this ex- 
tensive tract before purchasing elsewhere. 

WM. R. OLDEN, Agrent. 

Anaheim, Los Angeles county. May 21, 1873. 



Land for Sale in Solano County. 

One tract of 190 acres, all under fence, liv )g . ater. 
with 30,000 ten-year-old Grape Vines, mostly f reign; 
10,000 Muscat of Alexandria variety; 1,000 Fruit Trees, 
including all the best varieties, from the Apple to the 
Orange — all in the most flourishing conditiou, in a piu'e, 
salubrious climate, free from frosts sufficient to injure 
any fruit, from the hardier to the semi-tropical. 

Must be SEEN to be appreciated. 

THREE MILES WEST OF VA CAVIL . 

Religious, Educational and Social Facilities 
Easily Attainable. 

Also one tract of 160 acres; and one of 50 acres. 

Also one tract that can be sold in small quantities 
from $3,000 upward. 

Also one tract ou Putah Creek of 1(!5 acres, with 3,000 
bearing Fruit Trees of the tinest and choicest varieties, 
and the EARLIEST IN THE STATE. 

Purchasers looking for improved homes in California 
would do well to visit this favored fruit-growing section . 



Apply to 
20v5-3m 



H. T. BARKER, 

At M. Blum's Store, 
Vaoavllle. 



LANDS, FARMS, ETC. 

Parties wanting to sell would do well to send us > 
description of their property. 

83- WE MAKE NO CHARGE unless we EFFECT 
SALES. 

We have 500 Farms and over (100,000 Acres of and 
for Sale. 

Address BRANDON k BIBBINb, 
Pacific Land Exchange, 
SrS-ly eamy street, San Franclsio, 



Farm for Sale. 



Containing KiO Acres, within one mile ot the city of 
Petaluma; well I'euced and watered, with comfortable 
house, burn and outbuildings. Title, Unit«d Slates 
Patent. Will b« sold on reasonable terms. 

Apply to O. P. SUTTON, Paciflc Bank, 

jU-lm Ban Francisco. 

FARMING LANDS FOR SALE 

IN STANISLAUS AND MERCED COUNTIES, 
F.ither in large or small tracts. 

Apply to W. T. 8. RYER, 

No. 408 Oalifomia street, 
17vS-tf San Francisco, Cal. 



16 



[July 5, 1873. 



Patrons of Husbandry. 

NATIONAL QRANGE.-WashinKton, D. C. 

Jfu.>fer.— DcuLEY W. ADAMS, Wankon, lowii. 
SecrtUtry.—O. H. KtLLEV, Georgetown, D. C. 

STATE OBANGES. 

Minnesota— Master, (Jeo. I. Parsons, Winona : Secy 

Iowa!"— Master. A. B. Smedley, Croaoo; Secy. Gen. Wm. 

Duane Wilson. De» Moinea. „ , „ n c • . <^^ 

[t.LiNois.-Master, Alonzo Goldor, Rock Falls; Secy, O. 

'^WmroNslN*-' Master, Ool. John Cochrane, Waopun ; 

Scc'v. J. Brainard, Oshkosh. ,, ^ c ' n^ 

INDIANA.-Master, John Weir, Terre Haute; Sec y, .T. 

'^KTN=.^S-Ma9Ter. F. H. Dnmbauld, Jacksonville; Sec'y, 

*'NkBH\s^r-Ma"4tirWrB.' Porter, Plattsmouth ; Sec'y, 

''MV.'lsS;"f.-M»^?°''Gen. A. J. Vaughn, Early Grove; 
Sec'v W. L. Williams, Rienzi. , 

S^i;uioi.iN\.-Ma8t«r. Thomas Taylor, Columbia; Secy, 
Col D-Wyatt Aikin, I'okesbury. „ , „ , 

VEKMONT.-Master, E. P. Colton, Irasburg: Secy. t. L. 

"oH7J.-Mi''t'^.t"8'Eni», Springhoro; Secy, D. M. Stew- 

""MKHUiAN.- Master, S F. Brown, Schoolcraft; Bec'y. J. 
T Cobb, Schoolcraft. „ .„ .,, . u • » »« 

Mtssouiu.-Master, T. R. Allen. AUenton; Secy, A. M. 
Coffey, Knob Noster, .lohnston t'o. , , _ o , .. 

GEoioiA.-Master, Col.T. J. Smith, Oconee; Sec'y, t- 
Taylor, Colaparchu. 

CALIFORNIA GRANGES. 
NAPA GRANGE, No. 1, Kupa Co. ( We have not the 
names of the Master and Secretary of this (iranee). 
f:LMIRA GRANGE, Solano Co.. A. Cl.vkk. Master; M. 

°HEALDSBURG GRANGE. Sonoma Co., T. H. MerbV, 

^'mER^ED^-OUNT-Y g'&ANGE. H. B. JOI.LEY, Master, 
E. R. Elliott. Sec'y. „ _. . 

SALIDA grange. No. 8, Joseph Reybcrn, Blaster ; 

''san'jOSE Gr"n'g"e.'no. 10, Santa Clara Co., Oliver 
Cattle. Master: S. H. Herkinii, Secy., San Jose. 

SACRAMENTO GRAN(;E, No. l'.\ Sacramento to.. W. 
S. M vnlove. Master: CiEo, Rich. Sec y. ; both Sacramento. 

SANTA ROSA GRANtiE, Sonoma Co., Geo. W. Uavis. 
Master ; J. A. Ourken. Sec'y. , „ „ 

STANISLAUS GRANGE. Stanislaus Co.. J. D. Spen- 
cer. Master: Jas. McHenry. S;ec'y. D r. u.„.. 

SUISUN VALLEY GRANGE, Solano Co., R. C. Haile, 

TURLOCK' GRANGE, Stanislaus Co., J. W. A. Wrioht, 
Master; .John A. Henderson, Sec'y. 

VACAVILLE (JRANGE. Solano Co.. T. H-tRT Hyatt, 
.■tfaster: T. Hart Hyatt. Jr.. Sec'y. : both Vaeaville. 

WEST SAN JOAQUIN GRANGE, E. B. Stiles, Master ; 
H. W. Fassetf. Sec'y. ^ .. 

YpLO GRANGE. W. M. J.vcKSON, Master ;D. ScHINDLER 

^SALINAS GRANGE, M. L. Allen, Master; Samuel 
Oassidy, Sec'y. . ,., „ 

CAMBRIA GRANciE. San Luis Obispo Co., RUKUS Rlo- 
DON, Master; C. II. iHviNs, Sec'y. ^ . ,, , 

OLD CREEK GKANGE, Ssn Luis Obispo Co, I8A.U- 
Floyd, Master: R. M. Pbeston, Sec'y. 

.MORO CITY GRANGE, A. J. Mathebsead, Master; H. 

SAN^LuIsoafsPO GRANGE, Wm. Jackson, Master: 
Ci. V. Smith, Sec'y. „ „ 

HKLENA ORANGE, Napa Co , G. B. Crane, Master: J. 
L. Edwards, Sec'y. 

There are some (iianges of which we have not received a 
notice of organization or list of officers, which we would 
be glad to get. We hope Secretaries will forward to us cor- 
rect lists 01 oflicers and their post-office address: also the 
names of counties in which the Granges are. Parties 
desiring information in relation to Granges, their organiza- 
tion, etc., will please address us. 

The Objects of the Patrons of Husbandry 
Briefly Stated. 

(Jenerul Deputy N. W^. Garrelson, who is now visiting this 
C'oarl perfecting the organizations of the order in Califor- 
nia, Oregon and Washington Territory, states the objects of 
the order to be briefly as follows: . . , , 

1. The ennoblement of labor and the fraternizing of the 
producing classes. , , ^ . ^. 

1. Bringing more nearly together the producer and the 

3. Mutual instruction. The lightening of labor by diffus- 
ing a better knowledge of its aims. 

4. Social culture. 

.i. Mutual relief in sickness and adversity. 
b. Prevention of litigation. 

7. Prevention of cruelty to animals. 

8. The overthrow of the credit system. 

;>. Building up and fostering home industry. 
10. Mutual protection to husbandmen again.st sharpens 
and monopolists. 



Subscribers, Examine Totir Accounts 

Oil the printed label nasled upon your paper or its wrap- 
per. It you are not creilited, after paylngyour subscription, 
write to usatonoe. If you hold a recuipt, and the agent 
fails to report your payment or the full term of your pay- 
ment, it is important for u.' lo Know it with., ut delay. The 
following abbreviations are used on some of our labels: 
Jnv jy Apr an Jul jl Oct oc 1»73 7.1 

Feb fb Miy my Aug au Nov nv 1S74 74 

Mar mr .Ian jn Sep ap Dec dc 187.^ 75 

Other fiL'ures denote the day oi the month paid to. 

Subscribers will also oblige by notifying us of any tiii-»- 
take<, discrepancies and irregularities of S'^rnts or mailing 
clerks. 




Each Issue Contadis 

Sixteen well filled pages. 

Original and Choice Engravings. 

Editorials on Home Industries. 

On various kinds of Stock-rearing. 

On Horticulture and Gardening. 

Correspondence from Farming Districts. 

Answers and hints to Correspondents about 
Loial Farming. 

Good Health and Useful Information. 

Reports of Farming Clubs. 

Mechanical and Scieutiflc progress. 

Agricultural Notes from all quarters. 

Domestic Produce Markets. 

Home Circle. 

Domestic Economy. 

Mechanical Hints and Domestic Keceipta. 

Home and Farm Matters. 

Affording, in all, more of real instructive and 
profitable matter for general readers than 
any other weekly on this side of the Conti- 
nent. 
Subscription, in advance, $4 a year. Single 

copies lU cts. Four single copies, of late dates, 

sent postpaid for 25 cts. 

OEWEY Ac Co., 

Publishers, Patent Agents and Engravers, No. 'i'M 
Montgomery street, S. E. corner Califoruia, 8. F. 



Scientific Press 



atei^t 4g^a©F« 




Oun U. S. AND Foreign Patknt Aqency presents 
many and important advantages aB a Home Agency over 
all others by reasons of long CBtablishment, great expe- 
rience, thorough system, and intimate acquaintance 
with the Bubjects of inventionn in our own community. 
All worthy inventions patented through our Agency will 
have the beneht of an illustration or a description in the 
Mining and Scientific Press. We transact every 
branch of Patent ousiness, and obtain Patents in all 
civilised countries. The large majority of U. 8. and 
Foreign Patents granted to inventors on the PaciJ5o 
Coast have been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable advice as to the patenta- 
bility of new iuventiouts. Advice and Circclabs kree. 

DEWEY & CO.. 

Publisher*, Patent Aicent*. und Kniri uvers. 

No. 338 Montgomery si., San Francitico, Cal. 



Agricultural and Industrial 



BOO K H, 



For Sale at thia Office. 



Ain'^rican Manures, and Farmers' and Plantwg' 
Guide— comprising a description of the elements OD-l 
composition of plants and soils — the theory and prac- 
tice of composting — the value of stable manure and 
■waste products, etc., etc.; also chemical analysis of 
tlie principal manufactured fertilizers — their assumed 
and real value— and a full expose of the frauds prac- 
tised upon purchasers. By Wm. H. Bruckner, Ph. D., 
and J. B. OhjTiuwpth. Price f'i, post paid. Address 
Dewey & Co., this office. 

Thresher's Guide and Farmer's Friend — by D. 
HoUihan, a Galifomian, and a practical thresher for 
over fifteen years. It contains tacts and hints of great 
value to those specially interested, who thresh or em- 
ploy threshers. Published by DEWEV k CO., at this 
office. In flexible cloth, $1. Post free. 

Harris (Joseph) on the Pig. Breeding, Kear- 
ini:. Management and Improvement. XUub., 2.W pacres, 
1R70. linlresting to all readers: instructive and fall of 
hints to raisers. Price $2, pobt paid from this office. 

Cranberry Culture, by a Practical Grower in 
N. J., Joseph J. White. A special treatise of 12ti pa^es, 
Post paid from this office. $1.75. 

Farm Implements and Farm Machinery, and 

the principles of their construction and use. W ith simple 
and practical explanations of ttie Laws of Motion and 
Force as applied on the Farm; b.v John J. Thomas; 'iHl 
illustrations and 302 pages. Sold by Dkwey & Co., post- 
]>aid, for $1.7.^. 

Fen Acres Enotigh: A practical experience, 

ahowiuK how a very small farm may be made to keep a 
very large fainil.v, with extensive jinn prolitable experi- 
ence in tile culiivation of the smaller Iruits. leutti 
edition, ISTl. Price, post free, $1.50, at this office. 

Obaervations on the Culture of Silk in 

California. By I. N Hoag, of Sacramento. 1870. 
Pamphlet, 33 "pages. For sale by DEWEY & CO. 
Publishers of the Pacdic KtniAi, Pbess, San Frauolsco 
Post iiaid, 25 cts. 

Cotton Culture; by J. B. Symon; with an ad- 
ditional chapter on Cotton Seed and its uses. 190 pages, 
18t3. Price, post free, $1.75, at this office. 

How Crops Grow: by Johnson; A treatise on 

tile chemical composition, structure and life of the plant. 
for all 8tiident.s of agriculture; with illustration and 
analysis. ;i9t pages ; 18li>). Post free from this office, $'i.5V. 

American Grape Growers' Guide; by Wm. 
Chorlton (N. Y ) 204 pages, 18.K, Post free, $1. from this 



Thresher's Guide and Farm- 
er's Friend — 1872. 



Written by D. HoUihan, a practical thresher for over 
fifteen years. 

It contains facts and hinta of great value to both 
threshers and farmers. A small book worth many 
times its cost to those specially interested, who thresh 
or employ threshers. 

CONTENTS. 
Beater, caro of; Belt Protector, HoUihaii's flllna- 
trated); Belts, Miinagement of; Cracking of Grain; Cyl- 
inder, How to balaute; Cylinder, Movement of; Oyliu- 
der. Motion of; Engineer's Duty; Geared or Belt Ma- 
chines; Gears, Management of; General Management; 
Horse Powers; Horse Power, Moving a; Introductory 
lUMuarks; Machines; Machines, Management of; Ma- 
chines, Moving them; Management, General; Rake, 
Speed of; Shoe, the; Shoe, Improved; Shoo, What it 
is; Sieve, New Jointed (Illustrated); SUckiug Wheat; 
Steam Powers. 

Published and for .sal.., wholesale and retail, by 
DEWEY & CO., at this office. Single copies, in flexible 
cloth, $1, In extra binding, $1.50. Poet free. 



Polishing and Fluting Iron. 




This new Invention takes the plae« of two articles 
needed in nearly every house. As a POLISHING IKON 
it has no superior. The part used for Fluting is made 
of brass, and highly polished. A Becelpt for making 
Fbknch Glohsinq Staboh, that gives a superior polish, 
goes with each iron. The Polishing Iron and Fluter, 
being in one, are both heated at the same time. We are 
now prepared to furnish them in quantities to suit. 
Price, $3. 

WIESTER k CO., 
17 New Montgomery street, San Francisco, 
General Agents for Pacific Coast. 



CALIFORNIA 

< 

< 


For 



INVENTION 

> 



H 




Sewing Machines, Dentists' and 
Jewelers' Lathes. 

This Invention can be applied to the operating of all 
kinds of Sawing Machines, Dentists' and Jewelers' 
Lathes. Its simplicity is onlycqualed by its durability; 
it avoids the use of the treadle, which is ungraceful and 
injurious. 

Application made by the Agents for the Pacific Coast. 

SAWYER & WHEDON, 

lv6eowbp B;*3 Washington street Ran Francisco. 



Choice Bred Fowls, and Eggs 
for Hatching. 

I will spare a few EGGS from my Imported Stock of 
Poultry, consisting of 

LIGHT AND DAKK BRAHMAS, 
BUFF AND PARTRIDGE COCHINS, 
SPANGLED GOLDEN AND SILVER POLISH, 
SPANGLED GOLDEN AND SILVER HAMBUROS, 
PIKE WHITE-FACED BLACK SP.VNISH, 
SILKIES, BLACK, RED GAME, 
AYLEbBUBY AND EOUEN DUCK. 

— ALSO— 

Chester County White Pigs, China Pigs. 

M. FALLON, 

Seventh and Oak streets, OAKLAND. 



Useful Inventions 



HoKHe, JFielci niid JPai-ii*. 



A safe and perfect FniK Ki>ji>lkr. 

A House Raki: that has no equal. 

ParHhall's LfBRICATOBS for Locomotives and Station- 
ar>' Engines. 

iiUKARs for cutting grapes and flowers. 

A new ROLLRB Skate tliat is superior to all others. 

Self-Regulating Driukino Fountain for fowls. 

A superior Roaj> Sckapeb. 

The cheapest and best Faem Fence ever built. 

A Post Drivek that every farmer should have. 

A Sash Tioutekeb that keeps out all dust, takes the 
place of weights, and keeps the windows from rattling. 

A Bed Spiuno that never gets out of order. 

A Potato Diugkb that will dig a row as faat as a man 
can walk. 

A Household Tool needed In every family. 

A Gas Lamp that costs only half a cent per hour to 
bum. 

The best Self-openinq Gate ever invented. 

A Plow on a new principle— it works to perfection In 
tidohc. 

An improved Plow Cle\18. 

A Toy Engine that every boy should have for in. 
struction. 

A new Glass CnrrEK that beats a diamond. 

A Can Opener that cuts any size or shaped hole. 

The best Wash Boilek ever invented. 

Au EoG Beater that beats eggs in one minute. 

A Wall Protector for placing behind wash stands. 

The LrrrLE Glant Corn Shellek. 

A KNirE Sharpener that should be in every k hen . 

A Corn IIuskeb that husks 400 bushels per da.\ . 

The best machine to Clean Grain in the world. 

A superior Paper File Holder. 

Address WIESTEB Sc CO., Patent Brokers, 
17 New Montgomery street, San Francisco. 



ADORN YOUR HOMES with the new Chromo 
"Awake" and "Asleep." Sells like Wild fire. The pair 
sent for .50 cents. A large discount to agents. Address 
W. F. CARPUNTEK, Foxboro, Mass. ju28-eowQt 



THE NEW V. S. MINING LAWS. 

The new Laws of 1872, governing the location and 
purchase of Placer and Quartz Mines and Agricultural 
Lands in Mining Districts of the U. S., printed In cii^ 
cular sheet, for sale at this office. Single copies, 2d otf 
Usual discount to the trade. 



SEASONABLE SEEDS 

At Reduced Prices. 



The following varieUes, all of the NEW CROP, are 
offered at less than usual market rates : 

BEETS. CARBOTS. 

Mangel Wurtzil, Long Orange, 

White Sugar, While Bel^um, 

Yellow Globe. Long Red. 

All Imported Seeds. 



Orasyand Clovej* Seed.^ 



Timothy, 
Red Top, 
Kentucky Blue Gra>s, 



English Kye (rrass, 
White Clover, 
Red Clover. 



ALFALFA, Etc- 

Orderw are reapectfeUy solicited, and will meet with 
pnuiipt anil faithful attention. 

No. SI 7 Washin<rton Street, 
6v2-lyl6p SAN FRANCISCO. 




Improve Your Poultry. 

It Costs No More to Keep Oood 
Fowls than Poor Ones t 

SEND STAMP FOR ILLUSTRATED 
CIRCULAR 

Containing a full description of all 

the Ix'st known and most profitable 

Fowls in the country to 

GEO. B. BATLET, 

Importer and Breeder of Blooded 
Fowls, and agent for the Poultry World, a monthly 
magazine devoted entirely to Poultry — tells how to keep 
Fowls for pleasure and PROFIT. Subscription only 
$1.25 per year. Address 

GEO. 6. BAYLEY, Box 6G9, San Francisco. 
'iSv2«-«w bp 

AXLE JREASE. 

To Farmers, Teamsters and Others. 

Y'our attention is called to the very superior AXLE 
GREASE manufactured by us for over 18 years. 

Recent Improvements in the chemical arrangement 
of the lubricants used in its manufacture render its use 
as serviceable on the lightest buggy as on the heaviest 
team. 

The extensive demand for the H. & L. Axle 
Orease has enabled the proprietors to reduce its price 
to as low a rate as any of the Inferior compotinds, 
which are continually being forced upon the market. 




See that the trade-mark (H. & L.) is on the red 
cover of the pvkage, and talte no other. 

HUCKS & LAMBERT, 

Manufacturers & Sole Proprietors, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

Factory 145 Natoma Street. 

Depot 312 Jackson Street. 

lOrS-lambp-ly 



The Iowa 



Homestead 
Journal, 



and Farm 



a national, agriciltural, live stock and 
fa:mily paper. 

Published at Dcs Moines, the Capital of Iowa. 

The Homestead was established in ItlSS, and is re- 
garded as the wheel-horse in the great mo\*euieDt of 
farmers against monopolists In the west and throughout 
the country. 

It has been the friend of the Patrons of Husband- 
ry fp»m the organization of that Order, fighting for its 
principles in the midst of bitterest opposition, until in 
Iowa alone it numbers a Hundred Thousand far- 
mers, farmers' wive", sons and daughters, and in the 
Union many times th .t number — and beside its depart- 
ment on Agrlcultur. , Stock Breeding and Honsebold 
matterw, whiih alone are worth many times its price, 
it gives an official weekly record of the progress of the 
Order throughout the I'nion and Canada, with Corres- 
pondence, fjuestions and Answers from all parts of the 
world. 

I'HK HOMESTEAD la bead eaebtwhkbe, and has the 
widest circulation of any paper in the entire North- 
west. Send for a copy free. 

Stibscriptions, $2.00 

To Patrons, 1.50 



jy»t 



HOMESTEAD COMPANY, 
Ces Moines, Iowa. 



PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS, 

BAN FBAN0I8CO, 
Manufacturers of 

Uini^eed aud Oatstoi- Oils, 

OIL CAKES AND MEAL. 

Highest price paid for Flax Seed and Castor Beans de 
livered at our works. 
Office, 3 and 5 Front street. 
,Vorks, King street, bet. Second and Ttiird. felS-eow 



^ N? 430 7 



^viti ti-r unlu tlit'tr »i>ttf9 no 
9k»*. PkrllculArafre*. AUdrvJ 




.-.U jtiir!* 


w 1 ri 

l*Ofl 


wort I r 
nfttan 

.Dd.lL. 


(fp**. 


x.>..uiUorol.:.i 
i)*-6latir«Mlt.otli 


ttiluc 

lu*. 



Farmers, everywhore, write for yonr paper. 




Volume VI.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 12, 1873. 



[Number 2. 



The Ames Steam Engine. 

We present our readers this week with an 
engraving of the Ames Agricultural Engine, 
manufactured by the Ames Iron Works, of 
Oswego, N. Y. These engines are superior in 
design, workmanship and material, and being 
built with a view to great economy in the use 
of fuel and running expenses ore peculiarly 
fitted for use in our grain 
fields where the scarcity of 
fuel is often a serious ob- 
jection to the employment 
of steam. 

This completeness has 
been obtained by careful 
observation and actual 
practice; this establish- 
ment making portable en- 
gines a specialty, and de- 
voting their entire capacity 
to their production. Every 
piece is carefully fitted to a 
standard gauge, insuring 
an exactness which could 
not be obtained otherwise. 
The boiler is of the loco- 
motive pattern, requires no 
setting and is made of the 
best Pennsylvania iron, 
and 30 arranged as to in- 
sure safety, durability and 
the greatest efficiency. 

The tubo.s are the beat 
American lap-welded. The 
furnace is made of solid 
fire-box plate, braced at 
the top and bottom in the 
manner adopted by the 
best locomotive buiidetS. 
The circulating Water bot- 
tom, by pl'oviding a con- 
staat movement of the 
water, prevents sediment, 
and permits the removal 
by the blow-ofif cock of 
those particles of earthy 
and mineral matter which 
adhere to the boiler and 
form cakes which soon de- 
stroy the plates. 

The engine is of the hor- 
ifcobtal pattern; is made 
with a bed-plate and can 
be used at any time as a 
stationary, by obtaining 
necessary additional pipe. 
The cyhnder is carefully 
bored; the slide-valve made 
perfectly true and steam 
tight, and with proper 
amount of lap to point the 
correct working of the en- 
gine with the greatest 
economy and efficiency. 

A novel feature of these 
'engines is the placing of 
the heater inside the bed- 
plate, where it is out of the 
way of danger and any 
interference with the band 
wheels. The steam and 
exhaust pipes are carefully 
proportioned. The exhaust 
steam discharged into the 
smoke pipe, to accelerate the draft aud extin- 
guish sparks. The engines are fitted with all 
possible conveniences in the way of pumps, 
governor, globe oil cups, etc. The wheels of 
the trucks are constructed of wood, the axles 
are made of the best hammered iron. The 
hind axle is curved to the exact shape of the boil- 
er at the fire-box end, giving an equal bearing to 
the parts attached, and is so bracketed as to 
withstand any sudden trial or shock. In fact, 
nothing has been omitted to make these ma- 
chines useful and efficient, and we can com- 
mend them to all as among the most labor- 
saving appliances now in use. 



The People vs. The Politicians. 

There are unmistakable evidences that a 
political movement is now on foot, and under 
the direction of the very best portion of the 
people of the Union, to free themselves from 
the yoke of the political schemers, who have 
heretofore held complete control of our local. 
State and National Governments. A little 



only the interests of that small class of politicians 
by which they have been placed in nomination. 
The masses, being without organization, or 
any means whatever for concert of action, have 
had no alternative but to accept the one or the 
other. The consequence has been that we 
have gone on from bad to worse, \intil intoxi- 
cated with success, these self-constituted man- 
agers have not only burdened the country with 
oppressive taxation, to distribute fat offices 
among themselves, from whence to draw the 




THE AMES STEAM ENGINE. 



If Yoa would have a faithful servant, 
•one that you like, serve yourself. 



an^ 



knot of politicians in each county or State, 
generally men with little pecuniary interest at 
stake, and with still less moral standing, have 
succeeded, by a species of management but 
little understood by the community at largo, in 
bringing forward for offlco creatures of their 
own, and from their own ranks. On election 
day, or on its near approach; the people — the 
producers and working men of the country - 
who, in the mean time have been busy in at- 
tending to their own matters, have usually 
found two tickets presented for their accept- 
ance, in neither of which they have had much 
confidence, for the reason that they represented 



means to perpetuate their power; but at the 
instigation of avaricious capitalists they have 
also created odious aud privileged monopolies, 
which, in addition to this taxation, have levied 
charges of various kinds upon the people, and 
especially upon the farmers, which amount in 
some instances to an absolute confiscation of 
the prodnoG which they send to market. 

So insutt'orable has become this mode of 
action, and so pernicious this system of politi- 
cal management that its evil influences have 
found their way into our trade circles as well, 
and business morality— perhaps we should say 
immorality — has reached such a point in many 
of our largo cities, that af nrst it seems as 
though nothing short of an actual revolution 
could bring about a change for the better. A 
most shocking state of corruption has also been 



developed in high places, in almost every de- 
partment of our national government; but 
the people have finally and suddenly become 
thoroughly aroused, and the indications now 
are that a tornado is gathering which will soon 
utterly sweep out of existence everj' vestige of 
this long and terrible misrule. This move- 
ment is not confined to any one section or 
State, but is as wide-spread and as deep- 
seated as has been the evil, which it seeks 
to uproot. In some of the States, where the 
movement was commenced 
at an early day, large and 
important results have al- 
ready been reached. In 
our own State, peoples' 
movements in several of 
the counties have been 
organized under the most 
flattering auspices and are 
daily gathering strength. 

The farmers, especially, 
have become fully aroused, 
and the progress which 
they are making to aid in 
this grand movement their 
brethren connected with 
other producing interests, 
are more fully detailed un- 
der an appropriate head, 
and in another column. 
We would conclude these 
remarks, so out of our 
usual course of discussion, 
but yet so imperatively 
called for at this particu- 
lar time with the following 
quotation from one of our 
city cotemporaries: 

"It would bo a novel 
spectacle, if, as the issue 
of all these movements, 
the people in a large por- 
tion of California should 
secure the management of 
their own local att'airs, and 
if the Legislature which 
isjito assemble in Decem- 
ber should acknowledge 
an allegiance higher than 
that of mere party. 
We should then be in a 
position to treat on some- 
thing like terms of equahty 
with the overshadowing 
monopolies which are 
everywhere putting the 
Qasses to their metal. 
When they secure posses- 
ion of their own Boards 
if Supervisors and their 
iwn Legislatures, they will 
be in a position to grapple 
with these groat powers, 
but not before. Wo shall 
then have a ringing elo- 
quence i n high official 
quarters, whenever the 
rights of the common- 
wealth or any integral part 
of it are assailed, and not 
the shameful silence and 
acquiescence o f former 
years." 

Qbaim fob Poultry. — 
There is no other grain 
that is relished so well by 
fowls as Indian corn. It 
must always continue to 
be, as now, the Ameri- 
can poulterer's main reliance; for, although 
too fattening to use in certain cases, it pos- 
sesses more nutriment for the price than 
any other grain, and is always to bo obtained. 
Corn can bo given ground and nnground, raw 
and cooked. Oats we prefer ground fine, as 
otherwise the hulls are too harsh and bulky. 
With wheat bran and middlings, wheat in the 
kernel, barley and buckwheat, there need be 
no difficulty in avoiding monotony. Rye, 
though the poorest grain of, all. may be given 
occasionally, and brewers grains, if conven- 
ient. 

Prof. Davidson lectures on Trigonometrical 
Mensuration before the Academy next Tuesday. 



I 



18 



^s.§mm mwm^& ipassB* 



[July 12, 1873. 



i||ORRESPONDENCE. 



State Fair Premiums on Stock. 

Eds. Pbess:— I have before me the list of 
premiams to be awarded by the State Agricul- 
tural Society, at their twentieth annual fair, 
to be held at Sacramento, in September next, 
and with your permission will review the cat- 
tle department through your columns, point- 
ing out to the committee on premiums such 
alterations as in my opinion would prove ad- 
vantageous. Said committee will probably 
state that it is too late to make any changes for 
the coming fair. I do not agree with them on 
this point. However, if worth considering at 
all, the recommendations may well be kept in 
mind for future use. 

There are oflfered on each of the following 
breeds, viz: Durham, Devon, Hereford, Ayr- 
shires, Aldemey, Jersey, Holstein and Holder- 
ness, class prizes to the amount of $340, or 
say an aggregate for all the breeds of $2,720. 
No second premiums, whatever, are oflfered. I 
believe that the oflScers of the State Agricultur- 
al Society are well aware that there are neither 
Hereford nor Holderness cattle on the coast; 
there are perhaps half a dozen Holsteins, all 
told; and as to Alderneys and Jerseys, I, at 
least, know of no difference between them, and 
wonld like to know at what fairs (besides our 
own) our worthy oflficers heard of separate 
premiums being awarded to them. The class 
premiums, therefore, instead of aggregating 
$2,720, do not amount to over $1,700. Would 
it not have been more sensible, and far more 
satisfactory to the exhibitors, and breeders 
generally, to have offered this difference of 
$1,000 and upwards in prizes for second best 
animals. 

Besides, in cases where two animals are very 
nearly alike in quality, this award of 1st and 
2d prizes tends to make the judges more care- 
ful in their selection of and decision as to 
which is the best animal in his class. I do not 
think there is another State in the Union that 
boasts of as old a Stite Agricultural Society as 
ours does, where one, and only one premium 
is offered for each class. 

Finally, did not the cattle breeders, at the 
request of several members of the State Agri- 
cultural Society, draw up and recommend a 
schedule of premiums for the coming fair? 
What came of the recommendation? Are the 
cattle of so small a consideration at the exhi- 
bition that their breeders' opinions, even when 
requested, are not worthy of notice? 

Our agricultural society is too poor to award 
even a "ribbon " to the second best 4-year old 
bull on the grounds, but it can afford to be- 
stow a silver medal on a " miss under ten years 
of age who exhibits the 'best shoulder brace and 
corsets, ' and to give $5 for the ' best pair 
of gent's dress boots ' or $3 for a 'pair of 
lady's gaiters' " (garters with good calves in 
them, might have passed for something in the 
agricultural line. ) 

A prize of $150 is offered for the best 
herd of thoroughbred cattle of not less than 10 
head, and not more than 4 males. In Ohio, 
Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, etc., where thor- 
oughbreds have been bred for years past, and 
where one county holds as many as our whole 
State, the utmost asked for in a herd is a ' bull 
and five heifers; ' whilst, in our State, but just 
commencing to import thoroughbreds, in order 
to compete for the handsomest premium, a 
herd of ten is asked for. Our worthy Commit- 
tee on Premiums should have remembered 
that it is not the quantity that makes the best 
herd, but quality; and, that even in the Eastern 
States, he will find comparatively few herds, 
that can raise ten show animals. Also, that the 
blood of five choice animals will do more to 
improve the cattle of this State, than that of 
one hundred inferior. 

"The Bull receiving first premium in sweep- 
stakes, will not be allowed to compete for the 
first premium with five of his calves." Why 
not? Does the committee suppose that the 
best ball in appearance. Is bound to be the best 
breeder? The committee it seems to me, 
either forgets, or does not know, that in award- 
ing a prize for best bull and five of hia calves, 
the bull should be judged by the proofs of his 
breediru) properties, i. e. by his calves, and not 
by his individual points. For instance, a bull 
slightly inferior to the Sweepstakes Bull may 
have been bred to cows superior to those 
coupled with the latter, and raised better 
calves than the latter, thereby entitling the 
first to the premium. 

It is surely not too late to add that a ribbon 
will be awarded to the second best animals; 
nor to reduce the number of the heard; nor to 
strike out this last, to me, apparently foolish 
clause regarding the exclusiou of the Sweep- 
stakes Bull from competing for the five calves 
premium. 

Before closing this letter, I would call the 
attention of the State Board of Agriculture 
to an important fact, which has been discussed 
by all the Breeders and Exhibitors. It is as 
follows: 

That it is useless for them to exhibit their 
stock if the Judges have to walk a distance of 
several hundred yards in examining, and com- 
paring different animals. When several are 
competing in one class it is impossible for 
them, or the best of Judges, to make a fair 
comparison or arrive at a just decision, unless 



the animals are standing close by each other. 
It is their opinion that a ring should be formed, 
a time appointed and advertised, when the 
different classes will be called out for inspect- 
ion, and that the awards be made on the spot. 
We will then not only be able to judge of the 
Judges, but shall also feel satisfied that our 
9xhibitions have been duly inspected. 

Bbeedkr. 



Silk Worms at Sonoma. 

Editoe Kueal Pbess: — In my last, mention 
was made of the silk-growing establishment at 
the town of Sonoma, Sonoma county. 

On visiting this, we were kindly shown 
through by the proprietors, who gave us gen- 
eral information with regard to it, as well as to 
the process and particular points connected 
with the growing and feeding of the worms, 
which was truly a novelty to the writer, it be- 
ing our first instruction upon this line of enter- 
prise. But it being a familiar one to many, 
and as possibly most of your readers are better 
posted than we are, with our single lesson, we 
will pass this, simply saying that it would be 
of interest to any one to visit one of these, who 
is not familiar with the source and tedious 
process of manufacturing those gauzy silks 
which rustle past us here and there, a portion 
often being used to dust the sidewalk, etc. 

This can hardly be called a silk manufactory 
however, as yet, the company simply raising 
eggs to supply foreign markets now; but if suc- 
cessful will not only manufacture to some ex- 
teirt, but grow cocoons for the California sup- 
ply. 

Mr. Romulus Bonhomme, the Superintendent 
of the establishment, who has had thirty years 
experience in Europe, and suffering a loss from 
the disease with the worms, for several years, 
concluded to try a different locality. Coming to 
California, for that purpose, he first began his 
enterprise at Los Angeles, where he remnined 
one year, during which he produced and ship- 
ped "back to France 450 ounces of eggs, al- 
though many things occur^d, which were serious 
draw-backs to the business. 

Thinking the climate at that place rather too 
dry and warm, and having spent some lime 
in the interior counties, he found this the 
best according to his ideas, the leaves being 
much better for feeding. One thing convinc- 
ing him more thoroughly, it being a fact that 
silk worms, together with the trees for feeding, 
will thrive better in sections where thel grape 
is most successful, especially if rather a moist 
atmosphere, and with prospects thus far it bids 
fair for a success. 

A company was incorporated on the 20th of 
February '73, called the San Francisco Seri- 
cnltural Association, with a stock of 4, COO 
shares at $2.00 per share of which Mr. 
Bonhomme took 2,000 shares. 1,000 shares 
were taken among about a dozen different par- 
ties, while the remaining 1,000 are held in 
reserve. The officers are Jos. Godchaux, Presi- 
dent; Julius Jacobs, Vice President; Serxas 
Soloman, Treasurer; A. Noel, Secretary; K. 
Bonhomme, Superintendent; Cbas. Hughes, 
foreman. 

The eggs which Mr. B. brought with him 
from Europe for starting, were from the base 
of the Alps, called Eiom, which were badly dis- 
eased there, but on growing them here were 
found to be perfectly healthy and strong, which 
accounts for the trade in eggs, to portions of 
Europe. 

An arrangement was made for leaves at So- 
noma with parties near; and securing an adobe 
building began operations. By the way, Mr. B. 
thinks the adobe building much better for this 
use than any wooden building, as a more even 
temperature can be preserved. 

They first began hatching about the first of 
April, which was rather early for that climate; 
the frost killing the leaves, of course the stock 
was lost, from which they estimate a loss oc- 
cured of 1,000 ounces of eggs, which possibly 
would have been produced. However they have 
since been very successful. They have be- 
sides the "Riom" a variety called the " French 
Annuals," which do equally well, Mr. B. 
thinks the climate here far better adapted to 
silk growing than most portions of Europe, 
especially on account of the rains, as fresh 
leaves can be had at all times and of the same 
quality; furthermore requiring much less care 
in gathering the leaves, and of the worm being 
strong. As the litter will not heat and steam 
tinder them, but keeps dry and nice, even, 
though a large amount is allowed to collect. 
Machinery is expected soon from France with 
which they expect to manufacture a small 
amount as samples. F. G. Sacket. 



A Fowl Comparison. 

Eds. Pbess: — As a subscriber and reader of 
your paper, I frequently see items in regard to 
poultry raising, advertisements telling the ad- 
vantages to be derived from raising fine fowls 
ad infinitum. And although not in the poultry 
business, I keep a few fowls, common dung- 
hills, as I call them. 

Last winter I set one hen and she brought 
off her brood on the 10th of January. These 
she made shift for themselves very young. She 
has raised two broods since then and is now 
settiug on the fourth lot of eggs. Her pullets 
from the first brood have been laying six weeks. 
Can any of the fine fowls show abetter record? 

I do not write this to discourage the breeding 
of fancy poultry at all, but to let some people 



know that by proper treatment, common fowls 
can be made to pay for their keeping very hand- 
somely. Colusa. 

Spring VaUey, June 27th, 1873. 

A poultry breeder just now at our elbow, 
wishes to know if the above mentioned hen, 
laid all the eggs she so maternally hatched ? 

We would like to hear from " Colusa " fre- 
quently. 

Letter from New York. 

Eds. Peess: — In passing from Southern Cal- 
ifornia by way of Central America to this far- 
away East, one expects some diversity of cli- 
mate, b\it we fotind the heat more oppressive 
in New York than at any point on the way. 
This may be a universal experience, but our 
fellow voyagers will bear us out in our testi- 
mony on this point, also upon another; that is 
the superiority of our semi-tropical fruits over 
any we could procure by the way. Oranges, 
lemons, limes, etc., that were not expected to 
keep through the hot, moist climate, are in 
perfect preservation and almost as fresh look- 
ing as when we left Los Angeles, thirty-four 
days since. 

There were no unusual pains taken to keep 
this fruit, yet but one orance in two hundred 
showed signs of decay. They were fully ripe 
when we started, showing very superior keap- 
ing qualities. 

When our Texas Pacific railroad shall be 
completed, there is no doubt but we can put 
fruits of these sorts in the Eastern markets in 
such superior condition as shall command 
ready sale at good prices. 

Therefore our fruit growers need have no 
hesitation about planting oranges wherever 
they can be grown. In this connection the ev- 
idence of Captain Austin, of the steamer 
"Arizona," is given, to the effect that he 
had eaten oranges in all countries where 
they are cultivated, and had no hesitation in 
pronouncing our fruit superior to any, in his 
estimation. 

Now this is pretty strong, yet I do not know 
that it is too strong; for we were very much dis- 
appointed to find that the Mexican and Havana 
oranges were quite inferior in every way to 
those we brought from Los Angeles; they were 
not as juicy and the seeds were larger and 
more of them; and while the pulp of the Los 
Angeles fruit would disappear and melt in the 
mouth, the Mexican and Havana fruit was 
tough, dry and full of large seeds. 

The subject of irrigation is one that is now 
demanding more than ordinary attention, 
therefore anything which beats upon that 
point should not be passed without note. In 
revisiting the scenes of our childhood and 
youth, an old ditch for irrigating a dry knoll 
in our father's grounds is found to be doing 
good service yet ; for, observing the good effect 
produced by our boyish freak, the ditch was 
repaired from time to time and now, thirty-five 
years after its first use, is doing good service 
and, as father says, is as good as a coat of ma- 
nure every year; yea: better, for it serves a 
double purpose, that of draining a swamp and 
fertilizing a barren knoll. 

Irrigation is being looked upon now, even in 
this part of the country, as of vital importance 
where formerly it was entirely ignored . 

F. M. Shaw. 

New York, June 26, 1873. 



The Best Time and Way of Transplanting 
Orange and otiier Seml-Tropical Trees. 

Bt Rev. H. H. Mbssenoeb. 

[Reported by Committee on Trees and Semi-Troplcal 

Fruits, of the San Gabriel Valley Farmers" Clal>, 

Los Angeles County, May 3, 1873.1 

Planting Young Orange Trees. 
I am asked how late the orange, lemon, and 
lime-tree may be transplanted with safety, and 
what degree of cold they will bear. 

I answer: With a good deal of safety at any 
time, provided the roots are not allowed to be- 
come dry. With regard to the tree, the best 
time is just as the sap begins to rise freely. 
With regard to the season, the warmer it is the 
better. March is good; July better; Septem- 
ber best. This presupposes the ground to be 
damp and loose; that is, that one has his 
ground well cultivated and has water to irri- 
gate at the time of planting. 

Periods of Growth. 
There are three or four distinct growths in 
the orange, etc. Leaves and branches put out, 
then harden and seem to rest. Just as the 
buds swell for a new growth is the best time to 
transplant, providing it is warm weather. 
Most people, to get the damp grounds from 
the rains of winter, plant too eariy, and so lose 
many trees. Remember a tropical tree needs 
warm loeather. 

It makes the matter safer to cut back the top 
pretty severely. Thus by transplanting these 
trees, just as they are awaking from a state of 
repose; the weather warm, and the ground in 
order; the roots kept moist, so as not to allow 
the mouths of the spongiole roots to collapse 
and harden; with some cutting back of the 
top, there need not be a loss of over two per 
cent. 

How Much Cold Can They Stand? 
Not much. Where the thermometer of 



iiights, in winter, frequently indicates 30-, 
little fruit can come to perfection, though where 
young trees, three or four years old, are grow- 
ing thriftily, they may not be much injured by 
a few frosty nights, where the thermometer 
indicates as low as 28^ for a few hours. If, 
however, you have a period of twenty-four or 
thirty-six hours so cold, all trees under eight 
years would be much injured, and those below 
three years likely killed to the ground. After 
trees have become ten or twelve years old, they 
can stand a little colder weather without ap- 
parent injury. But if this happens at bloom- 
ing time, the fruit would mostly perish. 

Budding and Grafting 
Will doubtless revolutionize the manner of pro- 
pagating the orange and the lime. This done 
on the fungus lemon stalks produces largo 
trees and fruit so much sooner than se^, that 
people will take the chances on trees of this 
kind in order to realize something soon. 1 
have several hundred six-year-old orange trees, 
none of which will measum over seven inches 
around, at the ground. I have some twenty 
five-and-one-half year old buds, a number of 
which measure twelve inches and these are 
blooming and fruiting. Some fruit the third 
year and after. 

Precaution. 

Bud the lemon stalks near the ground and 
when a foot high plant out, and sink the place, 
where the bud was inserted, from four to six 
inches below the surface of the ground. This 
prevents sprouts from the lemon root, and al- 
lows lateral roots from the orange wood. 

Cuttings of the Orange 
Do well, when carefully treated. I have a 
number of six-year old cuttings, now fine trees ; 
one measures nine inches at the ground. 
These have not 3'et bloomed, however. They 
doubtless will, next year. In Liberia, oti the 
west coast of Africa, they girdle a limb, often 
the size of one's arm, for an inch or more; then 
tie a ball of moist earth around the girdled 
place; the rainy season keeps it moist, and 
small roots start, so that they cut off the hmbs 
just below the ball and plant all together, when 
in a year or two they are bearing trees. 

H. H. Messemoeb. 

San Gabriel, June 30, 1873. 



To Have Apples Evert Yeab. — A corres- 
pondent tells three ways of having apples 
every year: 

1. Take scions from a tree in 1873, and put 
them into a good, thrifty tree, and do the 
same in 1874, and you will get fruit in alternate 
years. 

2. If you cut off the thrifty trees the growth 
of 1873 in the last of June, leaving three or 
four buds that would come out in 1874, you 
would force out the next year's buds, and gain 
one year. 

3. If you remove all the blossoms on one- 
half of your tree in the bearing year, you will 
have fruit on that half the odd year. 

These things I have done successfully. 1 
have now in bearing the Victory apple of the 
odd year, produced in this way; next year the 
scions of last year vrill bear on the regular 
year. 

Utilizing Cabcassess. — In answer to the 
question, what is the best way to dispose of 
dead animals, the Massachusetts Ploughman 
says: Tfie most economical way is to cover 
the carcase six or eight inches deep with mnck, 
and let it lie and decompose. It may take six 
months or more. It is better to put it within 
sight of the honse, if possible, so that it may 
be watched a little to keep the dogs and crows 
off. The muck or loam will absorb and retain 
the gases which are given off in the process 
of decomposition. After it has lain through a 
summer, fork over the mass and throw out the 
bones; add half a bushel of plaster or gypsum, 
and another load of earth; let it lie a month or 
two longer, when it will be fit for use. The 
bones can be broken up as much as practicable, 
put into a cask and covered with ashes, to be 
kept moistened from time to time, till they are 
softened. Every dead animal is worth saving, 
and it is very poor economy to haul it off to 
one side of the farm and leave it for the dogs 
and the crows. 



What Shall wi Pbopooate Root C urriv os 
Ik ? — Tan-bark, sawdust, clean sand, charcoal, 
finely pulverized anthracite and many other 
substances have been advised as "best to strike 
cuttings in." From our own experience, and 
from our readings, we incline to the belief that 
there are three 6««< things : First, a knowledge 
of plant life— i. e., a common sense observa- 
tion or study of natural habits, of climate, and 
the temperature which causes it to make its 
first annual growth ; second, knowledge to sup- 
ply roots and surface with just the warmth 
necessary, as well as moisture assimilative; 
third, a constant daily remembrance that the 
cutting glowing is doing so in a soil and tem- 
perature, and that a single neglect of even a 
few hours may give to it a check or derange- 
inont of system that no after care will restore. 
If these three items of plant-growing from cut- 
tings, seeds, etc., are fully complied with, then 
we think all the advised nostrums of prepared 
mixtures or distinct materials are needless. 



Br.Ass Bedsteads. — There are eighteen man- 
ufactories of brass bedsteads in Palermo, the 
capital of Sicily. The bedsteads are exported 
to Torions portions of the continent of 
Europe. 



July 12, 1873.] 



19 



\\q^e \nB pi^t^pi. 



An April Holiday. 

{Written for the Pbess by Margabet Fbances.] 

There are many pleasant summer resorts 
■within easy reach of San Francisco; where the 
over-taxed man of business — the weary school 
teacher — the anxious, burdened mother — the 
ipale invalid -the spoiled favorite of fashion, — 
■may all find healthful leisure and recreation, 
'untrammeled by the thousand petty cares that 
'track their steps at home. 

To one of these — a lovely dell, sequestered 
in the mountains north of Healdsburg, about 
eighty miles from the city, it was our good 
fortune to journey; that, in the clear, fresh 
atmosphere of the hills, we might recover the 
health and spirits lost through two weeks of 
fever. The time was the middle of April ; so 
that we had not only the zest of new scenery, 
but the zest of a new season to quicken our 
enjoyment. And how fair a month is that of 
April in California! Not here are fickle skies 
and chilling winds, and harsh reminders of the 
winter past; but song of birds, and bloom of 
roses, and mellow sunshine streaming from a 
heaven of tenderest blue. 

Thus lovely was the afternoon on which we 
bid adieu to city dust and tumult; and felt, as 
the steamer left the wharf, that for two happy 
weeks daily cares |and daily anxieties might 
be forgotten. 

Who that has ever floated over the rippling 
waters of "our glorious bay," has not thrilled 
with pride and admiration, as his eye glanced 
across its grand expanse, and drank in the 
beauty of the changing vistas that opened upon 
his view. To me it has an ever fresh and im- 
perishable charm ; and though the route pursued 
by the steamer leaving the city for Petaluma, 
is one I have many times traversed, the seduc- 
ing loveliness of the landscape wins upon me 
with each successive journey. To watch the 
green waves rising and falling; to look, for a 
moment through the narrow portals of the 
Golden Gate, out to the mysterious realm of 
ocean; to gaze upon the outlines of the distant 
hills, so exquisitely blended into such rounded, 
softened forms of majesty and grace; as one 
must see to fully understand the love which 
they inspire ; to glide past the beautiful shore 
of Marin, with its pebbly coves and green re- 
cesses, and alluring heights and hollows; and 
picture to one's self a summer home in that 
retreat, where the ear would be lulled by the 
music of the waves, and the eye satisfied with 
the largesse of nature, and the spirit calmed 
and purified from earthly dross : — Who could 
weary of such a vision? Who would not sigh 
for its return; and look back longingly, as to a 
fresh fountain in the desert of this work-a-day, 
practical life? 

Yet not to the mere sight seer — not to the 
transient comer^does the goddess of our wa- 
ters and our hills, our lakes and valleys, reveal 
her sacred treasures; but to him who leaving 
other lands, becomes the child of this — cling- 
ing to it day by day, with closer love — she 
shields at last the secret of her beauty. Senti- 
ment apart I truly think that a residence in 
California can alone create the passionate at- 
tachment for its peculiar scenery, which grows 
at last so strong. I have often smiled indig- 
nantly at the rapturous language of tourists; 
it always had in it, to me, a ring of insincerity 
that disgusted and provoked. How it is possi- 
ble that one coming from a land of summer 
verdure, and shadowing trees, and forests 
stretching to the horizon ; from changing skies 
of sun and shade; from days of sultry heat; 
from evenings warm and balmy: — how is it 
possible for him to understand, or realize in 
his own feeling, the charm that binds us here? 
This clear and brilliant atmosphere ; this cloud- 
less sky of summer; these fields green for a 
brief month or two ; these hills bare and tree- 
less, whose verdant summits will soon be 
changed to brown; these cold, clear nights; 
and mornings shrouded in ocean fog, can he 
truly say in his heart,— "I accept, I love 
it all." No, deep within his musing 
rises a rebellious murmur: "Ah, the oil 
home was fairer— far fairer— than this." 
All pardon for those who cannot share in a 
Californian's rapture! All honor to their candor, 
who refuse the new allegiance ! But shamf on 
the coward hearts and false lips, that feign an 
enthusiasm which they cannot feel. 

Ah, land of my adoption! dear art thou to 
me in every aspect. When in the dark Novem- 
ber morning, the fog lies close against the win- 
dow, and shuts the view away, how do I love 
to throw the casement open, and drink in the 
salt, refreshing moisture through every pore 
and fibre of my frame. When, in the shorten- 
ing days of Christmas, we cluster round the 
genial hearth, and see the flames sparkling 
and flashing among the logs, piled high in 
generous plenty ; how do I love to watch the 
ceasless rain, that all week long has dropped 
upon the meadows and brought to life the faded 
verdure of the hills. But in spring time — ah, 
then thou showest in thy fairest beauty; and we 
cannot choose but love thee ! And doubly dear to 
me wert thou, sweet country scenes, this April; 
when, from my long exile of eight tedious 
months, I returned to thee again. 

The evening was drawing towards sunset, as 
we left the busy town of Petaluma behind us. 
From the windows of the railroad car, we looked 
out on the level fields of grain and pasture; 
on hillsides covered with dark rows of vines; 



on gardens and orchards; on the thrifty home- 
steads of the prosperous farmers; and also, alas, 
here and there, on the sqalid cabin of the idle and 
ignorant poor white. But the deepening twi- 
light soon obscured our view, and the ruddy 
lights streaming from distant windows, and 
telling eloquently of rest and warmth for weary 
limbs, turned our thoughts wistfully towards onr 
destination. Ah, here is the long white bridge 
so well remembered ; and yonder are the clus- 
tering cottages of Santa Rosa, and the gleaming 
lamps of the crowded station seen to give us 
welcome back to old familiar scenes; for here 
our travel of the day lias ended 

Morning dawned, radiant with sunshine, 
and lovely was the scene which it enlightened! 
Never had this charming village appeared 
more beautiful to our eyes. We walked 
across the green plaza, surrounded by its neat 
white fence, to the busy Main street beyond. 
Every where, through the business portion of 
the town, could be seen signs of prospering 
activity. A row of elegant, new, brick build- 
ings had been erected during the winter, and 
occuisied as stores; the handsome Bank had 
been enlarged; and several beautiful private 
residences completed. But how shall I de- 
scribe the floral loveliness, that surrounded 
with bloom and fragrance the lowliest cottage 
and most stately mansion? "Surely, this is 
the poet's land of roses!" a stranger might 
have exclaimed; if, suddenly transported from 
the bleak Atlantic shores, his dazzled eyes had 
rested on this scene of Spring. Along the 
borders of the walks— above the windows — 
around the doors — over the porches — every- 
where, roses of every variety, form and color, 
climbed and flourished in rioting growth. 
Dark red, and pink, and palest yellow, and 
snowy white — who could say which to admire 
most? Above the arched entrance to one 
pretty cottage, a perfect coronal of white and 
red flowers rose in one clustering mass; no 
work of art could have added half so great a 
charm to that fair retreat. Beneath that fra- 
grant shadow, a dear little maiden of three 
brief summers was sporting; her white dress 
gleaming against the green leaves. She 
turned her dark eyes on us, with serious shy- 
ness a moment, as we passed: Ah, life has 
many thorns, as well as roses! Many the com- 
ing years smile upon thee, fair child, as 
smiled that April morning. 

Early in the afternoon, we drove out two or 
three miles out into the country, on the road 
leading to the redwoods — to visit our old home 
and linger a day or two in its neighborhood. 
The fields were green with wheat and barley, 
and seemed to promise a bountiful harvest; the 
orchards were blooming; though a late frost 
had wrought sad havoc among the blossoms, 
and blackened the budding vines. How de- 
lightful did every country sight and sound 
seem to our famishing eyes and ears! How 
sweet was the song of the bird— the rippling of 
water — the lowing of distant kine! How pleas- 
ant it was to watch the varied industry of farm 
life. To open the gate of the fowl-yard, and 
scatter the grain to the feathered throng; 
watching the dainty little chicks, already 
learning to claim their share; while the valor- 
ous mother-hen defended her downy brood 
from all aggressors. To watch the cows com- 
ing home from pasture at sunset; and follow to 
the milking-shed, where the rich, white stream 
was pouring rapidly into the shining tin-pail, 
under the skillful hands of the milk-maid. 
And then, when the early tea was over, how 
inviting was the cosy hearth, heaped high with 
logs and twisted branches, where the red 
flames leaped and sparkled, while from the 
windows we might gaze on the crimson and 
purple glories of evening, gilding the rugged 
mountains with passing radiance, and chang- 
ing from shade to shade, in exquisite transi- 
tion, ere they faded, before the deepening 
gloom. And ah, what long, invigorating 
strolls were ours, while the dew yet lingered 
on the grass, and all the air was vocal with the 
rapture of the dawn. Down the quiet lane, 
where the fields streched green on either side; 
and the eye might rove through charming 
vistas of wood and meadow, over-arched by the 
clear, blue sky, dappled with clouds of fleecy 
white. What clusters of wild-flowers did we 
gather — how delightfully wearied did we re- 
turn. 

But the days of our alloted sojourn soon 
passed, and we resumed our journey. As the 
train for Healdsburg left Santa Rosa at seven 
o'clock in the evening, we had but little oppor- 
tunity for observing that part of the valley 
through which it passed; for the early twilight 
soon darkened into a moonless night, and it 
was after eight, when we arrived at our destin- 
ation. We had heard so much and so constantly, 
of the beauty of Healdsburg, that our curiosity 
was quite on the alert for a first view. Nor 
were our expectations disappointed. It is in- 
deed a lovely village; and as the valley is much 
narrower here, and the hills lie closer to the 
town, the scenery is more varied than around 
Santa Rosa— at least the local scenery. 

There is scarcely any thing I more thoroughly 
enjoy, than starting out for a walk through a 
place entirely strange to me— without guide 
or compass— to make my own discoveries; and 
exult in the triumph of reaching home again, 
unaided by any friendly hand pointing out the 
path. In this manner did we ramble through 
this beautiful mountain village. The streets 
are like broad, fine country roads, smooth and 
hard; and the houses are separated by such large 
gardens attached to each, that the town 
stretches away on all sides, to quite a distance, 
till its cottages blend iupcrceptibly with the 
country homesteads. In this respect it difi'ers 
from Santa Rosa, which is almost like a small 



city, from the regularity of its streets, and 
compact form, the town ending suddenly, and 
completely, on the confines of the open country. 
No doubt this is more advantageous for busi- 
ness, but for rural enjoyment, the other is 
infinitely preferable. 

I will not expatiate on its floral loveliness, for 
that would but repeat the tale I have already 
told; but one great charm Healdsburg has, 
which Santa Rosa lacks, and that is its beauti- 
full clusters of live oak trees, which still throw 
their grateful shadow over the wide street, and 
dot the fields and hillsides with most pictures- 
que groves. The oak trees in the neighbor- 
hood of Santa Rosa are of the species known as 
icW<e oak; and neither in beauty nor practical 
use, bear any comparison to their lovelier sis- 
ters. The white oak is generally covered with 
long festoons of grey moss, resembling at a 
distance the nest of some monstrous bird, and 
its leaves are green but a month or two in 
spring; while the live oak stretches its deep 
green boughs in umbrageous shadow, through 
the sultriest heats of June and July. 

How many future excursions did we plan, 
while we walked, and admired, and loitered 
near some rural paradise — unseen by the in- 
mates. How longingly did we gaze at the dis- 
tant hills, seeming so deceptively near, looked 
at through that crystal clear atmosphere, and 
sigh to reach them. How did health and 
vigor seem to return, with each draught of that 
delicious, intoxicating air; and how inviting 
did we deem the activities of country life, 
contrasted with the dull, conventional routine 
of city life. Not that it is impossible to mold 
our life as we would wish it, under any out- 
ward circumstances; and a free nature— an un- 
trammeled spirit, will assuredly break through 
the bonds of a false and enslaving custom; 
however powerful its tyranny may be ; yet I 
remember, as we lingered for a little while near 
the entrance to one charming farm-house, 
that realized, more than any other I had 
seen in California, my ideal of a country 
home. I remember thinking mournfully, how 
much easier it were to " live one's life," in this 
retreat, than in the thronged metropolis. But 
I must needs hasten to our journey's final 
stage, lest my reader's patience fail to bear me 
company. 

[Concluded in onr next.) 

New Hoeticultubal Fertilizer. — Some 
time since we called attention to a new chem- 
ical fertilizer for horticultural purposes, sug- 
gested by Dr. Jeannel of Paris. Les Mondes 
of recent date, in commenting on results 
obtained by its use, says that it represents the 
fertilizing principles of at least one hundred 
times its weight of concentrated animal 
manure, and supplies to the plants nitrogen, 
phosphorus, potash, sulphur, and iron in a 
completely soluble state. The compound 
consists of 400 parts of nitrate of ammonia; 
200 parts biphosphate of ammonia; 250 parts 
nitrate of potash; 50 parts muriate of am- 
monia; 60 parts sulphate of lime, and 40 
parts sulphate of iron. These ingredients are 
pulverized and mixed. One dram of the pow- 
der (about a teaspoonful is then dissolved in a 
quart of water and a wineglassful of the so- 
lution given two or three times a week, in 
accordance with the health and luxuriance of 
the vegetation. 

The plants may be placed in any kind of 
earth, however poor, even pure sand, or may 
not be potted at all. It is stated that certain 
flowers, the fuchsia, for example, may be 
cultivated without earth by simply placing the 
stalk in a jar, at the bottom of which is 
an inch or so of water, just sufficient to 
cover the ends of the roots. To the fluid a 
proportional quantity of the fertilizer is added, 
as above specified, once in eight days. The 
foliaceous development of plants treated with 
the substance is said to be truly wonderful, 
and yet the rapid growth of the leaves does 
not interfere with the most luxuriant flowering. 
To this we may add that quite recently we 
have tried a compound hastily composed of 
the majority of the substances above detailed, 
merely as an experiment, on a small and 
sickly fuchsia. The plant was drooping and 
little else remained than a half dry stalk. 
After two applications of the fertilizer, its 
efi'ect was apparent, and at the end of ten days, 
during which probably half a pint of solution 
had been supplied to the earth, new shoots 
had sprung out, leaves formed, and the entire 
plant became perfectly loaded down with buds. 

How Deltas are Formed.- It appears from 
the observations of Mr. David Robertson, F. 
G. S., that in fresh water particles of clay 
were held suspended for a long time before 
wholly subsiding, while salt water, or a mix- 
ture of salt and fresh, became comparatively 
clear in the course of a few hours. The results 
showed that water only slightly brackish had a 
great power in precipitating the clay, and from 
this he concluded that the groat bulk of the 
clay carried down in solution by rivers must 
be deposited before it could reach any great 
distance from the seashore. This may throw 
some light on the formation of deltas, and on 
the silting up of the river courses within the 
influence of the tides. It may also assist in 
determining how far the glacial mud, for ex- 
ample, could bo carried into the seas by tides 
and curren ts. 

Renewal op the Reward op One Hundred 
Thousand Dollars.— The Legislature of the 
State of New York has recently renewed, for 
the period of one year, the of-.r of one hun- 
dred thjusand cioUars reward lor improvements 
in canal navigation. This will be good news 
to scores of inventors, 



Cause of the Decomposition of Eggs. 

The question of the decomposition and 
decay of eggs has been the object of numerous 
experiments, some of which seemed to lead to 
opposite conclusions. A committee of the 
French Academy have arrived at the following 
conclusions: 

1. Eggs that have not been shaken can be 
preserved quietly without fermenting or decay- 
ing. 

2. Shaken and broken eggs decompose in 
less than a month. 

3. In no stage of decay is the slightest trace 
of an organism, either animal or vegetable, to 
be found in the egg. 

The decomposition of eggs, with all signs 
of decay, and without the presence of any 
microscopic organisms, is contrary to Pasteur's 
theory, according to which every destruction 
of organic matter, and its conversion into its 
inorganic elements, is due to the development 
and increase of small organisms. U. Gayon 
has made some new experiments on this sub- 
ject, the results of which are given in Coniples 
Rendus, vol. 76, p. 232. 

By exposing unshaken eggs to the atmos- 
pheric air, at a mean temperature of 77o F., 
he found that one portion of the egg under- 
went decay, the other did not. 

On making the same experiment with shaken 
and broken eggs, some decayed, others did 
not, even for several months. 

In all cases where the eggs remained sound 
it is impossible to discover the slightest trace of 
an organism; on the contrary, in all those 
which decayed there were numerous micro- 
scopic organisms from the species of vibrones 
and mushrooms. 

These facts contradict the previous supposi- 
tions. Without anticipating any decision 
which may be obtained by further experiment, 
Gayon inclines to the opinion that the germs 
of organisms are originally present in those 
eggs which decay. 

Is There a God? 

There is a God ! The herb of the val- 
ley, the cedars of the mountains, bless 
him ; the insects sport in his beams; the 
elephant salutes him with the rising orb 
of day; the bird sings to him in the foli- 
age; the thunders proclaim him in the 
heavens; the ocean declares his immensity; 
man alone hath said, "there is no God!" 
Unite in thought at the same instant the 
most beautiful objects in nature; suppose 
that you see at once all the hours 'of the 
day, all the seasons of the year; a morn- 
ing of spring and a morning of autumn; a 
night bespangled with stars, and a night 
covered with clouds; meadows enameled 
with flowers, and forests hoary with snow; 
fields gilded by tints of autumn; then 
alone you will have a just conception of 
the universe. While you are gazing upon 
the sun which is plunging under the vault 
of the west, another admires him emerg- 
ing from the gilded gates of the east. By 
what inconceivable magic does that aged 
star, which is sinking fatigued and burn- 
ing in the shade of evening, reappear at 
the same instant, fresh and humid with 
the rosy dews of morning ? At every in- 
stant of the day the glorious orb is at 
once rising, resplendent at noonday, and 
setting in the west; or rather our senses 
deceive us, and there is, properly speak- 
ing, no east, west, north, or south in the 
world. Everything reduces itself to a 
single point, from whence the king of day 
sends forth at once a triple light in one 
substance. The bright splendor is per- 
haps that which nature can present that is 
most beautiful; for wliile it gives us an 
idea of the perpetual magnificence and re- 
sistless power of God, it exhibits at the 
same time a shining image of the glorious 
Trinity l—Chaleai/briaud. 

Keep it to Yourself. — You have trou- 
ble; your feelings are injured, your hus- 
band is unkind, your wife frets, your 
home is not pleasant, your brethren do 
not treat you just right, and things in gen- 
eral move unpleasantly. Well, what of 
it? Keep it to yourself. A smoldering fire 
can bo found and extinguished; but when 
the coals are scattered, who can pick them 
up? Firebrands when together can betrod- 
den under foot, but when tied to the tails 
of Samson's foxes, it is difficult to tell where 
thoy will burn. liury your sorrow. The 
place for sad and disgusting things is un- 
der ground . A sore finger is not improved 
by pulling ofl' the rag, and sticking it in 
everybody's face; tie it up and let it alone; 
it will get well itself sooner than you can 
cure it. Charity covereth a multitude of 
sins. Things thus covered are often 
cured without a scar; but when they are 
once published and confided to meddling 
friends, there is no end to the trouble 
they may cau.so. Keep it to yourself. 
Troubles are transient, and when a sor- 
row is healed and past, what a comfort it 
is to say, "No one ever knew it until it 
was all over with. " 



n 



20 



^^IBSB* 



[July 12, 1873. 



pi^R|NEI\S Ifi GoJ(lCiL. 

Oakland Farming, Horticaltnral and In- 
dustrial Club. 

Meeting June 27tli, Dr. E. S. Carr, Presi- 
dent, in the chair. Mr. Redstone explained a 
patent fruit and clothes dryer, introduced by 
Mr. Titcomb, of Indianapolis, Ind., where it is 
said to be much used. It is called Moffat's 
heater and fruit dryer. Its casing occupies a 
space three by two and a half feet and is five 
feet high. A stove or furnace is fixed at the 
bottom, and the heat passes from side to side as 
it rises between adjustable sieves or shelves, 
upon which the fruit is dried. Samples were 
shown of figs, apples, apricots, strawberries, 
blackberries, raspberries and currants, dried 
in from four to six hours, which wore perfectly 
bright and clean in appearance and preserving 
the flavor of fully ripe fruit. The apparatus is 
free from dust or smoke; a pure, dry current 
of heated air is constantly passing through 
the fruit when drying. It is suitable to be 
placed in a dining room as a heater and dryer. 

Mr. E. C. Sessions presented samples of a 
Sandwich Islands Grass, 
AVhich will grow throughoiit the dry season in 
our sandy climate in Oakland without irrigation. 
It seldom attains a hight of over five or six 
inches; is readily eaten by animals, but its 
growth is not sufficient to make it profitable 
for hay or forage. For nearly three inches in 
depth, the sod seemed to be a perfect matting 
of clear grass; while not so fine in color as or- 
dinary grasses, it furnishes a superior lawn for 
domestic uses; it being dry and healthy for 
children to lounge and play on. Our climate 
is 80 dry as to render constant soaking neces- 
sary to keep ordinary grass plats fresh. Too 
much moisture about residences for this pur- 
pose, is doubtless often the cause of serious 
unhealthiness. The grass is propagated by 
setting out small parcels from 8 to 12 inches 
apart; the blades reach out, take sub-roots 
and soon unite and form the thick matting de- 
scribed. 

Mr. Dwindle suggested that it would prove 
an excellent article to reclaim sandy tracts and 
prevent drifting. Another gentleman stated 
from experience that it was hard to kill. Had 
known it to reach the surface after being 
buried two feet deep. Several gentlemen took 
pieces of the samples for cultivating. Mr. 
Sessions offers generous samples to those who 
will call at his residence for them. 

Mr. Dwindle read a carefully prepared arti- 
cle on "Grasses for Dry Climates," which may 
be expected in our next issue. 
Alfalfa. 

It was stated that on some laud in our soti th- 
em counties, it took 20 acres of pasturage to a 
sheep, where now an acre of alfalfa supports 20 
sheep. 

Dr. Carr said that Mr. Flint, in the Massa- 
chusetts State Agricultural Reports, mentions 
alfalfa still growing that was planted in 1826. 
He also reported that its roots had been known 
to extend down 26 feet. Cheat is termed a rye 
grass; is good when cut at the right time, but 
woody if not. Cows, but not horses, devour it. 
Adjourned to July 25th. 

San Jose Farmers' Club. 

Club met June 28: President Casey pre- 
siding. 

Mr. Woodhams wanted to know when to pull 
flax for seed. 

Mr. HoUoway said that in Virginia, Kentucky 
and Tennessee the universal custom was to 
pull lint as soon as it would make a good arti- 
cle of seed. 

Mr. Woodhams exhibited a specimen of flax 
growii by him, and desired the opinion of the 
Club in regard to its quality and condition. 
The judgment of the Club was that the flax was 
a good article, considering the unfavorableness 
of the season. 

The question for discussion was, "Resolved 
that our oreseut school system is burdensome 
and inefficient, and should be modified. 

Mr. HoUoway said the question was of coq- 
siderable importance, especially to the tax- 
payers and the children of the community. He 
said the law requiring the schools to be kept 
open for only five months during the year, was 
wrong, that the schools should be run at 'least 
ten months during the year. 

He thought there was money enough raised 
for school purposes to do this if the funds were 
properly husbanded. He said the taxpayers 
paid into the treasury about $20 per child, and 
although he did not know where the money 
went to, he did know that the common school 
children did not get the benefit, a great percent 
age being absorbed in officers' fees and other 
appropriating processes. These enormous 
officers fees and teachers' salaries are steadily 
increasing, as the ability of the people to 
pay decreases. 

When ho first came to this country he was 
made a school trustee, and teachers then hold- 
ing a first grade certificate never pretended to 
ask more than $50 per month; now, they want 
from $60 to $100. At that time, the County 
Superintendent received a salary of $G00 per 
annum, which wa.s $000 thrown away; now he 
receives $1,500, and as I am informed, he has 
lately received $500 on a mere technicality. 

In my country, Webster's spelling books 



were considered good enough, and in those 
schools where I got my education. But here, 
unless you have just the books required by law, 
you can't have the use of your own money. 
He would like to see the system changed, and 
the taxpayers in the different districts get their 
rights, whether the laws allowed it or not. 

He would like to see the law allow the trus- 
tees if they desired to keep open a school for 
eight months, to levey and collect a tax in each 
district for that purpose, and save expense of 
so much circumlocution. He said this plan had 
worked well in many localities that he knew of. 

He held that we had no earthly use for either 
a County or State Superintendent, and that 
these offices should be abolished. In Oregon, 
the Governor is ex-officio State Superintendent; 
but down here in California, the rings have put 
these jobs on us. It is all the work of a tre- 
mendous ring, with the State Superintendent 
at the head. 

Mr. Erkson wanted to know if Mr. Holloway 
intended to say that $20 per child was collected 
by regular assessment, and only $8 appropri- 
ated. 

Mr. Holloway said it was the money raised 
from all sources, including special assessments. 

Dr. Lucky thought this $20 per child includ- 
ed all funds raised for building school houses. 
He said that the salary of County Superintend- 
ents did not come from the school funds, nor 
did the State Superintendents, County Tras- 
urers, nor officers who handled, apportioned, 
collected and disbursed the funds, receive a 
cent from the school fund for their services. 
The salary of the County Superintendent was 
fixed by the different Boards of Trustees. 

Under the present law, districts can have 
schools as long as they please, provided thej' 
are willing to tax themselves for it. The sala- 
ries of teachers are not so large as those paid 
other parties. The average salaries of 
male teachers is a little less than $75 per 
month, and the time they are employed is only 
about six months in the year. He knew there 
was room for improvement, but he also 
thought that the proper way to bring it about 
was to have the people themselves take more 
interest in the matter. 

In regard to text books, it is universally ac- 
knowledged that a uniforih system of class 
books is the best plan. In the selection of the 
books, the same motives actuated the Board of 
Education as actuate a farmer in buying 
agricultural implements. Farmers do not now 
use the same tools to cultivate their soil and 
gather their harvest they did fifty years ago; 
they want the latest improved machinery. So 
it is in the selection of implements for our 
schools. 

Mr. Holloway said that in the sehools where 
he got his education, there was no compulsory 
law in regard to the selection of text books, 
and the books there were much more uniform 
than now. Of course the farmer wants the 
best tools, but he is not compelled by law to 
use any particular pattern; but in our schools 
we are compelled to use the same books for 
four years at least, whether any improvements 
are made daring that time. 

The fact that salaries and fees of school 
officers do not come out of the school fund, he 
thought made his side of the case much 
stronger, for we find $20 per child c illected, 
and only $8 disbursed, and it becomes more 
difficult to account for the discrepancy, if none 
of it is appropriated to paying salaries. 

We need no County Superintendent more 
than for the head of statistics, and this work 
can be performed just as well by some other 
county officer. It costs $7,500 per year for the 
State Superintendent, and I have known men 
just as talented and just as virtuous as any 
Superintendent who has not in the course of a 
lifetime of hard work accumulated that amount. 
The whole school law should be repealed, and 
a new one enacted allowing the school system 
to work itself ont. 

Mr. Casey said he had some experience as 
trustee. He said the average duration of 
schools throughout the State has been only 
five mouths iu the year, and this is not enough. 
The State either ought to furnish money enough 
to keep up school eight months, or else the 
whole matter should be left to the different 
districts to use their own money. There seems 
to be an effort to build up an aristocracy of 
learning. 

The Governor vetoed the bill to give each 
school child $7.50, but approved the one giv- 
ing the State University 8300,000. If the Gov- 
ernment owes anything to the children of the 
State, it owes it to all alike. He cited the fa^^t 
that colored people living in the country have 
no facilities for educating their children, but 
must come to town, where the colored school 
is established. 

Mr. Holloway said that he agreed with Mr. 
Casey that every dime given to the high schools 
was taken away from the poor and given to the 
rich. 

Mr. Peebles said the whole school system 
was a humbug; that districts or neighborhoods 
could support private schools for less money 
than it costs now. We have to pay for our 
Normal School, and then pay the teachers; it 
turns out more than we paid for the teachers, 
when there was no Normal School, and teach- 
ers were comparatively scarce. 

Mr. Hobson's objection to the system was 
that they educated the children to believe that 
it was not necessary to work for a living; or, 
to get high salaries with little or no labor. 

Mr. Erkson thought the strictures on the 
school system were in some cases just, but he 
approved the action of the Board of Education 
in making the text books uniform. 

Dr. Lucky said he had never lived in a place 



where the school system was not liable to some 
objections; but it is conceded all over the 
Union that the system of California is one of 
the least objectionable of any in the United 
States, the framers having the systems of all 
other States to copy from . 

On motion, the discussion was laid over un- 
til next meeting. — Mercury. 

Club met July 5th, President Casey presid- 
ing. 

Mr. Ware from the Sack Committee reported 
that the price was advancing, and the best fig- 
ure that can be had now is 14}/« cents on GO 
days' time. He stated that a report was extant 
in commercial circles that one of the vessels on 
the way to California with sacks had been 
forced into one of the ports of South America 
in distress, and that it was not probabl e that 
her cargo could be got here in time to be of use 
this season; but whether this report is in ac- 
cordance with the facts or in the interest of the 
dealers he did not know. Auzerais would not 
sell a sack for less than 15 cents. Pflster & 
Co. would take 14 cents to-day. The speaker 
thought a rise in sacks was sure to come. 

Mr. Erkson said that although the attend- 
ance at the Club was small, the proceedings 
went into every portion of the county through 
the columns of the Mercury. That he had been 
met with questions from parties in all locali- 
ties, evincing a lively interest in the reports of 
the Club meetings, and although few were 
present nearly every farmer had the benefit of 
its doings through the columns of the paper. 

In the matter of selecting a question for the 
next meeting the following was adopted : 

Resolved, That the farmers of this valley 
should raise a sufficient quantity of potatoes 
for home consumption. 

Mr. Holloway said that the Supervisors had 
so construed the Code in relation to the election 
of Commissioner of Highways as to render 
it inoperative in Santa Clara county, inasmuch 
as they have declared that we have a special 
road law. The speaker hoped that no nomina- 
tion would be made for this position, as it is 
desirable to escape the expense of the office if 
possible. In addition he said that the condi- 
tions of the office would make it a complete 
black mailing machine, and didn't believe 
that any risk should be taken. 

The regular debate was on the resolution in 
regard to the public school system laid over 
from last meeting. — Mercury. 

[Here a lengthy debate ensued, after which 
the Club adjourned. — Eds. Rpkal Press.] 

Farmers' Club, Compton. 

Editobs Pbess : — The following preamble 
and resolutions were introduced, discussed at 
length, and adopted by the Club at its regular 
meeting, June 7th— only two members dis- 
senting: 

Whereas, All our Bister States have long since re- 
cognized the one great principle that duty to our eoun- 
try refjulres of each State to recognize any circulating 
medium the General Government may impose on it as 
currency, dollar tor dollar. 

Whebeas, This State has not yet acknowledged that 
great principle, having by her refusal to repeal the Spe- 
cific Contract Law allowed her citizens to repudiate 
oar national currency at will. 

Wheeeas, We not only believe this to be a direct in- 
sult to our General Goverment, but hat it has been 
and will continue to be until the Specific Contract 
Law is repealed, the cause of a great financial want 
throughout the State. And, 

Whekueas, We believe that were this noxious law re- 
pealed that millions of dollars would seek our Coast 
for Investment that are now seeking Investment in 
other States, under less auspicious circumstances, 
rather than sofier the shave of changing currency for 
gold. Therefore, be It 

Kasotved, By the members of this club assembled, 
that wo earnestly solicit the co-operation of each club 
in this county and throughout the State in aiding us to 
cause to be repealed that law known as the Specific Con- 
tract Law. 

Resnlv'd, That we as a body pledge ourselves to give 
our suffrage to those legislative candidates, and those 
only, who imconditionally pledge themselves tt) en- 
deavor to repeal, or cause to be repealed, said law. 

ResoUed, 'i\Mt wo earnestly invite all classes of la- 
borers, and all others that sympathize with us in this 
undertaking, to unite with us that we may sooner ac 
complish this object. 

Resolved, That we offer the foregoing preamble and 
resolutions to all papers for publication that sympa- 
thize with us suihciently to publish them. 

J. A. Walker, Secretary. 

Compton, Los Angeles Co., June 14, 1H73. 

Give Us the National Cureenct. — The 
Mendocino Democrat desires to make the cur- 
rency question a political issue. And the San 
Diego World, an influential Democratic paper, 
says: " Public sentiment is now ripe for mak- 
ing it a standard of qualification for candidates 
for either house of the Legislature that the 
persons seeking those positions should pledge 
themselves to a law which, in express terms, 
will validate the payment of taxes in green- 
backs . Such an enactment will set the seal 
upon this salutary revolution." The leaders 
of the Democratic party, as well as the rank 
and file, hold the same sentiments. It would 
be political death for any one outside of San 
Francisco to do otherwise. — San Jose Mercury. 



Temescal Grange. — The first Grange In Ala- 
meda County was organized on Monday eve- 
ning, July 7th, to be known as the Temescal 
Grange. The following is a list of the officers 
as elected : Master — A. T. Dewey ; Overseer — 
Christian Bagge; Lecturer — Dr. E. S. Carr; 
Steward — J. B. Wolsey; Assistant Steward — 
John Kelsey; Treasurer — John Collins; Secre- 
tary — C. H. Dwindle; Gate Keeper — P. H. 
Cordes. 



Our April Frosts. 

Fruit growers in California will be likely to 
remember for years, the unusually severe frosts 
of the first week in;April, 1873, for there were 
but few places, and these of limited extent, 
that wholly escaped. The question is asked by 
an Eastern correspondent, whether we are not 
likely to be often visited by a similar calamity 
in following years, and whether its occurrence 
last Spring will not be likely to deter many 
from the culture of the semi-tropical fruits? 

AVe had supposed that in nearly every in- 
stance where the Press of the State made men- 
t ion of its killing effects, that it was generally 
accompanied by the assertion that the severity 
of the frost was almost or quite unprecedented; 
that for twenty years at least, such a frost had 
not before occurred so late in the season, and 
judging from that standpoint, perhaps it might 
be many years before a like occurrence would 
be repeated; and we are inclined to this opinion. 

As showing that California, among the semi- 
tropical fruit growing States, was not alone in 
its suffering, we append from the monthly 
Report of the Department of agriculture, the 
following: 

Severe Frosts in South Carolina. 

Our correspondent in Fairfield County re- 
ports that, on the night of April 13, a more 
damaging frost occurod than has visited this 
section since 1849. The ground, where moist, 
was frosen to some depth. Com that was 
large enough for the plow and hoe was killed 
beneath the surface. Wheat that had begun to 
develop heads was killed to the ground. Fruit 
was entirely destroyed. Peaches, as large as 
pigeon's eggs, " are as black as night." Cot- 
ton that was up was ruined, but owing to a 
drought of some six weeks, the most of the 
cotton-seed in the ground had not sprouted, 
and, therefore, the frost has not materially af- 
fected the prospects for a cotton-crop. 

Our correspondent in Greenville County also 
reports on the morning of April 26 the most 
destructive frost in that locality which has oc- 
curred within the memory of the living. 
Grape-vines that had grown •' upwards of a 
foot " were killed outright. Indigenous varie- 
ties of grape-vines suffered the most. His own 
Scuppemongs are all destroyed for this year. 
The Concords stood it the best. Ho has never 
before known grape-fruit to be destroyed by 
frost in that county, though his remembrance 
extends back nearly fifty years. 

Cherries, plums, and strawberries, all nearly 
grown, were killed. Even blackberry and 
raspberry blossoms were smitten, though not 
all. Potato-tops, nearly six inches high, were 
cut down to the ground, and peas, radishes, 
and beets were killed absolutely. Forest-trees 
were blackened, the common maple being the 
only tree among the deciduous which escaped 
uninjured. Next to that in power of resisting 
the frost were the red elm, the beech, and the 
hickory, in the order named. 

Abusing Milch Cows. 

Harris Lewis, an eminent Herkimer county, 
N. Y., dairyman says in a late address to milch 
producers, that he had known a cow which 
uniformly ^avo eighteen per cent, of cream 
with her milk, to decrease her yield to six per 
cent, in the short space of twelve hour?, merely 
from the excitement caused by the bad treat- 
ment of a brutal milker. There is no dumb 
animal more seusative of its treatment than 
the milch cow. Every thing that is done in 
the way of feeding, sheltering, kind care, and 
good treatment of the cow, adds to both quality 
and quantity of the milk. 

On the other hand, if you pound, stone, 
whip, run or drive the cow fast, you will depre- 
ciate her value as milker. Many herders are 
in the habit of running their cows, and vhen 
they get near, give them a cut or a blow with 
the whip. The man who herds milch cows, 
should be all patience, and exercise as much 
kindness as a mother does over her child. 

Never start the cow into a fast walk or run: 
if she does so of her own accord, slacken the 
pace of your horse, until she goes slowly and 
leisurely along. We hear many of our neigh- 
bors and townspeople complain of their cows 
failing in their milk. This is owing to fast 
driving by the herder, or want of feed or some 
other cause that should be looked after and 
corrected at once. 

Hops. — An interview with a gentleman who 
is cultivating a large field of these vines, on 
the Merced River bottoms, has furnished us 
with some interesting facts. In the East«rn 
States, generally, the vines do not yield the 
first year; the second year a crop of 1,000 
pounds to the acre is expected; and in the 
third year the full crop of 1,500 pounds per 
acre is obtained. But on the Merced River 
bottoms a field of hops yielded the first year 
1,500 lbs., and will give 2,000 fcs. this year. 
The expensa of cultivation and picking 
amounts to about 12% cents per pound, while 
the price paid for the crop varies generally 
from 20 to 65 cents per pound. This margin 
for profit is immense. — Allfi. 

The WoiiK Goes Bravely On. — Just as we 
go to press we have received a letter from Mr. 
L. M. Holt, who writes that he was just start- 
ing with Mr. Baxter, to organize Granges at 
Valley Ford and Bodega. This will make two 
more Granges to be represented at Napa City, 
on Tuesday next. 



July 12, 1873.] 



wM.mwm - 1 



'>! 



^q!\IClJLTJ(^i^L fI@7ES. 



AliAKEDA. 

Transcript, July 2: Fike at Livbbmoke. — 
A telegraphic dispatch from Livermore, in 
this county, yesterday, states that a fire broke 
out about noon on the ranch of Martin Men- 
denhall, destroying about thirty acres of fine 
looking grain. The immediate assistance of 
many men prevented what would otherwise 
have been a serious conflagration in the wheat 
fields of Livermore valley. It is said the fire 
originated from the burning of debris along 
the railroad, which the section men failed to 
extinguish as they went to dinner. Threshing 
will soon commence, as the weather is warm, 
and the grain is ripening fast. The yield will 
be much larger than expected. 

Encinal, July 5: The Feuit Season. — Cher- 
ries and currants have about had their day in 
this vicinity, and the supply of both has been 
exceedingly large and excellent. Peaches, 
nectarines, pears and apples, will follow, and 
they also promise a full supply, and a fair re- 
muneration to the producers. 

The San Lorenzo fruit preserving establish- 
ment commenced operations on Thursday af- 
ternoon of last week, and are now driving 
their machinery with full force. It is a gigan- 
tic enterprise. The building in which the pre- 
serving process is accomplished looks like a 
large and prosperous milling establishment, 
and is visible long before reaching San Loren- 
zo. 

Gazelle, July 5: Shad in California Waters. 
— Shad intended for our waters, were uncere- 
moniously dumped from a piscatorial car into 
a stream on the plains, a few weeks ago. Two 
years since, the great pisciculturist, Seth 
Green of Kochester, New York, planted some 
thousands of the infantile shad in clear waters 
of the Upper Sacramento. They have been 
heard from, for one "put in an appearance" at 
the hall of the Academy of Sciences, a few 
weeks since. And now we get information 
which will be pleasing to all lovers of this deli- 
cate fish, to the efiect that Livingston Stone, 
who left the Hudson Kiver last Thursday, with 
40,000 shad for the Sacramento, San Joaquin 
and Alameda county streams, has passed Car- 
lin, and will be here this evening. We would 
willingly exchange millions of our finest sal- 
mon for Hudson River shad, broiled brown on 
a gridiron. Toothsome — aye verily! 

Journal, June 28: The Crops. — In spite of 
the predictions so freely indulged in by the 
croakers, that there would not be any grain 
raised in California this year, and as a result 
the farmers would be bankrupt, the yield pro- 
mises to be greater than that of last year. It 
is true this has been a comparatively dry year, 
but in many counties the yield is greater this 
year than it was last, and, in those counties 
where the drought has been detrimental to the 
crop, the aggregate yield will be greater 
than that of last year, because of the greater 
area cultivated. It is estimated that the yield 
will exceed that of last year by more than 500,- 
000 centals, or 25,000 tons. The question of 
tonnage naturally suggests itself in this connec- 
tion, and judging from past experience, it will 
be difficult to get vessels enough to transport 
the surplus crop to a foreign market even at 
the present ruinous high rates of freight". 

AUADOB. 

Ledger, July 5th : Night Blooming CEREtrs. — 
On Monday morning we called at the hand- 
some residence of Mr. C. Weller to see one of 
the most beautiful sights, in the shape of a 
flower, that it has been our fortune to witness 
in this section of the country, a Night Bloom- 
ing Cereus. It bloomed about 11 o'clock on 
Sunday night, and at 8 o'clock the flower was 
magnificent. The leaves are long and exceed- 
ingly delicate, and of a heavy deep pink in the 
centre, gradually growing to a pale pink at the 
outer edge. It is from four to five in. length, 
and of an oval shape. In a few days th^re will 
be four more of these handsome flowers bloom- 
ing, and to the lovers of the beautiful we would 
say, call and see them. 

ooiitrsA. 

Sun, July 5: How Frcit Raisers are Bleu. 
— At a meeting of the Sonoma Grange recently 
held in Healdsburg, illustrations were given 
showing the oparation of the "toll-gatherer by 
the sea, " and how he plucks the farmers and 
consumers. A farmer near Healdsburg sent 
one hundred and fifty pounds of very fine cher- 
ries to a commission merchant in San Fran- 
cisco, when they were quoted at from forty to 
forty-five cents per pound, (jobbing rates,) and 
he received for his lot but five cents per pound 
and had to pay his own freight; but the same 
man also sent a lot of very fine Oxheart cher- 
ries to the city in the same manner; they were 
quoted at seventy-five cents per pound, and he 
received from his commission merchant eight 
cents per pound for his fruit. — .Vac. Bee. 

The co-operation of the farmers is the only 
thing that will put a stop to the toll-gathering 
proclivities of the San Francisco people. They 
look upon the balance of the State as legiti- 
mate game, and are very much astonished if 
any one objects to being robbed by them. By 
a very little concert the farmers can sell, not 
their own Oxheart cherries, but can store their 
wheat outside of the city, and have it got on 
ship-board from their own wharf. Let ring 
meet ring, and power, power. 

If the Granges of Farmers throughout the 
State will take the matter in hand they can 
gather into their Savings banks at least fifty 
millions of dollars. This would be sufficient 
to relieve the ueceasities of the entire farming 



community. There is nothing more certain 
than this. 
OONTBA COSTA. 

Gazette, June 28: Thresher and Grain 
Burned. — From some not clearly ascertained 
cause, but as supposed from matches dropped 
accidently on the stack and fed into the ma- 
chine with the straw, a grain separator belong- 
ing to Messrs. Simpson, Wells and Clark, of 
this place, was set on fire and burned up on 
Saturday last at Bay Point, together with two 
stacks of wheat, containing as estimated about 
three hundred sacks. The wheat belonged to 
Captain Peter Hanson and Mr. John Den- 
kinger, and the loss sufi'ered by the casualty is 
some six or seven hundred dollars. 

New Hat. — The Messrs. Fish Brothers are 
filling the ferry warehouse at Martinez with 
new crop, baled hay, of excellent quality, of 
which they have probably a hundred and fifty 
tons already housed and are still constantly 
hauling from the ranch. 
MARIN. 

Journal, July 3: Farm Houses— California 
needs ten thousand good farm houses. They 
should cost on an average two thousand dol- 
lars each. They would be built in the next 
twelve months, but for one thing. The farmer 
says "I cannot afford it. My house would be 
assessed at fifteen hundred dollars, and the tax 
would be at least forty-five dollars per annum. 
I prefer to live in a cabin till taxes are lower. 
This is a rent, and I do not like to pay a rent 
for my own property." The Legislature can and 
must see that the ratio of taxation is reduced. 
This is one of the great impediments to our 
prosperity. 

Another Grange. — The people of Bodega 
Corners, says the Healdsburg Flag, want to 
organize a Grange, and have applied to us for 
necessary information. There are now in this 
county five Granges and eight or ten more can 
and will be organized. Before the cluse of the 
season there will be fifteen hundred members 
in Sonoma county. 
MERCED. 

Tribune, July 5: Farmers' Granges. — The 
good work of organizing Farmers Granges of 
the Patrons of Husbandry is still going on 
throughout the 1 ind. There is a great deal 
more of good, practical sense in forming these 
organizations for the mutual benefit of the tillers 
of the soil, than to stand on street corners and 
curse monopolies. 

Irrigation Mass Meeting. — By reference to 
a call published elsewhere, it will be seen 
that a mass meeting of the farmers of this 
county will be held at the Court House on Sat- 
urday, July 12th. The question of irrigation 
is one that concerns every resident of this 
county, no matter what his occupation, and 
there ought to be a large turnout. 

New Wheat. — Large quantities of new wheat 
is being shipped from this point. Two hun- 
dred tons have been received this week at 
Friedlander's grain warehouse. The first 
shipment — five car-loads — was made Wednes- 
day. The new grain is clean, plump, and of 
a quality superior to that of last year. 

In this county there are large bodies of land 
on the Merced river, Mariposa and Bear Creeks, 
that, we think, are peculiarly adaptjd to the 
cultivation of the tobacco plant. Parties rais- 
ing tobacco who are unacquainted with the 
method of curing it, can have it cured by the 
process patented by Mr. J. D. Culp, of Gilroy. 
What enterprising farmer will be the first to 
demonstrate that the culture of tobacco can be 
made a paying industry in Merced county? 
NAPA 

Reporter, July 5: Fine Yield.— -Mr. Robe- 
son, of Oakville, had his grain threshed on 
Tuesday last by Mr. Piatt. Mr. Robeson had 
based his calculations on ten sacks to the acre, 
as the piece ef wheat had a number of trees in 
it, and was badly infested with squirrels. He 
was agreeably surprised to find that his yield 
was thirteen sacks to the acre instead of ten. 
This fact goes to prove that crops in Napa 
have been under, instead of over estimated, and 
farmers in good wheat locations may look for 
fifteen sacks to the acre. 

Register, July 5 : Vinesard of Me. Shulzb. — 
We visited lately the well kept and orderly 
vineyard of Mr. Shulze, on the Springs road, 
half a mile from the depot. Mr. S. has here 
sixteen acres of land, fifteen of which are in 
vines, and and acre devoted to house-lot. Mr. 
S. only built here 2y, years ago, and has al- 
ready, by that thrift and care which is charac- 
teristic of his countrymen, made himself one 
of the pleasantest homes in the neighborhood. 
The house is surrounded by fruit trees, shrub- 
bery, vines and flowers, and is a pleasure to 
look at, instead of the dry, treeless, box-like 
affairs, which, from want of taste or care, too 
often pass for homes. 

His vineyard contains 12,900 vines, of which 
9,000 are Black Malvoisie, Mr. S's. favorite. 
The balance are of the Berger, Zinfindel, Reis- 
ling. Golden Chasselas, and Muscatel varieties. 
As to a crop this year, he estimates his chances 
at only about a third, expecting fifteen tons, 
instead of the forty tons he would have had 
but for the frost. 

We spoke lately of Mr. Allison's big wheat 
crop, which he was making into hay, estimat- 
ing its yield at 4J/^ tons to the acre. It has 
done even better than that, turning out at 
least five tons per acre, worth $12 a ton on 
the ground. 
PliAOEB. 

Herald, July 5 ; Harvest Yield. — We are in- 
formed from the best authority that the har- 
vest of small grain in the western part of 
Placer this year, will average, at the lowest 
estimate, about fifteen bushels to the acre. 



This does not seem much of a yield; but from 
what we know of grain growing in California, 
and considering the season has been so very 
dry, and that much of the grain was sown 
quite late, we call it a good average. If every 
county in the State has done as well by five 
bushels to the acre, there will be an abundance 
of grain, and at present prices, provided too 
much is not consumed in transportation, the 
farmers will escape the recently threatening 
failure without serious losses. 

Auburn Potatoes. — During the present week 
Dr. J. R. Crandall furnished our family a 
very superior lot of Early Rose potatoes, 
grown at his place, in Auburn. Many people 
here, and ourselves among the number, have 
labored under the impression that this section 
of our county was not adopted to the growth 
and yield of choice potatoes, but the Doctor 
has caused that false impression to vanish 
from our mind by showing us the fine yield 
and splendid Early Rose potatoes he has pro- 
duced right here in Auburn. These potatoes 
far excel anything that can be found in otir 
stores, no matter from what section of the 
country they may come. 

SANTA CLARA. 

Mercury, July 2: General business has been 
much better than is usually the case during 
June. The shipments of merchandise have 
been very large, every branch of business be- 
ing fairly represented, although grocers have 
kept the lead. The harvesting of our fruit crop 
has furnished money for trading, and the traffic, 
although not large, has been very satisfactory. 

The unexpected yield of the wheat crop has 
placed the farmers in good humor, and in- 
creased the sale of agricultural implements be- 
yond what was anticipated in the early part of 
the season. The fruit crop is short, the yield 
of nearly every variety showing a decrease from 
that of last year. This, however, does not ser- 
iously afi'ect the producers, as the increase in 
the price more than counter balances the defi- 
ciency of the crop. Strawberries, during the 
continuance of the first crop, sold at retail here 
in the city at 12,>^ cents, with the exception of 
a few days, when it dropped to ten cents, but 
soon rose again. The second crop, which is 
now coming in, promises a much larger yield, 
and a consequent decline in prices. 

In wheat there has been little doing, scarce- 
ly any having changed hands. The warehouses 
at Alviso are emptied of the old crop, and this 
is the case, we understand, with the store- 
houses down the valley. The new crop has not 
yet begun to come in. 

California Fruit Wonder. — A company of 
gentlemen from San Francisco were visiting 
Senator Maclay's, in Santa Clara, a few days 
ago, and observed on one of the winter pear 
trees some fruit of last year's growth. They 
had it pulled, and strange to say, the fruit was 
in excellent eating condition, and as fresh and 
luscious as it was months ago. The new crop 
on the same tree was as large as English wal- 
nuts, and the tree groaning with its immense 
weight of fruit. This may sound strange, but 
nevertheless it is true. There was the fruit of 
last year's growth perfect a few days ago, and 
the new crop half grown on the same tree. Let 
the world beat itif they can. Truly this is the 
Promised Land. 
SANTA CRTTZ. 

Sentinel, Znue 11: Chops. — Farmers are now 
busy cutting their hay crop, and baling it. On 
an average there will be as much hay in market 
this year as last, and a better quality. Grain 
looks well, and a far better yield is now report- 
ed than before expected. Where only a half 
retui'n was expected, from three-fourths to a 
full crop will be harvested. This favoiable 
turn was caused by the continued cloudy and 
cool weather, with heavy fogs at night, during 
the month of June and the latter part of May. 
Corn looks well and potatoes are doing finely. 
We will also have abundance of fine fruit 
this summer. 
SONOMA. 

Russian River Flu<j, i\i\y 'i: Grange at Bo- 
dega. — A correspondent informs us that a peti- 
tion now has nearly enough signatures to or- 
ganize a Grange at Bodega Corners, and says 
that the organization there will be a success. 
That will make the sixth Grange in Sonoma 
county. We hope to hear that the Grange is 
organized at Bodega before the assembly of the 
State Grange on the 15th inst. Sonoma will 
then be the banner county of the State and 
will endeavor to remain such. 
SANTA BARBARA. 

Press, June 28: Ve(;btable Gardening. — At 
our request, Mr. Opdyke has furnished the 
following report of his success in raising veget- 
ables in Santa Barbara: 

Mr. Editor: My experience shows that wo can 
raise vegetables as early here as anywhere in 
the State, without hot-beds. I have had let- 
tuce and radishes all through the year; po- 
tatoes, onions and turnips on the first of 
March; green peas, March 10th; green beans. 
May Ist; green corn, May 10th. From the mat- 
ured crop I have planted again, and the 
second crop is already up and growing finely. 
Whore I raised a fine crop of onions, I have 
now planted melons which are growing well. 
My late corn looks well, and will no doubt be 
good. My garden has had no irrigation, and 
no rain since last February. 

Yours, tto., C. M. Opdyke. 

Santa Barbara, June 23d, '73. 
SAN DIEGO. 

World, June 28 : BEAtrriruL Wild Flowers 
Domesticated. — Shorifl" Craigue yesterday pre- 
sented us with a beautifi'.l wild flower, the root 
01 which was plucked by him in the country 
and planted in the Court House grounds. It 



is an indescribably brilliant flower, and we 
have not yet met any one who is botanist 
enough to indentify it by name. Six brilliant 
white, wax-like loaves droop gracefully and 
form an exquisite fringe to a yellow tassel 
which clusters around the petal. This tassel 
is of intense hue, and the whole has a delicious 
effect. The tinting and texture of these white 
leaves is even more delicate than that of t)ie 
lily, and both are outlined by the vivid yellow. 
A Bf ear-like petal rises from the tassel. Taken 
altogether, it will form a rare addition to the 
parterres of our florists. It exhales a peculiar 
fragrance, which is quite acceptable to many 
persons. 
YUBA. 

Appetd, July 4: Large Shipments. — Our fruit 
raisers are making large daily shipments of 
peaches. John Briggs, who seems to be the 
leading shipper, forwarded on Wednesday 250 
boxes of peaches to San Francisco and Sacra- 
mento, and yesterday 226 boxes. These 
peaches weighed about 18,000 pounds. Our 
fruit raisers are afforded an extended market 
by railroad facilities. A large number of 
boxes go daily over the mountains, supplying 
all the cities of Nevada. 

Fine Lot of Pigs.— A double-decked car of 
Eastern pigs arrived on Wednesday to Warren 
Stevens. Over a hundred head of the finest 
lot of pigs ever seen in this market composed 
the shipment. They were driven ofi' yesterday 
to market in the mountains. 

Cucumbers. — The Chinese in this vicinity 
seem to be raising an unusual crop of cucum- 
bers. Pender & Smith are shipping large 
quantities daily, and yesterday Cumbersou 
forwarded by express to San Francisco and 
Sacramento, one hundred and ninety-six dozen. 

Fruit Shipments. — The apricot and cherry 
plum crops are about exhausted. One of our 
orchardists made his last shipment of plums 
yesterday. John Briggs has still at his Yuba 
City orchard an immense lot of apricots, and 
we understand that most of them will get too 
ripe for shipment before they can be got oft'. 
Probably many bushels on his orchard will be 
dried or allowed to rot. Peaches are now 
coming in fast, and the high price they have 
been commanding will begin to fall. Out of a 
shipment yesterday of 170 boxes of fruit by 
John Briggs, there were sixty boxes of peaches. 
Grass Bros., Miller Bros., C. Westenhaver, E. 
A. Shepard and John W. Briggs all shipped 
yesterday quite a number of boxes of peaches, 
and in the course of a week peaches will 
swell shipments to two cars per day. The 
peach crop on the Sacramento river is under- 
stood to be a failure this season, and the frost 
killed much of the crop in the foot-hill 
orchards. These losses, fruit-raisers anticipate, 
will have a tendency to keep the price of 
peaches up to living rates. Fruit-raisers now 
make their money on early and late crops. 
The great bulk of fruit all comes in together, 
and exceeds the demunl and consumption, no 
matter how low it rules. It must then be dried 
or allowed to rot. 

0RE30N. 

Farmer, June 28: Early Harvest. — The 
wheat fields about the Dalles present quite 
a contrast to those of the Willamette Valley. 
Many fields in that region are now about ready 
for the reaper, while in this valley but few 
fields have fairly begun to turn. 

Peaches. — The peach crop, usually so abund- 
ant about Walla Walla and the Dalles, is this 
year almost a failure from late frosts. The 
same is true in Umpqua and Rogne river val- 
leys. 

WASHING-TON. 

Union, June 28: Harvesting. — By the close 
of this week the greater portion of the hay will 
have been harvested. The crop seems to be 
unusually heavy. They are already commenc- 
ing to cut rye, and by the first of next week 
some of the fields of volunteer barley will be 
ready for cutting. It seems that the period for 
cutting grain will be drawn out longer than 
usual this season, as some of it is ripening un- 
usually early, while other will be quite late. 
This makes it favorable, considering that hands 
are scarce. 

Beardless Barley. — We have received a 
sample of beardless barley raised by Mr. Orley 
Hull. It is a volunteer crop and the heads are 
extremely large and well-failed. It is a new 
grain to us, but it appears that it would be a 
more desirable grain to raise than the common 
bearded variety, on account of handling, while 
if the samples we have received are anything to 
judge of the crop by, we think it certainly 
must yield abundantly. 



LoNOEViTT OP Farmers. — According to the 
registration report of deaths in Massachusetts, 
published now about thirty years, and pre- 
served with more accuracy and completeness 
than anywhere else in the country, the great- 
est longevity is found to obtain in agricultur- 
al life. In the ten different occupations, as 
given in these reports, the cultivators of the 
earth stand, as a class, at the head, reaching 
on an average the age of nearly sixty-five 
years, while that of the next class is only about 
forty (50?) years; that of mechanics of all 
kinds about forty-eight years; and that of 
shoemakers about forty-four years. Thus 
there is an advantage of fifteen years on the 
side of farmers as compared with mechanics, 
as they reach an average age but little short of 
the three score years and ten allotted by the 
Psalmist to human life. 



No Man is so insignificant as to be sure his 
example can do no hurt. 



22 



^ISi, 



[July 12 1873. 



The Cbinese Temple. 



It seems hardly worth while for the Chinese to erect a 
temple for worship in this city, because almost every 
Chinamen puts up a little god on his own hook in his pri- 
vate apartments. Nevertheless there are such things as 
" Josh Houses " in San Francisco, and a representation of 
the interior of one is herewith given, from a drawing by 
Eastman. It is situated in the Chi[iese quarter of the city, 
and presents nothing peculiar in its exterior appearance, 
with the exception of the tinsel ornaments and Chinese 
inscriptions at the door. In this temple there are four 
rooms containing idols; the drawing, however, shows only 
the main room, which has four alcoves and six gods. In 
the central alcove there are three gods, and hideous lookuig 
objects they are, not at all calculated to inspire either con- 
fidence or fear in the observer. 

The middle one of these three is I'un Ten Tin, the "God 
of the Sombre Heavens," who controls water, and is wor- 
shipped to prevent the fires so much dreaded by Chinese 
in their crowded, wooden buildings. Their deity is a veg- 
etarian, and only vegetables are used as offerings. On the 
left hand is Kovan Tai, the " God of War," corresponding 
to the Mars of the ancients, and possessed of an appropri- 
ately red face. 'ITiis personage is worshipped by the Chi- 
nese in this country more than any of their gods, and in 
temples where there is only one image, it is invariably his. 
He is also regarded as a god of wealth, and is besought for 
general benefits, receiving almost universal worship. From 
this it will be seen that there is *' method in their madness," 
and their action will strike a sympathetic ch^rd in many 
hearts which worship the same idea in another form, 'I'he 
head on a twenty dollar piece is perhaps handsomer to look 
upon than that upon a Chinese god, but tastes differ. This 
god is found more frequently than any other in Chinese | 



method ol consulting the gods. If the deity is not sup- 
posed to know the circumstances of the case, he may know 
them by the burning of paper, upon which is written the 
necessary information. On the floor, in front of the images, 
are vessels to receive the libations. Cooked food is placed 
before them while the act of worship is going on, but is 
then carried home and eaten by the judicious worshippers ; 
cups of tea can always be seen before some of the images. 
The worshipper prostrates himself, either bowing or kneel- 
ing three times, and then lets the divining'Sticks fall to the 
floor. These are pieces of wood six or eight inches long 
and shaped like the half of a split bean If the flat surface 
of one rests on the ground and that of the other is upper- 
most, the answer is affirmative and the inquiry ceases. But 
if both flat surfaces are on the ground the answer is tmpro- 
pitious, and is repeated to see the result of twice out of 
three times. With unfavorable continuation, it may be ne- 
cessary to continue to three times three, or even longer. 
Should both flat surfaces be upward, the answer is indiffer- 
ent. When the oracle is consulted by the bamboo slips, and 
the lot is approved in this way, the priest always makes a 
charge for the slip of paper, thus adding to his support ; and 
this final answer is often as indifferent, equivocal or ambigu- 
ous as were those of Dodona or Delphi. 

Between the two alcoves already spoken of is a tall stand 
containing red flags, each having a letter or character upon 
it. These are the symbols of authority for messengers. 
Corresponding to this, on the opposite side of the main cabi- 
net, but hidden from view by the large metallic vases and 
candlesticks on the tables in the middle of the room, is a 
box with the seals of oflice. The vases contain artificial 
flowers and the candles are of Chinese vegetable tallow, 
sometimes highly colored. The god in the cabinet on the 
right is Tsot Pak Siting Ktvun, the "God of Wealth." 
He holds in his left hand a bar of bullion, emblematic of his 
power, which is singularly appropriate on this coast. 



Scraps from San Diego. 

Eds. Pbess : — Starting from the beach, along- 
side the waters of the beautiful bay, on horse- 
back for the mountains, ten miles bring the 
traveler to the Cajon Ranch, about the lar- 
gest agricultural district in the county ; crops 
this year are pretty much a failure on this 
ranch. Here are some 10,000 acres in culti- 
vation. The bed of the San Diego river, 
fringed with cottouwood trees, contrasts 
pleasantly with the rugged aspect of the sur- 
rounding scenery. 

Up the great Cajon Mountain, by many a 
winding way, more than a thousand feet, pass- 
ing naked ridges, vast masses of granite, rising 
in savage grandeur, on either hand, we arrive 
at the famous Bee Ranch of Messrs. Clarke & 
Harbison. Pass the Santa Maria Ranch, late- 
ly sold for $10,000, to an emigrant from Ger- 
many, for a sheep ranch. Arriving at Luck- 
ett's Station, we find a lovely spot, embowered 
in vines and trees, "in the deep umbrage of a 
green hill's shade," the birds were making 



Grande, the beds of wild flowers of many hues, 
altogether make a scene to gladden the heart. 
In some of these valleys, we came upon a 
neat and new school house, with a liye Teacher 
from the land of the Pilgrims, the land of 
steady habits, — girls just leaving school,. 

" Lovely girls with deep blue eyes, 
Aud bands which offer early flowers 
Walk Biuiling o'er this paradise." 

Onward, and upward, to the valleys of Saui 
Ysabel, and San Jose, magnificent grazing 
ranches, the former the property of Captain 
Wilcox. Crossing a bold, dashing stream, with 
a flne mill site on the right, we passed the 
Indian village of San Ysabel. Here the Padres 
of the missions, of San Diego, and San Luis 
Rey, brought their vast stocks, of cattle, aud 
sheep, to graze in the summer months, after 
the pastures of the coast were dried up. 
Here the traveler will feel the truth of a- 
remark made by one of the most charming 
letter writers for the Rubal Press — " it is also' 
true that our fine climate, makes apme of us 
rather lazy." The 'aspect of this place, com- 
pelled us to the conclusion, that here the fair 
authoress would find thf finest climate on the 
earth. The San Louis Rey river, rises in this 
valley of San Jose, and in the beautiful moun- 




CHINESE JOSH HOUSE, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



shops, stores, and dwellings. He is a great arbiter of dis- 
putes antl quarrels, and to invoke or threaten his aid is .-is 
efTective in settling accounts as to begin a law suit. On the 
right hand of Koran Tai is Nam Hoi Hung Siting Tai, the 
" Cod of the Southern Seas," or local ^od of Canton, who 
controls fire. He receives his worship, and offerings of 
wine, tea, meats and vegetables, from those whose effects 
he has preserved from the flames. 

The alcoves, or cabinets, in which the gods are enthroned, 
are made of wood, profusely, but not elegantly, carved, and 
lavishly gilded. The general darkness of the room is re- 
moved by the rich gilding and the gaudy robes of the gods, 
and an abundance of tinsel, peacock feathers, etc., on the 
top and at the base of the alcove ; and on the fantastically 
einbroidered vestments of the idols may be traced the sinu- 
osities of the dragon, which is itself idolized. Before this 
main cabinet an oil-fed lantern is kept burning, not by 
" vestal virgins," but by a very unpreposessing Chinese 
priest. Should the flame eipire, they think as did the 
"College of Virgins," that it betokens dire calamity. In 
the cabinet on the left is Wok Taw, the •' God of Medi- 
cine," who appropri-itely holds in one hand a large golden 
pill : arguing method again, needing no explanation to be 
appreciated. Before his altar is a table covered with sand, 
in front of which a priest sometimes stands, after repeating 
his incantations, till he reaches a clairvoyant state, and then 
he writes with a stick, under dictation of the Spirit, what 
is intelligible to no one else, but what he never fails to 
read and interpret. 

'I'he priest or attendant has the care of eleven tin or bam- 
boo canisters, about a foot high and three inches in diame- 
ter. These contain bamboo slips, each numbered to cor- 
respond with slips of paper containing the answer of the 
god. After the worshipper bows once or twice, he kneels 
and shakes the slips till one falls to the floor. This is placed 
on the censer of incense, where the god can see it, and his 
approval is sought. If iwt approved, the process must be 
repeated until a favorable ansyver is received. This ap- 
proval is gained by means of the divining.sticks, the general 



(Query — If in the Eastern Stales, would he hold a green- 
back?) He is the special patron of merchants and all 
receivers of money, and is worshipped by those desiring aid 
in their enterprises. In front of all the altars or cabinets, 
are incense-jars filled with ashes, in which arc placed up- 
right pieces of lighted incense, sticks of pimk or other ma- 
terial. 'ITie worshipper often holds a small bunch of these 
lighted sticks while he bows or prostrates himself before the 
god. 'ITie bell shown to the left of the engraving is used 
in arousing the god when he is asleep. It was cast in 
China, 

'ITiere are a number of other images in this temple, dis- 
tinguished by no particular feature but unpronouncablc 
names. Christians are always permitted to visit the temple 
to whom the attendants are uniformly courteous and polite. 

Whtle the heathen have their gods of 
wisdom, gods of battles, gods of beauty, 
etc., they have no gods of holiness, nor 
are their sacred laws holy laws. The na- 
tions worshipping idols have no word in 
their languages that means ho/y. The 
very idea comes to ns through the Bible. 

One of the greatest evils of the world is that 
men praise, rather than practice, virtue. The 

E raise of honest industry is on every tongue, 
ut it is rare that the worker is respected more 
than the drone. 

A Boy's Idea op Economt. — A little boy in 
school, recently gave a very good and original 
definition of economy : " Paring potatoes 
thin,' 



sweet melody in the trees of the garden, the 
gentle murmui- of falling waters, the hum of 
bees, and the beautiful arbor of grape vines, 
invited to repose. Ascending the Luckett 
hill to its summit, we turn into the Ballena 
'Valley; here Mr. Samuel Warnock carries on 
a large farm, handsomely fenced with lumber, 
fine Pitt's thresher, and other agricultural ma- 
chinery; and here is something rather remark- 
able, and a fact worth noting down, that these 
valleys have made fine crops of wheat and bar- 
ley upon the soil of which not a drop of rain 
has fallen since February 24th. In the middle 
of April, the farmers generally were of the 
opinion that the crop would fail, yet no rain 
fell; and though the straw is not as tall as 
usual, the heads of wheat and barley are large, 

' plump and full. The elevation here is about 
2,000 feet; about the last of April and in the 
middle of May, fogs occasionally visited this 
region, which is undoubtedly the principal 
cause of the grain coming to perfection. All 
the old residents say that their crrps have 
never failed, though they have resided here 

I nineteen years. Passing through the adjacent 
valleys, the scenery is grand and beautiful; 
above, rise the lofty summits of the Cuya- 

I maca and 'Volcan ranges, heavily timbered. 
The air filled with fragrance, the ripened fields 

' of grain, the park-like scenery of the Mosa 



tain, the Palomar, generally known as Smith's 
mountain, there are fine forests, of pine, cedar 
and fir, and Mr. Dyke's Ranch, a beautiful 
place, of several hundred acres in cultivation, 
fenced as in 'Virginia and Kentucky, stake and 
rider rail fence, ten foot cedar rails. Here the 
eye may feast on the beautiful and extensive 
prospect, "from Heaven itself he may inhale 
the breeze." 

"The plain is far beneath, "—the valley of 
San Jost*', "a vast, nntilled, and mountain- 
skirted, plain," the Agna Caliente, the many 
timbered canons, the noted 'Warner's Ranch, 
the transparent air bringing near distant 
objects. This is the mountain which drew 
forth that gem of thought from P. M. Shaw, 
agent for the Rural — " the clouds linger lov- 
ingly about its brow." 

Oh! the beauty of this mountain majesty! 
How the spirit expands while gazing at their 
sublimity and grandeur, soaring up into the 
softened azure " imperishably pure!" How the 
imagination recoils back upon itself, in attempt- 
ing to account for the mighty works of the 
Divine Architect. Clabbnce, 

Ballena, June 7th, 1873. 



If you can't coax a flsh to bite, try your per- 
suasive powers upon a cross dog, and you will 
be sure to succeed. 



July 12, 1873.] 



ty^ 



OsEpilL IfipORgili^YION. 



Care of Guns. 

A true sportsman, like a good soldier, should 
always be prepared for inspection, and keep 
his weapons in condition for immediate service. 
On his return from a day's shooting, before he 
lies down to rest, he should see that his gun 
is fit for service on the morrow. At the end of 
the shooting season it is much more important 
that this should be done at once else it may be 
forgotten, and a favorite and a valuable wea- 
pon injured beyond repair by silent corrosion. 
To prevent this, here is a preparation which 
we have used for years and which we know to 
be good: Twenty ounces best olive oil, one 
ounce and a half spirits of turpentine. This 
should be rubbed on the gun-barrels, outside 
and in, with a rag; leave all that adheres to the 
barrels, and put the gun away until wanted. 
Do this and you may bid defiance to rust, even 
in the rainy season of California. 

Hoio to Clean a Gun. — No one should put 
away a gun without cleaning, not even if it has 
fired but one shot, that one barrel should be 
cleaned. First take the barrels off the stock, 
and immerse them in cold water about four 
inches deep. Then wrap some stout cloth (tow 
clings to the barrels, and leaves particles in 
them,) about the cleaning rod, so thick that 
you will have to press rather hard to get it into 
the barrels; then pump up and down, changing 
the cloth till the water comes out clear; then 
pour hot water into them, stopping up the nip- 
ples, and turn them muzzles downward. Then 
put on dry cloth, and work till you can feel the 
heat through the barrels, and the cloth comes 
out without a particle of moisture on it. Then 
put a few drops of clarified oil (made by put- 
ting rusty nails into good salad oil, ) on the 
cloth and rub the insides; rub the outsides all 
over and then put the gun away. 

Jumping. — Mr. Wilson, an English professor 
of gymnastics, writes as follows on the subj ect 
of jumping: A high jumper will clear five feet, 
a first rate one five feet and a half, and an out 
and outer among the first rates, six feet. The 
late Mr. Ingleby of Lancaster, we have seen 
clear a stick held six feet two inches high, 
springing ofif the turnpike road with a run of 
about five yards. What Ireland could do with- 
out the spring board we know not — probably 
not two inches more than^Mr. I. Mr. Ingleby 
despised perpendicularity, and swayed himself 
over almost horizontally with singular grace, 
elegance and facility. Twelve feet is a good 
standing single jump on level ground; fourteen 
is a job for two or three in the country; twenty 
feet is a first-rate running single jump, but has 
been done often; twenty-one is something very 
extraordinary, but noways apocryphal; and 
twenty-two is, we believe, accomplished about 
once every twenty years, and that almost al- 
ways by an Irishman. A hundred sovereigns 
to five against any man in England doing 
twenty-three feet on a dead level. With a run 
and a leap, on a slightly inclined plane, per- 
haps an inch to a yard, we have seen twenty- 
three feet done in great style, and measured to 
a nicety; but the man who did it (aged twenty- 
one, hight five feet eleven inches, weight eleven 
atone) was admitted to be (Ireland excepted) 
the best fair leaper of his day in England. 

Facts About Kopes. — " Alston's Treatise on 
Seamanship " gives the following facts and 
rules for computing the strength of ropes : 

"To find what size rope you require, when 
roven as a tackle, to lift a given weight, divide 
the weight to be raised by the number of parts 
at the movable block, to obtain the strain on 
a single part; add one-third of this for the in- 
creased strain brought by friction, and reeve 
the rope of corresponding strength. 

" One-sixth of iO tons is G-/^ tons, which, 
with one-third added, is 9 tons nearly, for 
which you should reeve a six-inch or six and a 
half inch rope. 

" Conversely — To find what weight a given 
rope will lift when rove as a tackle : Multiply 
the weight that the rope is capable of suspend- 
ing by the number of parts at the movable 
block, and substract one-fourth of this for re- 
sistance. 

"Thus: 8-9 tons, the strength of the rope, 
multiplied by 6, the number of parts at the 
movable block, minus 13-3, or one-fourth, gives 
40-1 tons as the weight required. 

" Wire rope is more than twice the strength 
o£ hemp rope of the same circumference; splic- 
ing a rope is supposed to weaken it one-eighth. 

"The strongest description of hemp rope is 
untarred, white, three-stranded rope; and the 
next in the scale of strength is the common 
three-strand, hawser laid rope, tarred." 

Adultkbating Tea. — That sugar can be 
'sanded" is too well known by the grocers to ad- 
mit of dispute; but the process of "doctoring" 
tea ia a trick probably peculiar to the China- 
man. Dr. Letheby, of London, a well known 
sanitary statist, made an examination into sam- 
ples of this article obtained from bonded ware- 
nouses, which he found to contain from forty 
to forty-three per cent of iron filings and nine- 
teen per cent of silica, in the form of Sne sand, 
which had been cleverly mixed with and added 
to the leaves before curling, with a view to in- 
crease their weight and bvflk. After the leaves 
were curled they had been thickly covered with 
a green pigment. When it was infused in 
boiling water it produced a turbid solution, of- 
fensive to the smell and nauseous to the taste. 



AVasp "Teat. — It sometimes becomes desira- 
ble to rid one's premises of the unpleasant 
presence of numerous wasps, and here is a way 
to do it as suggested by a cotemporary : Mount 
four panes of glass of equal dimensions in tin 
framing (like a lantern), leave the top and bot- 
tom open, cover the latter end with thick white 
paper well attached with strong water-proof 
glue, and the paper well oiled, and protected 
from damp or fire. In this make a hole about 
six inches in diameter, and then place this 
hole over a plate, on which three "pieces of 
bricks are put; in this plate you will have put 
a mixture of beer, sugar, and a little rum. On 
the top end you will have fitted in a glass 
pane, removable at pleasure, to clean the 
tray. Now prepare some long matches of 
stout paper dipped in brimstone ; when your 
trap is "all alive" with captives, ignite a 
match and put it under the hole, they will soon 
be suffocated. Each day empty out the con- 
tents for your pet toad's dinner. I once saw 
a most ingenious insect-catcher in Africa, in- 
vented by some English Artisan. There was 
a wirework dome like a meat cover; just below 
it a roller covered with cloth, saturated in 
syrup, slowly revolved when the clockwork ad- 
justment had been wound up. Into this "Si- 
rens cave" every flying thing tempted to set- 
tle on the sweet stuff was unconsciously drawn, 
and the cage was soon a museum of Diptera 
and Hymenoptera! There was a trap-door at 
which the sufi'ocating operation was carried 
out (as in the first mentioned trap). It was 
altogether a great success. 

Enameling Cooking Vessels. — To enamel 
the inside of copper cooking vessels, in which 
acid fruit and vegetables are cooked, and thus 
prevent the formation of the so-called " verdi- 
gris," the following method is recommended: 
Twelve parts of unburnt gypsum and one part 
borax are finely powdered, intimately mixed, 
and fused in a crucible. The fused mass is 
then poured out, and after cooling, is rubbed 
up to a paste with water. The copper vessel 
is to be coated inside with this preparation, 
applied by means of a brush, and the vessel 
placed in a moderately warm place, so that the 
coating may dry uniformly, after which it is 
subjected to a gradual increasing heat, till at 
length the preparation fuses. On cooling, the 
vessel is found to be protected internally by a 
white opaque enamel, adhering very firmly to 
the copper, not chipping off by ordinary knock- 
ing and rubbing, and impervious to vegetable 
acids. 



CuKious Facts in Science. — Science has elic- 
ited many curious facts respecting water, 
among which are subjoined. Of every twelve 
hundred tons of earth a landholder has in his 
estate, four hundred are water. The snow- 
capped summits of Snowdon and Ben Nevis 
have water in a solidified form. The air we 
breathe contains five grains of water to every 
cubic foot of its bulk. The potatoes and tur- 
nips which are boiled for dinner have, in their 
raw state, the one seventy-five per cent, and the 
other ninety per cent, of water. If a man 
weighing ten stone were squeezed flat in a hy- 
draulic press, seven and a half stone of water 
would run out, and only two anda haK dry resi- 
due remain. A man is chemically speaking, 
forty-five pounds carbon and nitrogen, diffused 
through five and a half pailsful of water. 

Uses of Willow Wood. — ^In England there 
are few varieties of wood in greater demand 
than good willow wood, of good size. It is 
light, smooth, soft and tough, will take a good 
polish and does not easily burn. It will bear 
more pounding and hard knocks, without 
splinter or serious injury than any other 
wood, and hence it is used for cricket bat«, and 
whenever it can be obtained in good condition 
and of suitable size — for the floats of steamer- 
paddles, "strouds" of water-wheels, break- 
blocks for luggage and coal trucks, etc., where 
the wear and tear is considerable. To the 
wood-turner it is invaluable, and were it grown 
as timber, and obtainable, it might be largely 
used for very many purpo.es to which timber 
is now applied, and that too with considerable 
advantage to both consumer and producer. 

The Eabth's Density. — As the density of 
the earth is equal to a solid globe of gold — 
the heaviest of metals— of nearly 6,000 miles 
in diameter, instead of 8,000, the full diameter 
of the earth, the question naturally arises as to 
what can that centre portion be composed of, 
which offers such an incalculable resistance to 
the centrifugal motion of the planet on its axis, 
a velocity of 1,100 miles a minute for its equa- 
torial regions. 

From Joppa to Jerusalem by Rail. — Under 
the above head the newspapers are announcing, 
as a new illustration of modern progress, that 
travelers are now taken over that historic road 
by rail. The truth is that the surveys for a 
railroad over that route have lately been com- 
pleted, and plans sent to Constantinople for 
the consideration of the Minister of Public 
Works. 

OvBE one hundred and fifty kilns are engaged 
in making crockery ware exclusively, in the 
United States. These kilns are capable of pro- 
ducing at the rate of about $30,000 worth of 
ware each per year, making a total, for all 
of nearly $4,500,000 per year. 

Lime to the Ton.— i-When hot from the kiln, 
twenty-six and a half bushels of ground lime 
go to the ton; but after keeping some time a 
ton swells to thirty bushels. A bushel of fresh 
lime may be taken at one-seveuth more than a 
bushel of stale lime. 



QooD H^i^l-TH' 



Batbing. 

Bathing is not only an act of cleanliness, but 
is in an eminent degree conducive to health. 
The fine and sensitive pores of the skin soon 
become torpid and their delicate and most im- 
portant functions are suspended by the solid 
materials in the perspiration, and the accumu- 
lations of filth, and require very frequent 
ablution, with water, to preserve their normal 
condition, without which no person can be 
healthy, happy or God-like in any sense. The 
mere wearing of proper clothing and washing 
of the more exposed portions of the body, and 
the frequent changing of clothing, is but an 
imperfect attempt at cleanliness, without being 
accompanied by entire submersion of the body 
in water, either tepid or cold. It must be ad- 
mitted by every sensible person, that there is 
no more real appreciative luxury than a 
pleasant warm general bath when the system 
is in & proper condition to receive such bath; it 
is, in fact, one of the most valuable but most 
neglected hygienic remedies we possess. 

We admit that many people are susceptible 
of taking cold, and are, so to speak, 'living 
barometers;" but even to such the warm bath 
would always prove advantageous. One half 
or more of the rheumatic twinges, swollen 
limbs, and cramped joints that occur in such 
persons, would yield to proper perseverance 
and confidence in this potent alleviator. For 
ordinary purposes, care must be taken that a 
warm bath is not used at too high a tempera- 
ture at first. As a general rule we would 
advise, more especially in cases where some 
chronic disease is firmly located, using the 
warm bath for a few days, first followed by the 
tepid bath, then the cold. In all cases, wheth- 
er the warm, tepid or cool bath is used, the 
first should be of only a few minutes duration, 
which may soon be increased to fifteen or 
twenty minutes at a time, care being taken 
never to remain immersed sufficiently long to 
induce a sensation of cold on coming out. A 
healthy reaction should follow the bath, and a 
pleasant glow of warmth should diffuse itself 
over the surface of the body. If this be not 
the case, the bath has been indulged in too 
long, or injudiciously taken. When any symp- 
tom appears that contra-indicate the use of the 
cold bath, the tepid, warm or vapor bath may 
be substituted, according to circumstances; the 
spirit vapor bath especially, is one of our moat 
safe and valued curative and porphylactic 
agents. 

In conclusion we would say to all, keep the 
skin free and active in health or disease by 
some kind of bathing, the frequency of which 
must of course depend upon all the surround- 
ings and conditions of each life in all that per- 
tains to habits, etc., etc. — Ex. 



Cooling Oflf. . 

Every observing farmer knows that men and 
horses are the only animals that have double 
means of refrigeration, and all others have but 
one. No other beings sweat like men and 
horses, and therefore cannot cool themselves 
by perspiring through the skin. This will be 
found true throughout the whole range of com- 
parative anatomy, and applies to the largest as 
well as the smallest beings. All the thick-skin- 
ned animals except the horse, have powers in 
the skin to exhale heat by perspiration, it being 
only a secretive surface. All the cleft-feet spe- 
cies, including those with feet and toes round- 
ed and unprovided with claws, the rhinoceros, 
elephant, bison, mastadon, buffalo, swine, ox, 
deer, lion, tiger, bear, wolf, fox, squirrel, dor- 
mouse, oppossum, raccoon, all, like the dog, 
have no means of cooling themselves, when 
heated, except through the medium of respira- 
tion. Thus the ox, when very hot, thrusts out 
his tongue and pants, to exhale the heat gene- 
rated by exercise; and if driven without time 
allowed for this, will die with the heat that ac- 
cumulates within him. 

Hogs perspire mainly through their fore 
legs. There is a spot on each leg, just below 
the knee, in the form of a sieve. Through this 
the sweat passes. And it is necessary that this 
is kept open. If it gets closed, as is sometimes 
the case, the hog will get sick; he will appear 
stiff and cramped — and unless he gets relief it 
will go hard with him. To cure him, sim- 

Cly open the pore.^. This is done by rub- 
iug the spot with a corn-cob, and washing 
with warm water. Hogs often die when driven 
too fast, because they cannot readily part with 
their generated heat. 

Bbain-Wobk and Bbain-Wobby.— This is the 
text of a good hygienic discourse in a foreign 
journal, and the "conclusion of the whole 
matter" is as follows: "Brain-work is condu- 
cive to health and longevity, while brain-worry 
causes diseases and shortens life. The truth 
of the statement, and its application to what 
we see around us, is evident enough; yet it is 
well that such subjects should be continually 
discussed. Intellectual labor, although severe, 
like that performed by the judges of our high- 
er courts, or by scholars and persons devoted 
to literary pursuits, if unmixed with excite- 
ment, and followed with regularity, is seen to 
promote bodily health and long life. On the 
other hand, mental care, attended with sup- 
pressed emotions, and occupations which from 
their nature are subject to great vicissitudes of 



fortune, and constant anxiety, break down tb. 
lives of the strongest. Every one has seen a 
clas3_ of men who.ie early mental training was 
deficient, and to whom the writing of memo- 
randa was irksome, engaged in middle life in 
great undertakings, and taking the memory 
with a mass of complicated business accounts, 
simply because they could more easily remem- 
ber than write. Their power of memory for a 
certain kind of facts is truly astonishing, but the 
strain is at last too much, and they die before 
their time. The brain-worry of our school 
children might furnish useful illustrations of 
the truth of the same general proposition, but 
we forebear." 



ESJIC EcofiofAy 



Ripe Bread. 

Bread made out of wheat flour, when taken 
out of the oven, is unprepared for the stomach. 
It should go through a change, or ripen before 
it is eaten. Young persons, or persons in the 
enjoyment of vigorous health, may eat bread 
immediately after being baked without any 
sensible injury from it; but weakly and aged 
persons cannot ; and none can eat such with- 
out doing harm to the digestive organs. 
Bread, after being baked, goes through a 
change similar to the change in newly brewed 
beer, or newly churned buttermilk, neither 
being healthy until after the change. During 
the change in bread it sends off" a large portion 
of carbon or unhealthy gas and imbibes a large 
portion of oxygen or healthy gas. Bread has, 
according to the computation of physicians, 
one-fifth more nutriment in it when ripe than 
when just out of the oven. It not only has 
more nutriment, but imparts a much greater 
degree of cheerfulness. He that eats old, ripe 
bread will have a much greater flow of animal 
spirits than he would were he to eat unripe 
bread. Bread, as before observed, discharges 
carbon and imbibes oxygen. One thing in con- 
nection with this thought should be particu- 
larly noticed by all house-wives. It is, to let 
the bread ripen where it can inhale the oxygen 
in a pure state. Bread will always taste 
of the air that surrounds it while ripening; 
hence it should ripen where the air is pure. It 
should never ripen in a cellar, nor in a close 
cupboard, nor in a bedroom. The noxious va- 
pors of a cellar or a cupboard should never 
enter into and form a part of the bread we eat. 
Bread should be light, well baked, and proper- 
ly ripened before it should be eaten. Bread 
that is several days old may be renewed so as 
to have all the freshness and lightness of new 
bread, by simply putting it into a common 
steamer over the fire, and steaming it half or 
three-quarters of an hour. The vessel under 
the steamer containing the water should not 
be more than half full, otherwise the water 
may boil up into the steamer, and wet the 
bread. After the bread is thus steamed, it 
should be taken out of the steamer and wrap- 
ped loosely in a cloth, to dry and cool, and re- 
main so a short time, when it will be ready to 
be cut and used. It will then be like cold new 
bread. — American Farmer. 



Root Beeb. — As the season is now upon na 
when the greatest demand exists for this popu- 
lar beverage, it may interest some of our 
readers, to learn that it is most satisfactorily 
made by a process similar to that used for soda 
water. If the old method of fermentation be 
adopted, it requires that a number of special- 
ties for it be in constant use; that the root 
beer is only in the right condition for use dur- 
ing a limited time, and if kept on hand too 
long, it runs into the acetic fermentation and 
gets sour. By the soda water method it can 
quickly be made, is ready for use at oncij, re- 
mains good until all is drawn oft", and does not 
sour. We give the following process, employed 
with great satisfaction by a correspondent of 
the Druggist Circular: — 

Sugar huuso Bynip, or nice moIasaoB H gallon. 

Knapp'B extract for root beer 1 ounce. 

Caramel (to color) 1 to 2 ouuceB, 

♦Flavor for root beer I ounce. 

This may be kept ready mixed in a bottle, and, 
when necessary, is put iuto a soda water foun- 
tain, with four and a half gallons of water, 
and then charged with carbonic acid to a 
pressure of 80 or 100 pounds to the square 
inch, as indicated by the usual gauge upon the 
apparatus. Those of our readers having a 
soda water apparatus can readily use one or 
more fountains for this purpose with both 
convenience and profit. 

♦Flavor for root beer:— 

Oil wlntorgreen 4 dmcUniB, 

Oil Hassafrag 2 " 

Oil Cloves 1 " 

Alcohol 4 onnces. 

Mix. 

Adulterations in Olivk Oil. — Olive oil 
is very generally adulterated with poppy 
or lard oil. Such adulterations may be 
detected as follows: dissolve six parts of quick- 
silver in seven and a half of nitric acid of a 
specific gravity of 1.3(i— dissolve without heat. 
Add one part of this freshly prepared solution 
of nitrate of mercury to ten of the oil. If the 
latter be quite pure the mixture will solidify in 
from three to four hours. Fish oils may be de- 
tected in vegetable oils by the red tint they 
give; when the oil to bo tested, is mixed in the 
proportion of five volumes to one of sulphuric 
acid; or in the same way with similar effects, 
you may use a solution ol caustic soda, of the 
specific gravity of 1.34 



24 



lr®^w*irlw 3p»w3K»^I&^ jPjEvISB^ 



[July 12 t873. 




PUBLISHED BT 

Ix^l^Arsll^ ^l co. 

A. T. DXWEY, W, ». EWEB. G. H. 8TBONO. J. L. BOONE, 

Pkihcipai. Editob W. B. EWER, A.M. 

AssooiATE Editob I. N. HOAG, (S«crttmento.) 

Offiok, No. 338 Montgomery street, 8. E. comer ol 
California street, where friends and patrons are invited 
to our Bc'iKNTino Press, Patent Agency, Egraylng and 
Printing establishment. 

SUBSCRIPTION AND ADVERTISING RATES. 

SuBSOKiPTioss payable in advance — For one year $i; 
■ix months, $:2. 50; three months, $1.2S. Olnbs of ten 
names or more $3 each per annum. $5, in advance, will 
pay fori S year. Remittances by registered letters or 
P.O. orders at oar risk 

AoTZBTiamo Bates.— 1 week. 1 month. S monVu. 1 year. 

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One Inck 2.00 6.00 14.00 40.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
lu extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper, 
insertod at special rates. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 12, 1873. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



OENERAL EDITORIALS.— The People vs. the 
Politicians. 17- The Farmers Movement: The 
Great Valleys of California; Dii Bois' Mower Attach- 
ment, 24. The Farmers Organization; San Francisco 
and the Interior, 25. 

ILIiXJSTRATIONS.— The Ames Steam Engine, 17- 
A New Washing Machine, A Pomolugical Curlcsity, 
25. The Chiuese Temple, 22. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— State Fair Premiums on 
^itock; billi \Vi>riu8 at Sonoma; A Fowl Comparison; 
Letter froiu New Vork; The Best Time and Way of 
Trant^plantiiig Orange and other Senil-Troplcal Fruits, 
18- Scraps from San Dit-jjo, 22. 

HOME AND FARM.— An April Holiday; New 
Horticultural Fertilizer; How Deltiis are Formed; 
Renewal of the Reward of One Hundred Thousand 
Dollars; Cause of the Decomposition of Eggs; Is 
There a God? Keep It to Yourself, 19. 

USBFUIi INFORMATION. — Care of Gnns; 
Jumping; Facts Al>out Hopes; Adulterating Tea; 
Wasp Trap; Euaraoling Cooking Vessels; Curious 
Facts in Science; Uses of Willow Wood; The Earth's 
Density; From Joppa to Jerusalem by Kail; Lime to 
the Tod, 23. 

aOOD HliALTH. -Ba'.hiug; Cooling off; Brain- 
Work aiul Braiu- Worry, 23- 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -Ripe Bread; Root Beer; 
Ad\ilterations in Olive Oil, 23. 

HOME CIRCLE. — The Old Hay Loft (Poetry) ; 
What is Soiuetiiucs Seen Inside the Fanner's House; 
How Mosaics are Made; Be Firm; A Girl that Hoes 
Her own Row; Come Down to your Clroumstances; 
Farmers' Wives at Agricultural Meetings; Saying 
■■Hateful" Things, 26. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. -The Little Yankee 
Her<iine; The Siu tliat Killed tlie Baby, 26 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from various coun- 
ties in California, Oregon and Washington 21 

FARMERS IN COUNCIL.— San Jose Farmers' 
Club; Farmers' Club, Comptoii; Oakland Farming, 
Horticultural and Industrial Club; 20 

MISCELLANEOUS.— To Have Apples Every Year; 
rtiliziug CarcaKSes; What Shall we Propagate Root 
Cuttings In, 18. Patrons of Husbandry; To the 
Patrons of Husbandry; Organize Granges and Farm- 
era' Clubs; Patents and Inventions, 26. Kesolu- 
tions of Patrons of Husbandry, 28. 



The Farmers' Movement. 

The "Farmers' Movement," to which we al- 
luded at considerable length in our issue of 
May 17th, is still progressing with accelerated 
force and energy. The names of thirty-three 
Granges, in this State, with their location and 
the name of the Master and Secretary of each, 
are given in our issue of to-day, the member- 
ship of some of which number over one hundred, 
and constantly increasing. As an evidence of 
what is now being done we take the liberty of 
giving the following letter, which we received 
on Tuesday last, from special Deputy N. W. 
Garretsou, who, with Mr. Baxter, is now ac- 
tively engaged iu the work of organization : 

"On the 24th of last month I organized a 
Grange at St. Helena ; four days later an or- 
ganization was eflfected at Graysonville, San 
Joaquin county; July 1st, I organized another 
at Pescadero, San Mateo county. While this 
was being done, Deputy Baxter organized no 
less than five Granges south of here. Verily 
the farmers are waking up, and they take hold 
of this movement as though they meant busi- 
ness. They have learned that iu other indus- 
trial pursuits, as also in the business and pro- 
fessional world, everj'body is organized but the 
farmer, and that if they would not soon be- 
come the helpless and impoverished victims of 
combinations they must organize and frater- 
nize. Calls for organization come m from 
different parts of the State, greatly in excess of 
our ability to answer; but, when the State 
Grange shall have been organized, the work of 
organization will be greatly cheapened and fa- 
cilitated, as Deputies resident in the several 
counties will be appointed, who can, with little 
loss of time, carry forward to completion the 



work of general State organization for Califor- 
nia." 

The State Grange will be organized, on Tues- 
day next, at Napa City, at which it is expected 
that every local Grange organized up to this 
time will be represented. 

Although the discussion of partizan politics 
is forbidden by the Constitution of the Order, 
it nevertheless becomes the duty of its mem- 
bers to scan closely the acts of our public offi- 
cers, and all others having influence in the 
community— especially, corporations and com- 
binations whose positions may or do place 
their managers in a position antagonistic to 
the great agricultural interest, which the Pat- 
rons of Husbandry represent and seek to pro- 
tect. 

The order is founded upon the axioms that 
the products of the soil comprise the basis of 
all wealth, and that individual happiness de- 
pends upon the facilities which are presented 
to the masses for attaining wealth, or at least 
a position of reasonable prosperity. The 
main incentive to the establishment of the 
Order and the multiplication of Granges is 
founded upon the well-known principle that 
unity of action is neccessary to secure success, 
and that, to encourage and maintain progresn'me 
success, this unity must be made solid and 
permanent. The Order is a benificiary organ- 
ization, inasmuch as it labors zealously to se- 
cure by all proper available means, the pros- 
perity of the farming interest, generally, and 
to protect the same from frand, deception and 
oppression of every kind. 

It has no politics, does not seek office, is 
indiscriminate in sects or sexes, and knows no 
"ring" except the wedding ring. It proposes 
to give its members exact and trustworthy in- 
formation about crops,^iarket8 and all humbngs. 
It will do its utmost to inform them how they 
may raise sixty bushels of wheat where they 
have heretofore raised but thirty; and it pro- 
poses to further inform them how they can 
best get that wheat to the market; and if any 
corporations, combinations or "rings," stand 
in the way of the accomplishment of that end 
it will be bad for said corporations and 
"rings." In short, the Order means business, 
and those who don't believe it will soon be- 
come convinced of what we say if they place 
themselves in opposition to it. For proof, 
read the reports of what has recently trans- 
pired in Iowa and Illinois, and the quiet but 
earnest steps which are now being taken to 
place the farmers of this State on the same 
vantage ground which is already occupied by 
their brothers in the valley of the Mississippi. 
From every Atlantic State, and from every 
county almost, we hear that this work of organi- 
zation is going on. It is not confined, as many 
suppose, to the northwestern States; for we read 
of the organization of Granges iu almost or 
quite every State from Maine to Louisana. Al- 
though the farmers of Iowa and Illinois have 
taken the lead, and been the first to secure full 
control of their respective States, Vermont, 
New York, Pennsylvania, North and South 
Carolina, Tennessee, Mississippi, Nebraska 
and Kansas are not very fur behind. South 
Carolina had 62 Granges organized early in 
January last, and Mississippi, 61. 

At the commencement of the present year 
the work had been commenced in 22 States and 
also in Canada; since that time we presume 
every State in the Union has entered upon the 
work of organization. In several of the States 
the organizing period has already passed, and 
the business or material phase of the work has 
been fully reached with most successful results. 
The farmers are now fully satisfied that they 
can fly their own kites, and see no reason why 
they should longer dangle at the tails of the 
kites of others. 

They, moreover, fully appreciate the position 
to which they aspire, and hope to be governed 
by a good share of enlightened wisdom in fill- 
ing the some. They know that they have long 
suffered from the oppressions of corporations 
and rings; and while they are determined to 
right themselve8,at all hazards, they nevertheless 
propose that every step in the work of disen- 
thralment shall be undertaken calmly and with 
the fullest recognition of the rights of others. 
In whatever designs may be undertaken by the 
Patrons, which may affect the political move- 
ments of the day, they will know no party ; but 
seek only the elevation to power and trust of 
such men as are thoroughly qualified, fully 
identified with and interested in the greatest 
good to the greatest number. Having become 



thoroughly tired of doing the bidding of poli- 
ticians, they simply throw off all political re- 
straint and work for the common interest of 
the farmer, who is the chief and only real pro- 
ducer in the community. Holding a vast nu- 
merical majority in nearly every State in the 
Union, political schemers will hereafter find 
it a hard matter to engineer their cut-aud-dried 
tickets, made up in the ordinary manner in 
which such work is done, and of the insuffi- 
cient and objectionable material of which they 
are usually composed. 

In accomplishing the reforms sought for and 
needed, the farmers ask for and expect, and at 
the East have received, the aid and assistance 
of all the industries. The merchant, the 
blacksmith, the shoemaker, the manufacturer 
— the more considerate members of all the 
callings, have come in freely to co-operate with 
their brethren who till the soil. What op- 
presses one, oppresses all; and all have a com- 
mon interest in removing the evil. 

That like results to those which have been 
reached in the States where the movement 
was commenced sooner will also be realized 
here, there can be no doubt, notwithstanding 
the early day at which our next election takes 
place. The time is ripe for the movement, 
and the period has fully arrived when the 
people of California have determined to disen- 
thral themselves from the corrupt rule of 
professed politicians, and regulate for them- 
selves, hereafter, both ihe social and indus- 
trial interests upon which they should thrive. 

The Great Valleys of California. 

How Shall Ihey be Irrigated? 

No country on the globe possesses more 
fruitful or extensive valleys, available for cul- 
tivation only by irrigation, than the State of 
California. The experience of the three or 
four years past, has shown that a general, 
liberal and comprehensive system of irriga- 
tion is essential to a proper development of 
these extensive tracts of land— that by such a 
system, they may soon be fitted to contain, 
and furnish remunerative employment for, a 
population of two or three millions of people. 
Without such improvements they will continue 
for ever the same arid wastes which they now 
present. 

The measure of their growth and develop- 
ment will depend upon the plan and policy, 
which may be adopted for their irrigation. If 
a broad and liberal policy is adopted, fostered, 
guarded and protected by the State, they will 
soon teem with millions of happy, thriving peo- 
ple, sufficient in numbers and intelligence to 
furnish bread, sugar and textiles for almost the 
entire Union; and their annual products may be 
counted by hundreds of millions of dollars in 
value, to which the yield of the mines of the 
entire Pacific Coast will be but a mere baga- 
telle. 

On the other hand, if the waters which exist 
in ample sufficiency for all purposes of irriga- 
tion, are placed under the control of a few un- 
scrupulous capitahsts, they will be doled out 
at the hightest price which the land owners 
can possible pay and live, by which policy a 
shabby, ill-directed system of cultivation will 
be introduced, which will largely diminish the 
numbers that will people these valleys, and 
greatly reduce their moral, social and physical 
status. 

Which of these two policies shall we adopt ? 
Which will most benefit the great masses of the 
State at large ? These questions will probably 
receive a practical and final answer next Win- 
ter, at Washington and at Sacramento, and 
every person in the State is more or less di- 
rectly interested in securing an issue which 
shall benefit the masses rather than a few 
speculators. 

The people can bring about such a result 
only by a determined unity of effort to send 
to the next Legislature and to Congress men 
of enlarged and liberal views — men who will 
have the interest of the people at heart, and 
men who have shown themselves incorrupt- 
able. There is probably no question that will 
come before the next Legislature, or before 
Congress, in which this State will have so 
great an interest as the settlement of this mat- 
ter of irrigation. And who doubts that a Leg- 
islature, the majority of which shall be made 
up as our two or three last ones have been, 
will hesitate to sell itself to the moneyed in- 
fluence that will present itself for special 
privileges 'I 

California is at this time a prolific field for 
speculators. It seems as if men had gone mad 
over the idea of acquiring large and speedy 
wealth, and any measure, however corrupt, 
which bids fair to aid in such acquirement 
seems to find ready supporters. 

We have a grand scheme of irrigation for the 
San Joaquin valley already under way, withotit 
any definite plan or purpose of action. They 
are looking to Congress and our Legislature for 
aid and encouragment, and they should receive 



it under proper restrictions and regulations. 
There are other similar enterprises on foot for 
the Sacramento and other valleys throughout 
the interior. No doubt there are many, and, 
perhaps a majority of well meaning, honest 
men engaged in these various schemes for im- 
provement; but in view of the general spirit of 
speculation, and the corrup legislation which 
everywhere abounds at this time,none can doubt 
that so prolific and promising a scheme as is 
here presented will fail to be improved by 
scheming and designing men, who^are already, 
or may hereafter, become interested in these 
projects. There can be no question as to such 
an event, unless the people elect men who will 
refuse to become parties to such conspiracies 
against the good of the State. 

We have neither time nor space to dwell up- 
on this subject in our present issue, but shall 
refer to it more at length hereafter. In the 
meantime we would urge upon the farmers, 
everywhere throughout the State, to hasten on 
the work of organization for their protection 
against both the actual and threatened en- 
croachments upon their rights and privileges. 
There is no time to be lost in this matter. We 
have elsewhere pointed out the way and the 
manner in which it is to be done. The poli- 
ticians, backed by the moneyed influence of 
the State, are already organized and in the 
field to secure a Legislature which may be con- 
trolled by them. If the people — the bone and 
sinew of California, would protect them- 
selves from the possibility of special and op- 
pressive legislation, and from the rapacity of 
unscrupulous monopolists, they must be up 
and doing. 

It is estimated that there are from fifty to 
seventy thousand men actually engaged in 
farming in this State. Let but a small portion 
of that number be thoroughly organized, in the 
manner now proposed, and it is evident that 
they would be felt as no organization has ever 
before been felt in this State — they would be 
in fact a controlling power in California. With 
the machinery now on foot this end may be 
reached the present season. Farmers enough 
can be actually enrolled to bring the entire 
farming interest to bear as one body, and se- 
cure a Legislature, next winter, which will 
give the farmers all necessary and proper aid 
in securing such legislation as they may need 
and in prev enting hurtful or improper action. 

Da Bois' Mower Attachment. 

This machine was tried in the field of Mr. 
Liese, Fruit Vale, June Hh, before a committee 
of the Oakland Farming Club. 

The substance of a portion of their report, 
and an illustrated description of the machine 
have already been given in our columns. We 
extract the following : 

W(, the undersigned, a committee appointed 
by the Farming, Horticultural and Industrial 
CInb, of Oakland, to examine, and report upon 
the work of Mr. Owtn Da Bois' patent mower 
attachment, beg leave to submit the following 
report. 

The trial was made on Monday, June 9th, in 
the field of Mr. Liese, on Fruit Vale Avenue, 
in the presence of a number of spectators. 

The design of the invention Is for the pnrpou of fa- 
ollitating the cutting of lodged grain, and to prevent 
the cut grain from falling against that standing. 

The test on Monday was full and satisfactory to all 
concerned. It was made in tall, heavy wheat. The in- 
vention was attached to a "Champion" reaper. The 
machine moved right along without let or hinderence, 
the attachment slipping along on its shoe, like a snake 
In the grass, leaving the swath uniform and regular, 
with the butts all to the standing grain and distant 
therefrom about 10 inches. 

In order to get a more direct comparison of Its work, 
we bad Mr. Gallardeu with a Kirby machine, t) follow 
in the wake of Mr. Du Bois. The Eirby machine lodge<l 
the grain badly, necessitating the cutting of much of It 
into. Mr. Uu Bois' machine, coming around, would 
clear up the work of its competitor as beautifully as if 
no impediment had intervened. 

We inquired of Mr. Gallarden if he thought the draft 
of his luachiuc was any less in consequence of follow- 
ing Mr. Du liols' mower attachment, when he candidly 
admitted that he was of the opinion that It wa« equiv- 
alent to the addition of another horse to his team. 

Judging from the test and the peculiar construction 
of the attachment, your committee la of the opinion 
that mustard, grass, vines, or tangled grain would ofTer 
but little, if any obstruction to its perfect work. 
Hence we feel no hesitancy in recommending It to the 
farmers of the State as wonderful in its utility, and 
simplicity of construction. Signed, 

J. V. Websteb, 
0. Baooe. 



The Diiterence. — The great difference be- 
tween combinations among farmers and similar 
alliances among capitalists, is that the former 
combine to take care of themselves, without 
any interference with the ligitimate and proper 
movements of capitalists; while the latter com- 
bine, not for their own protection, btit to 
influence and control the movements of all 
other classes in the community. Hence com- 
binations among the farmers are a positive 
benefit to the community at large; while such 
organizations among capitalists benefit them- 
selves only, and usually work 'positive detri- 
ment to all other members of the community. 

Oak not Ash. — In our notice of the manu- 
facture of Redwood casks by Fulda & Sons in 
our last issue, we said the bung stave was mode 
of ash — it should have read, oak. - 



July 12, 1873.] 



^^ 



The Farmers' Organization. 

Much anxiety is felt in many portions of the 
State to secure the early attendance of proper 
officers to institute Granges, so that the work 
of perfecting a unity of action among farmers, 
now so happily begun, may be pushed forward 
in the speediest and most effective manner 
possible. Thus far, only two officers, Messrs. 
Garretson and Baxter, have been available; 
but at the organization of the State Grange, 
which will take place at Napa City, on Tues- 
day next, the Masters of all the local Granges, 
which have been or may hereafter be instituted, 
may be deputized to act, so that, instead of two, 
we shall have some forty officers available for 
such duty. By this arrangement the cost of 
establishing Granges will also be greatly re- 
duced, by the reduction thereby made in travel- 
ing expenses, etc., as any Master in any county 
can be duly authorized, and may institute the 
Granges in his own neighborhood at little or 
no expense for his personal services. 

With the additional facilities, and the in- 
creasing interest which is being called out in 
every direction, it is believed that the present 
number of granges may be considerably more 
than doubled within the next four weeks; while 
the membership is rapidly increasing every- 
where. In view of the importance of the 
work before them and of the necessity for im- 
mediate effort, in order that a general unity 
of action among the farmers may be brought 
about throughout the entire State, at the 
coming election, it is hoped that every com- 
munity, wherever a dozen or fifteen farmers 
can be got together, will move at once in the 
work of organization. The necessary prelimi- 
nary steps therefor and other needed infor- 
mation will be found in the present issue of 
the Rural Press, to which we would call earn- 
est and early attention. The forms for consti- 
tutions, by-laws, etc., will also be furnished on 
application to this office. 

San Francisco and the Interior. 

An erroneous impression seems to have been 
in some way impressed upon the minds of 
many in the interior, to the effect that San 
Francisco is responsible for the excessive levies 
which are made upon the people, in the way of 
wharfage and dock charges; that San Francisco, 
in fact, sits at the Golden Gate as a toll-gatherer, 
taxing the industry of the interior for 
her especial benefit. "We often find in 
the columns of our interior cotempora- 
ries paragraphs like the following, which we 
clip from a late number of the Colusa Sun: 

"We were informed by a Colusa County 
farmer that he had to pay one year four hun- 
dred dollars wharfage on bis grain crop. Let 
the farmers' organizations inquire into this 
matter, and if there is any thing for the Legis- 
lature to do, let them demand that it shall be 
done. For one, we do not believe in letting 
San Francisco sit down at the Golden Gate 
like a toll-gatherer, and tax the industry of the 
country at such a fearful rate. " 

We fully agree with the Sun, that the Legis- 
lature should look after this matter, and free 
the State from the onerous burthen imposed 
upon her in the manner indicated; but we 
fail to see how San Francisco can be held 
responsible for such a state of things. If left 
to the people of this city, or their represen- 
tatives, this burdensome tax could be removed 
at once. Indeed the only effort ever made for 
such removal was initiated and urged by the 
people of this city, and their representatives 
at Sacramento, and with such effect that the 
charges were reduced about one half. 

The fact should be known and published in 
every interior journal that San Francisco has 
not one dollar's interest in the wharf and dock 
at this port; but that the Legislature both 
levies the dues and directs the disbursement of 
the moneys derived therefrom. This informa- 
tion should be published to the end that our 
interior friends may see to it that legislators 
are sent to Sacramento, next winter, who are 
opposed to such extortionate charges and by 
whose votes the thing may be done away 
with. 

The interior delegations opposed to such ex- 
cessive charges will be promptly aided by the 
delegates from this city. We say, with the 
iSun, "Let the farmers' organizations inquire 
into this matter," and see that no one receives 
t/tetr support for the next Legislature who is 
not all right on this important issue. 

AsPHALTUM deposits abound in the southern 
portion of this State and the supply is practi- 
cally inexhaustible. A very large deposit has 
lately been found near Eincon Point, in Ven- 
fnra county, which is said to bo from six to fif- 
teen feet thick and covered with soil to the 
depth of eight or ten feet. It is in close prox- 
imity to the ocean. 



A New Washing Machine. 

We give herewith an illustration of a new 
washing machine, which is now being exten- 
sively introduced at the East, and which is 
giving most universal satisfaction. As shown 
it is extremely simple in construction, readily 
adjustable to any tub, and removable instantly, 
and at pleasure. It is in fact a most effective 
machine intended to take the place of the wash- 
board. Its mode of operation will be seen at a 
glance. 

The upper or large roller to which the crank 
is attached is pressed down against the four 
small rollers by spiral springs at each end. The 
clothes are held snugly between the rollers and 
carried through from side to side with very 
little friction to wear or injure them. The 
finest fabric or the heaviest blanket can be 
washed on this machine with equal facility. 
At each movement of the crank back and forth 
the water is absorbed by one end of the gar- 
ment and pressed out of the other. 

We have personal knowledge of its effici- 




ency and simplicity. Send to Weister & Co., 17 
New Montgomey st. , for circulars and further 
information. It is sold for $8, and we under- 
stand that over 40,000 have already been dis- 
posed of at the East. 

A Pomological Curiosity. 

Many of our readers will recognise the ac- 
companying engraving as a representation of 




P^T1®Hs ®F H^'SB^NDF^y, 



Directory. 



BUNCH OF CALIFORNIA PEARS. 

a remarkable bunch of pears, which was ex- 
hibited at the Mechanics' Institute Fair of 
this city, in 1865. The engraving has been 
made from a photograph, many of which were 
taken and distributed at the time. The pears 
were of the Louiie Bonn de Jersey variety, and 
were plucked from a tree in Mr. Brigg's gar- 
den, at Marysville, and consisted of 54 in 
number. It presents another remarkable in- 
stance of the wonderful pomological produc- 
tions of California. 

Spanish Merino. — A call at Sweeney's Stock 
Yard, corner of Howard and Tenth street, San 
Francisco, revealed to us a flock of 18 young 
Spanish merino bucks. They are part of a 
large invoice by Jewett & Munson, who are 
also expecting in a few days 200 more, from 
the most noted of Eastern flocks. Their enter- 
prise deserves appreciation, for only animals 
of the best blood receive consideration at their 
bands. 



[Prepared Specially fob the Pacific Rural Press.) 

NATIONAL GRANGE.-Washlnfftou, D. C. 

itusler.-UVBhEY W. ADAMS, Waukon, Iowa. 
Strrclnri/.-O. H. KELLEY, Georgetown. D. C. 

STATE ORANOES. 

Gkorgia.— Master, Col. T. J. Smith, Oconee; Sec'y, E. 
Taylor, Coiaparchu, 

Illinois.— Master, Alonzo Golder, Rock Falls; Sec'y, O. 
E, Fanning, (ialt. 

Indiana.— Master, .John Weir, Terre Haute; Sec'y, i,T. 
Keen, Valparaiso, 

Iowa.— Master. A. B. Smedley, Cresco; Sec'y, Gen. Wm. 
Duane Wilson, Des Moines. 

Kansas.— Master, F. H. Dnmbauld, Jacksonville; Sec'y, 
Geo. W. Spurgeon, Jacksonville. 

Michioan.— Master, S. F. Brown, Schoolcraft; Sec'y, J. 
T. Cobb, Schoolcraft. 

Minnf.sota.— Master, Geo. I. Parsons, Winona'; Sec'y, 
Wm. Paist, St. Paul. 

Mississippi.— Master, Gen. A. .1. Vaughn, Early Grove ; 
Sec'y, W. L. Williams, Rien/.i. 

Missouri.- Master, T. R. Allen, Allenton; Sec'y, A. M. 
Coffey, Knob Noster, Johnston Co. 

Nebraska.— Master, Win. B. Porter, Plattsmouth ; Sec'y, 
Wm. McCraig, Elrawood. 

Ohio.— Master, S. H. Ellis, Springboro ; Sec'y, D, M. Stew- 
art, Xenia. 

S. Carolina.— Master, Thomas Taylor, Columbia; Sec'y, 
Col. D. Wyatt Aikin, iJokesbury. 

Vermont.— Master, E. P. Colton, Irasburg; Sec'y, E. L. 
Hovey, St. Johnsbury. 

Wisconsin. — Master, Col. John Cochrane, Waupuu ; 
Sec'y, J. Brainard. Oshkosh, 

CALIFORNIA GRANGES. 

BENNETT VALLEY GRANGE, Santa Rosa, Sonoma Co. : 

Nelson Carr, Master; J. H. Plook, Sec'y. 
CAMBKIA GRANlJE, Cambria, San Luis Obispo Co.: 

RUFU8 KiGDON, Master; C. H. Irvins, Sec'y. 
CHICO (iKANGE, Uhico, Butte Co.: W.M.Throp, Master; 

.1 . W. Scott, Sec'y. 
Dl.XON ORANGE, Uiion, Solano Co. : J. C. Merbypield, 

Master; James a. Ellis, Sec'y. 
El.MIRA GRANGE, Vaca .Station, Solano Co.: A. CLARK, 

Master ; M. D. Cooper, Sec'y. 
GRAYSON GKANGE, Grayson, San .loaquln Co.: J. G. 

(iardeiier, M^ister ; G, H, v.'opland, Sec'y. 
(iUEN(>0 (iRANGE, (iuenoc. Lake Co.: J. M. Hamilton, 

Master: A. A. Ritchie, Sec'y. 
HEALDSBURCi GRANtiE, Heald.sburg, Sonoma Co.: T. 

H. Meuuv, Master; L. M. Holt. Sec'y. 
HOLLI.STEK GRANGE, No. 11. HoUister, Monterey Co.: 

,t. D. Fowler, Master; S. F. Cowan, 'Sec'y. 
MERCED GRANGE, Merced. Merced Co.: H. B. JoLLEY, 

Master, E. R. Elliott, Sec'y. 
MOkO city grange, .vioro, San Luis Obispo Co.: A.J. 

Mathers RAD, Master; H. J. Stanley, Sec'y. 
NAPA GRANGE, No. 1, Napa City, Napa Co.: W. A. 

Fisher, Master; .1. vv. Ward, Sec'y. 
OLD CREEK GRANGE, Old Creek. -San Luis Obispo Co. : 

Isaac Floitd, Master; R. M. Preston, Sec'y. 
PESCADERO grange, Peseadero, San Mateo Co.: B. V. 

Weeks, Master; H. B. Sprague, Sec'y. 
PETALUMA GRANGE, Petaluma, Sonoma Co.; L. W. 

Walker, Master; D. G. Heald, Sec'y. 
PILOT HILL GRANGE, Pilot Hill, El Dorado Co. : tOffl- 

cers not reported,] 
POINT OF TIMBER GRANGE, Antioch P. O., Contra 

Coata Co.: R. S. Dean, Master; J. E. W. Carev, Sec'y. 
SACRAMENTO GRANGE, No. 12, Sacrament-, Sacra- 
mento Co.: W. S. Manlove, Master; Geo. Rich, Sec'y. ; 

both Sacramento. 
SALIDA GRANGE, No. 8, Modesto P. C, Murphy's Town- 
ship, Stanislaus Co. : Joseph Reyburn, Master ; Lafay- 
ette Dickey, Sec'y. 
SALINAS GRANGE, Salinas, Monterey Co.: M.L. Allen, 

Master; Samuel Cassidy, Sec'y. 
SAN LUIS (JBISPO GRANGE, San Luis Obispo, San Luis 

Obispo Co. : Wm. Jackson, Master; G. V. Smith, Sec'y. 
SAN JOSE GRANGE, No. lU, San Jose, Santa Clara Co.: 

Oliver cottle. Master ; S. H. Heruino, Sec'y., San Jose. 
SANTA ROSA GRANGE, Santa Rosa, Sonoma Co.: Geo. 

W. Davis. Master ; J. A. Obreen, Sec'y. 
STANISLAUS GRANGE, Modesto, Stanislaus Co.: J. D. 

Spencer, Master; Jas. McHenry, Sec'y. 
.ST. HELENA GRANGE, St. Helena, ftapa Co : G. B. 

Crane, Master; J. L, Edwards, Sec'y. 
SUISUN VALLEY GRANGE, Suisun, Solano Co. : R. C. 

Haile, Master; A. T. Hatch, Sec'y. 
SYCAMORE GRANGE, Grand Island, Colusa Co.: J.J. 

HicoK, Master; J. C. Wilkins, Sec'y. 
TURLOCK GRANGE, Turlock, Stanislaus Co.: J. W. A. 

Wrioht, Master; John A. Henderson, Sec'y. 
VACAVILLE GRANGE, Vacaville, Solano Co. : T.Hart 

Hyatt, Master; T. Hart Hyatt, Jr., Sec'y. 
WEST SAN JOAQUIN GRANGE, Ellis, San Joaquin Co, : 

E. B. Stiles, Master; H. W. Fassett, Sec'y. 
YOLO GRANGE. Woodland, Yolo Co.: W. M. Jackson, 

Master; D. ScHiNDLER, Sec'y. 
YOUNTVILLE GRANGE, Vountvllle, Napa Co.: J. M. 

Mayfield. Master; T. B. Hopper, Sec'y. 

There are some Granges of which we have not received a 
notice of organization or list of offiecrs, which we would 
be glad to get. We hope Secretaries will forward to us cor- 
rect lists of officers and their post-office address ; also the 
names of counties in which the Granges are. 
The Objects of the Patrons of Husbandry 
Briefly Stated. 
General Deputy N. W. Garretson, who is now visiting this 
Coast perfecting the organizations of the order in Califor- 
nia, Oregon and Washington Territory, states the objects of 
the order to be brielly as follows: 

1. The ennoblement of labor and the fraternizing of the 
producing classes. 

2. Bringing more nearly together the producer and the 
consumer. 

3. Mutual instructioi.. The lightening of labor by diffus- 
ing a better knowledge of its aims. 

4. Social culture. 

-S. Mutual relief in sickness and adversity. 

6. Prevention of litigation. 

7. Prevention of cruelty to animals. 

8. The overthrow of the credit system. 

9. Building up and fostering home industry. 

10. Mutual protection to husbandmen against sharpers 
and monopolists. 



To the Patrons of Husbandry. 

Wo earuestl; solicit that your Secretaries furniBli us 
as early and full reports of your (liscuBsloiis, as may be 
desirable to send broadcast among patrons and farmers 
throughout the State. In our columues will be found 
an olticlal list of the National and State Oranges. Also 
a list of California Oranges, with F. O. address, and 
the names of Masters and Secretaries. Also reports of 
all new Granges, and the progress of the work at homo 
and abroad, will be continued more fully than in any 
other journal on this Coast. We shall continue, as 
heretofore to give reports of Orange and Club meetings 
of farmers througliout the State. 

Our market reports, a department of essential interest 
to every farmer, will be replete, correct and up to the 
latest hour possible. Our Home Circle, Domestic Econ- 
omy, Agricultural Notes, and various other depart- 
ments, will not be lacking in intorest for want of able 
and careful preparation, while the embtdllshments of 
fine engraTings in our future issues will surpass those 

o' the past. 

DEWEY & CO., PubliohMS. 



Organize Granges and Farmers' Clubs. 

For the information of those wishing to otganize 
Oranges, we publish the following extracts from the 
Consitutlon of the National Grange: 

1. Any person interested In agricultural pursuits, of 
the age of 10 years (female) and 18 (males), duly pro- 
posed, elected, and by complying with the by-Laws of 
the Order, is entitled. to membership and the benefit of 
degrees. 

2. Application for a dispensation to organize a Grange 
must be made by not less than nine men and four wo- 
men, nor more than twenty men and ten women, 
througli a Deputy to the Secretary of the National 
Grange; said application to be accompanied by a fee ol 
$1,5. Charter members are those only whose names are 
upon the application, and who have paid a fee of f'-i 
upon signing. The $15 is paid out of the fund created by 
the payment of fees. 

3. As soon as fifteen subordinate granges shall have 
been organized in this State, a State Grange will be or- 
ganized, and the dispensations will be replaced by char 
ters, without further fee. 

4. Religious or political questions will not be toler- 
ated as subjects of discussion in the work of the Order, 
and no religious or political tests for membership shall 
be applied. 

5. The minimum fee for membership in a subordinate 
Grange shall be. for men, $5 ; for women, $2 for the 
fourdegrees; except charter members, who shall pay- 
men, $3; women, 50 cents. The minimum monthly 
dues shall be from each member 10 ceuts. 

6. The officers are as follows : Gentlemen— Master, 
Overseer, Lecturer, Steward, Assistant Steward, Chap- 
lain, Treasurer, Secretary, and Gate-Keeper. Ladies- 
Ceres, Pomoua, Flora, and Lady Assistant Steward. 
There is also a Standing Executive Committee of three 
which has charge of the business of the Grange. 

How to Organize. 

The first step necessary in the organization of a 
Grange is to secure the names of not less than nine 
males and five females, not more than 20 males and It) 
females who will become charter uiembf rs. Call them 
together and procure their signatures to a blank (which 
may be procured of Deputy W. H. Baxter, of Napa 
City) asking for a dispensation to organize, and collect- 
ing of each signer the charter fee. Nominate the oftl- 
oers named in the constitution of the National Grange, 
as above enumerated. Notify the Deputy that such 
steps have been taken and that they are ready for 
organization. 

Blank copies of Constitutions for organizing farming 
clubs will be sent free on application to this office. 



ARTICLES FOR GRANGES, ETC. 

Blank By-Laws for subordinate Granges will be furni^h• 
ed at this office for two cents per copy, post paid. Printed 
blanks and forms. Masters' jewels and other articles re- 
quired by Oranges furnished by this office at cost prices. 
Further information freely furnished on application. 



Patents & Inventions. 



Telegraphic List of U. S. Patents Is- 
sued to Pacific Coast Inventors. 

From Offioiai, Reports fob the Mintno and Scien- 
tific Pbess, DEWEY & CO., Publishers and 

U. S. AND FOEEION PATENT AOENTS] 

By Special Dispatch, Dated Washington , 

D. C, July 1st, 1873. 

Fob Week Ending June 17th, 1873.' 

Steam Plo'sv. — Peter .T. McDonald, S. P., Cal. 

Harrow. — Parmenas N. Woodworth, Stony 
Point, Cal. 

Brake Keaction-Movemekt. — Horace B. Mar- 
tin, S. F., Cal. 

Coal Screen and Chute. — Martin R. Roberts, 
S. P., Cal. 

By Special Dispatch, Dated Washing-ton, 
D. C. July 8th, 1873. 

Fob Week Endino June 24th, 1873.' 

Addikg Machine. — Gustavus Linderoos, Point 

Arena, Cal. 
Cab Coupling. — Mordocai Disney, assignor 
to H. C. Kibbe and J. D. Hildreth, Oak- 
land, Cal. 
Kindling Wood-Cutteb. — Nicolas Sonnicbseu, 

S. P.. Cal. 
Sectional Cam for Ore Stamps. — James M. 

Thompson, S. F., Cal. 
Oee Stamp Feedeb.— John D. Cusenbary and 

James A. Mars, S. P., Cal. 
Preventing Incrustation in Steam Boilers. — 

Robt. A. Fisher, S. P., Cal. 
Sheep Shears.— Andrew S. McWilliams, Co- 
lusa, Cal. 
Plow. — John C. Potter, Helena, Cal. 
Mortising Machine.— John Driver, Marys- 
ville, Cal. 
Paint Brush. — Syranns Standish, Enreka, 

Nevada. 
Medical Compound for the Cure ofCon.sump- 
xioN.— William H. H. White, 8. F., Cal. 

'The patents are not ready for delivery by the 

Patent Office until some 14 days after the date of issue , 

Note.— Copies of U. 8. and Foreign Patents funilBhed 
by Dewet & Co., in the shortest time possible (by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business for Paciflc coast inventors transacted with 
greater security and in much loss time than by any other 
agency. 



Bottle AND Can Clamp.— Mr. James N. Car- 
ter, of Virgina City, Nevada, has invented a 
simple, cheap and convenient clamping device, 
for securing cans, bottles and other containing 
vessels upon a platform, counter or shelf so 
that they cannot be shaken down or removed 
without unlocking or releasing the clamp. The 
device is chiefly intended for securing milk 
cans to the bottom or floor of milk wagons, 
thus obviating tUe necessity of converting the 
wagon bed into a series of compartments as 
usually practiced. In this country of earth- 
quakes, the device will bo excellent forjpreveut- 
ing glassware and bottles from being shaken 
down and broken when the "shake ' comes. 
Mr. Carter, has secured protection for his in- 
vention through the Scientific Pbksh Patent 
Agency. 



26 



wsMtwm m.'wnA% :phss8* 



[July 12, 1873. 



K^^^^— 




The Old Hay Loft. 

Once more I'm in the old hay loft 

Tpon the fragrant hay. 
Where, when a boy, I've idly spent 

So many a summer's day, 
The same old rafters, beams and all, 

Are here as they wore then; 
And while I look on these I feel 

That I'm a boy again. 

My father's old hay loft— how BWeet 

To linger here once more I 
To see, and feel, and be again 

What I have been before ! 
To breathe the soft September air. 

That comes across the fields. 
So fragrant from the growing com, 

What memories it reveals ! 

Here af this window we have Iain 

Our neighbor's boys and I, 
On summer evenings, and beheld 

The moon that rose so high 
O'er hills and fields of w.ieat and com. 

That stretched for miles away, 
Until at last we went to sleep 

Upon the fragrant bay. 

W'hat glowing dreams of future fame 

Those boys and I have dreamed ! 
What glowing hopes we entertained. 

How bright the future seemed! 
How new and fresh was all the earth , 

How sacred friendship's ties. 
What raptures glowed in all our hopes! 

What truth in woman's eyes! 

Alas 1 for all those hopes and dreams. 

We knew not of the toils 
That more than pay for fame and wealth. 

Those dearly-gotten spoils: 
We knew not that deceit was mixed 

With beauty's charming smile. 
Nor that the tale of faith and love 

Was told but to beguile. 

Yet where are now thoee happy boys. 

That just the other day 
Enjoyed this scene, and talked with me 

Within this loft of hay? 
Some— oh! how few— have reached their goal! 

Some plow the ocean's wave. 
Some others still toil bravely on 

Some till a soldier's grave. 

Toil on, fond boys, toil bravely on. 

For yet, ere life is done. 
The goal you seek may yet be found, 

The battle may be won. 
But, O , i)e true unto the vows — 

Wlierever you may stray— 
The vows for right that we have pledged 

Within this k.ft of hay. 



What is Sometimes Seen Inside the 
Farmer's House. 

Five boys —great big, burly, boisterous 
fellows, full of the vitality which belongs 
to their class — are there; three girls, kind- 
hearted, active, fun-loving, untutored, and 
with the affectation which only accompan- 
ies conscious ignorance! All these with a 
mild, spiritless, care-worn mother upon 
whom all make the most exacting demands. 
And there is not a paper taken among them! 
The boys whittle, trap, bunt, skate, go to 
school when they please, play cards, and 
range about all over town at will. The 
girls help their mother some, read sickly 
novels, goto dances, parties, etc., and are 
constantly wishing for and devoting them- 
selves to some excitement that will relieve 
them of the monotony of a home which is 
not one of comfort, culture, refinement 
and pleasure. Its tasks are onerous. 
There is little or no love-light in it ; none 
of the delicate courtesies and attentions 
which brothers should bestow upon sisters 
and sisters reciprocate; no music, reading, 
sympathy — really no home atmosphere! 
And yet some people think it strange that 
Farmers' Children do not Stay at Home. 

This is just what I am coming to. This 
is the kind of education too many young 
men and woman receive on our farms. 
This is the way they are taught to love 
farm life. This is the material of which 
too many farmers (so called) are made. 
This is the sweet pastoral life of which 
poets sing. This is the road many farmers 
take to reach the usurer, and in a direct 
line beyond him are mortgage foreclosures 
and "change cf base." This is what 
drives hundreds of Eastern men into West- 
ern pioneer life. 

Of course it is all right such should be 
driven hence. It is a blessing to the 
neighborhood whence they remove. But 
it is a very sad thing, sir — very sad! 
For out of just such management or mis- 
management are born misery, suffering, 
vice! These are propagated from generation 
to generation ! The inheritance unfortu- 
nately, too often clings to the inheritors. 
There is missionary work for every intel- 
ligent farmer to do in such families. No 
good farmer can afford to have such neigh- 
bors! He can better afford to spend $100 
each year in providing them with the best 



papers, magazines and books; he can 
better afford to spend time stimulating the 
pride of such boys and themselves to take 
an interest in improved agriculture, and in 
teaching them methods that will be profi- 
table to them; he can^better afford to encour- 
age his own daughters to culivate the 
friendship of such girls, with a view to 
lifting them out of such an aimless life in- 
to one of purpose , refinement, and self- 
respect. 

The truth is, fellow-farmers, it is this 
neighborhood association disinterested (ap- 
parently) interest in our neighbors' affairs, 
that is one of the best and wisest invest- 
ments we can make, if we would enhance 
the value of our own property and give to 
ourselves and our neighbors the stability 
and security whichare essential in all well- 
ordered society. We haven't any right to 
to mind our own business in such matters; 
besides it is not profitable to do so. I 
don't advise meddling, mind you ! I don't 
advise arrogance and an ostentatious dis- 
play of superior wisdom and knowledge. 
That will not pay, because it will result 
in no good effect. But an exhibition of 
kindly fellow-feeling, sympathy, neigh- 
borly interest in each others affairs, a dis- 
position to rejoice with those who rejoice, 
and sympathize with those who are unfor- 
tunate, and "help them out" with manly 
heartiness and good will, will do more to 
raise neighborhood society and neighbor- 
hood agriculture "up to grade" than any 
other policy I have ever seen tried. It is 
easy to tame a colt or a kicking cow with 
kindness and good food . It is easy to 
fasten a pig so he cannot get through un- 
der a fence and do mischief. It is easy to 
keep chickens about one's own door, and 
out of the neighbor's garden, by feeding 
them abundantly there. You can do about 
any thing you choose with any animal if 
you give human treatment; and the human 
animal is no exception. Accordingly, I 
suggest that these young human colts be 
tamed and harnessed; the kicking cows be 
kindly handled and fed with the food they 
are starving for; the pigs be fed and fat- 
tened; the chickens coaxed to roost at 
home by this same policy we apply to our 
brutes? Why not? — Tribune. 

How Mosaics are Made. 

A correspondent of the London Morning 
Star, describing sightseeing in Rome, 
says: "But the mosaics seem to absorb the 
most time and money in the least space, 
unless it be the solid gold decorations. 
We saw a table lately, less than six feet in 
diameter, said to Lave cost S".iOO,000, requir- 
ing the labor of a large number of men for 
fifteen years. Upon entering the halls 
where this kind of work is done, I could 
not doubt these enormous figures. Sup- 
pose, for instance, a thousand of the hard- 
est and most expensive stones, which will 
take on a high polish, be cut into pieces 
three-eighths of an inch thick. These 
pieces are cut the other way into small 
pieces like shoe-pegs, and where the shad- 
ing from one color to another is sudden, 
these pegs must not be larger than a needle. 
Now the artist cuts and puts in these little 
pieces, selected according to their color, so 
as to give the coloring wanted as distinct 
as though painted. These pieces or pegs 
must be fitted so closely that lines of sepa- 
ration will not show, and set upon end, 
side by side, like types. They claim that 
ten thousand different shades of color are 
neccesary; and in order to do this kind of 
work a man must be skilled in colors and 
shades as a painter, in order to place the 
colors properly, and then be the most 
careful and accurate of mechanics in order 
to fit the pieces — and then he must have 
patience enough to work on the cheapest 
and coarsest pictures one year, and upon 
a fine one from ten to twenty years." 



Be Firm.— Let the winds blow, the 
waves of society beat and frown about yon, 
if they will; but keep your soul in recti- 
tude and it will be as firm as a rock. Plant 
yourself upon principle, and bid defiance 
to misfortune. If gossip, with her pois- 
oned tongue, meddles with your good 
name — if her disciples, who infest every 
town and hamlet make your disgrace the 
burden of their song, heed them not. It 
is their bread and their meat to slander. 
Treat their idle words as you would the 
hissing of a serpent, or the buzzing of 
many insects. Carry yourself erect; and 
by the serenity of your countenance, and 
the purity of your life, give the lie to all 
who would berate and belittle you. 

Eve was the only women who never 
threatened to go and live ■with mamma. 
And Adam was the only man who never 
tantalized his wife about "the way mother 
used to cook." 



A Girl that Hoes Her own Row. 

We lately had the pleasure of interview- 
ing a Miss A. of Illinois, who, for some 
years past, has been engaged in carrying 
on a farm of one hundred and twenty acres. 

Her father died, leaving a widow, and, 
we believe, two daughters and a boy, of 
whom Miss A. was the eldest, and the boy, 
a lad of ten or a dozen years old. She 
found the health of her mother, who was 
endeavoring to manage the farm with hir- 
ed help, failing; and, concluding that she 
would rather keep her mother than get an 
education, she left the seminary in 1803 
and commenced farming. The farm at 
that time consisted of eighty acres of the 
home farm about half of which was in cul- 
tivation; and at a little distance were forty 
acres more, all in cultivation. The home 
farm had a pretty good house, but the barn 
had recently been burned and the fences 
were not good. Twelve acres had been 
planted to apples of good varieties. She 
had one horse and got the loan of another 
from a friend, who also aids and was aided 
in turn by lending implements, etc. She 
has now a good team of her own raising, 
besides a horse that does duty in a market 
wagon. 

She went to work, with the aid of her 
little brother, and, to some extent, of her 
mother and sister, who took charge of the 
housekeeping. She learned to do nearly 
all kinds of work. She does not plow 
much but she can do it. She took out fifty 
to one hundred stumps of trees one year, 
with the spade and ax, and at the same 
time assisted her brother, who was drill- 
ing wheat. She bound the shocked wheat, 
and can drive a team well. She can use 
the ax pretty well; formerly she could 
chop better than her brother, but now he 
chops as well as she can herself, and she 
does less of it. She wears a gymnasium 
suit when at home and at work, a broad- 
brimmed hat, gloves and boots made to 
order. She wishes to look as well as 
other girls, and thus protects herself 
from the exposure resulting from out-door 
labor. She likes the open air life and the 
out-door work, and is healthy and strong. 
— Prairie Farmer. 



Saying " Hateful" Things. 

What a strange disposition is that which 
leads people to say " hateful " things for 
the mere pleasure of saying them! You 
are never safe with such a person. When 
you have done your best to please, and are 
feeling very kindly and pleasantly, out 
will pop some underhand stab which you 
alone can comprehend — a sneer which is 
masked, but which is too well aimed to be 
misunderstood. It may be at your per- 
son, your mental feelings, your foolish 
habits of thought, or some secret opinions 
confessed in a moment of genuine confi- 
dence. It matters not how sacred it may 
be to you, he will have his fling at it; and 
since the wish to make you suffer, he is 
all the happier the nearer he touches 
your heart. Just half a dozen words, only 
for the pleasure of seeing a oheek flush 
and an eye lose its brightness, only spok- 
en because he is afraid you are too happy 
or too conceited. Yetjthey are worse than 
so many blows. How many sleepless 
nights have such mean attacks caused ten- 
der hearted men and women! How, after 
them, one wakes with aching eyes and 
head, to remember that speech before 
everything — that bright, sharp, well-aim- 
ed needle of a speech that probed the very 
center of your soul ! 

A Lady, speaking of the gathering of 
lawyers to dedicate a new court-house, 
said she supposed they had gone "to view 
the ground where they must shortly lie." 



Come Down to your Circumstances. 

And, when you have succeeded in effect- 
ing the difficult, but in no wise dangerous 
descent, remain tlfre. The cool air of the 
place will not hurt you. On the contrary 
it will do you a world of good. The fever 
and heart burn which effected you, you will 
feel no more when once j-ou have actually 
"come down to your circumstances." 

"But what's a man to do that has but 
three or four dollars a week to live on?" 
sounds out in a disatisfied answer to our 
Injunction. You must live inside of four 
dollars, if that is all you have. If you 
don't do it, the debts that will accumulate 
will kill the courage all out of you. If you 
doit, the very minute that you can manage 
to obtain higher pay you will begin to f-n 
joy the feeling which plenty begets. No- 
body knows how good six dollars a week 
seems, so well as he who ha^ for a long 
time contrived to live on four or even less. 

The chief affliction and misery of pov- 
erty is the tormenting desire to have more 
than you can get, and the shame there is 
in owning that you must deny yourself 
many things that all about you possess. 
To those who care chiefly for externals 
this is a very great trouble; but do not let 
your Sfe consist in the abundance of the 
things you possess, nor your destruction 
be the lack of the goods of this world. 
Work faithfully and patiently; go ahead 
as fast as you can, and as you go be care- 
ful to keep down to your means; and soon 
or late, honor and happiness will certainly 
be yours. — Ledger. 

Fabmers' Wives at Aqricultural Meet- 
ings. — Why should not farmers' wives at- 
tend the meetings of Agricultural So- 
cieties ? From Now Hampshire we learn 
that it is the custom of the Hillsboro 
County Society to invite women to attend 
the sessions. In the same State, the Board 
of Agriculture, which goes about holding 
meetings, always invites women to be pres- 
ent in the evening, and so arranges the 
subjects as to present at that session the 
most attractive topics for a mixed audience. 
Sometimes women contribute to the in- 
terest of the meetings by reading papers 
specially prepared by them. All this, con- 
sidering how much they have_ to do with 
farm-work seems natural enough; and it 
is strange that the custom is not more 
general. 

"What are you doing there ?" said a gro- 
cer to a fellow who was stealing his lard. 
"I am getting fat," was the reply. 



A Missouri farmer attempted to smoke 
out a rabbit, and burnt up half a mile of 
fence and over a hundred apple trees. He 
caught the rabbit. 

YoJ(<<t pOLKs' GolJ^|<. 



The Little Yankee Heroine. 

At one time when Hood's army had 
gained a victory, and were passing through 
Memphis, their march led them near a 
convent, and there being a school connect- 
ed with it, there were a goodly number 
of young girls assembled by the gates to 
see the soldiers. Among the girls was a 
little Yankee of thirteen who had endured 
many taunts, much ridicule and unkindness 
from her mates because of her Northe:n 
birth. 

She had born it too patiently to suit 
them. Silently she watched the men fil- 
ing along, until in the rear of the regi- 
ment, she saw a soldier dragging the na- 
tional flag, the dear old stars and stripes, 
in the dust. 

Suddenly she sprang forth, ran to the 
soldier, took from him the flag, wrapped it 
around her and said: "Never! never! will 
I see this flag trailed in the dust." Soldiers 
and all were amazed at her daring; but in- 
stead of taking it from her, they cheered 
her again and again, while her school- 
mates changed from enemies to friends, 
admired and applauded her bravery, and 
henceforth made her the pet and darling 
of the school. 



The Sin that Killed The Baby. -A cor 
respondent writes to the following effect. - 
" I recently attended the funeral of a child 
of three or four summers. The minister 
during his remarks dwelt uijon the fact, 
that death is the result of sin, which I 
agreed with; but I thought, while looking 
upon the lifeless little form, that the sin 
which killed this little one, was sin against 
natural as well as spiritual laws. She was 
clad for the grave in the garmen ts she had 
worn while living, and the bare neck and 
arms, exposed while the child was in health 
to gratify the vanity of the parents, had 
invited the disease which proved fatal. 
That was the sin which killed the baby, 
and which is making fearful work with hun- 
dreds of others whose parents prefer fash- 
ion to health, and the exhibition of their 
children's beauty, to the safety of their 
lives." 

Thfs language is none too strong. It is 
positively wicked to subject tender chil- 
dren to such treatment, which would be fa- 
tal to adults of vigorous constitution. In 
our changeable climate, especially, too 
great precaution can scarcely be taken to 
guard the throat and lungs from disease. 
They need not be kept muffled with warm 
clothing, but should always have sufficient 
protection to guard against the sudden 
changes, for which this country is noted. 
Keep the children's chests and arms cov- 
ered, if you would have them healthy. — 
American Agriadtnrist, 



July 12, 1873.] 



27 




'^alfuraU^omeJouTH^ 



Each Issux Contains 

Sixteen well filled pages. 

Original and Choice Engravings. 

Editorials on Home Industries. 

On various kinds of Stock-rearing. 

On Horticulture and Gardening. 

Correspondence from Farming Districts. 

Answers and hints to Correspondents about 
Local Farming. 

Good Health and Useful Information. 

Reports of Farming Clubs. 

Mechanical and Scientific progress. 

Agricultural Notes from all quarters. 

Domestic Produce Markets. 

Home Circle. 

Domestic Economy. 

Mechanical Hints and Domestic Receipts. 

Home and Farm Matters. 

Affording, in all, more of real instructive and 
profitable matter for general readers than 
any other weekly on this side of the Conti- 
nent. 

Subscription, in advance, $4 a year. Single 
copies 10 cts. Four single copies, of late dates, 
sent postpaid for 25 cts. 

DE^VTETT &: Co., 

Publishers, Patent Agents and Engravers, No. S.SS 
Montgomery street. 8. E. comer California. 8. F. 



DEWEY &> CO., 

American & Foreign Patent Agents, 

OFFICE. 338 MONTGOMERY STREET. S. P. 

The best, speediest, and surest method for you 
to obtain patents, file caveats, or transact 
any other important business with the Patent 
Office at Washington, or with foreign coun- 
tries, is through the agency of DEWEY & 
CO., PUBLISHERS OF THE MINING 
AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS, SAN FRAN- 
CISCO, an able, responsible, and long-estab- 
lished firm, and the principal agents on this 
side of the continent. They refer to the thous- 
ands of inventors who have patronized them, 
and to all prominent Irasiness men of the 
Pacific Coast, who are more or less familiar 
with their reputation as straightforward jour- 
nalists and patent solicitors and counsellors. 

We not only more readily apprehend the points 
and secure much more fully and quickly the 
patents for our home inventors, but with the 
influence of our carefully read and extensively 
circulated journals, we are enabled to illus- 
trate the intiinsic merits of their patents, and 
secure a due reward to the inventor, besides 
serving the public who are more ready to give 
a fair trial, and adopt a good thing, upon 
the recommendation of honest and intelligent 
publishers. 

To Obtain Patent, 

A weU-oonstructed model is generally first need- 
ed, if the invention can well be thus illustrated . 
It must not exceed 12 inches in length or 
hight. When practicable, a smaller model is 
even more desirable. Paint or engrave the 
name of the article, and the name of the 
inventor, and his addi-ess upon it. 

Send the model (by express or other reliable 
conveyance), plainly addressed, to "Dewet 
& Co., Mining and Scientific Pbess Office, 
San Francisco." At the same time, send a 
full description, embodying all the ideas and 
claims of the inventor respecting the im- 
provement describing the various parts and 
their operations. 

Also send $15 currency, amount of first fee of 
the Government. The case will be placed on 
our regular file, the drawings executed, and 
the documents made up, and soon sent to the 
inventor for signing. 

As soon as signed and returned to us with the 
fees then due us, it will be sent straightway 
to the Patent Office at Washngton. 

When the invention consists of a new article of 
manufacture, a medicine, or a new composi- 
tion, samples of the separated ingredients, 
sufficient to make the experiment (unless 
they are of a common and well-known char- 
acter), and also of the manufactured ai-ticle 
itself , must be furnished, with full description 
of the entire preparation. 

For Processes, frequently no model or drawings 
are necessary. In such case, the applicant 
has only to send us an exact description, alid 
what is desu-able to claim. 

For designs no models are necessary. Dupli- 
cate drawings are required, and the specifica- 
tions and other papers should be made up 
with care and accuracy. In some instances for 
design patents two photographs, with the 
negative, answer well instead of drawings. 

For further information, send a stamp for our 
illustrated circular, containing a digest of Pa- 
TEN1 Laws, 112 illustrated mechanical move- 
ments, and Hints and Instructions regarding 
the BIGHTS and privileges of inventors and 
patentees, which wUl be furnished post paid. 
Also a copy of NEW PATENT LAW of 1870. 

Address r>E\n:Y &, CO., 

PuBLisBSBS, Patent Agents and Enoravbrs,. 
No. 338 UoDtgomer; street, 3. F. 




SEASONABLE SEEDS 

At Reduced Prices. 



The following varieties, all of the NEW CROP, are 
offered at less than usual market rates : 

BEETS. CARROTS. 

Mangel Wirrtiiel, Long Orange, 

White Sugar, White Belgium, 

Yellow Globe. Long Red, 

All Imported Seeds. 



Grass and Clover Seeds 



Timothy, 
Red Top, 
Kentucky Blue Grass, 



English Rye Grass, 
White Clover, 
Red Clover. 



ALFALFA, Etc- 

Orders are respectfelly solicited, and will meet with 
prompt and faithful attention. 

GEO F. SSir^VEWTEK, 

No. 817 Waahlngrton Street, 
6v2-lyl6p SAN FRANCISCO. 



E E D S. 



VEGETABLE AND FLOWER SEEDS, GRASS AND 

CLOVER, ALFALFA, ETC. EUCALYPTUS 

GLOBULUS OR BLUE GUM, NATIVE 

CALIFORNIA FLOWER AND 

EVERGREEN SEEDS. 



L A N T S 



Greenhouse Plants— Fine and Healthy; Camellias 
mid Mag-nolias— Fine Plants; Finest New 
Fuchsias, Double Geraniums, 
Coleus, Dv^arf and 
TltEE: FEIlI>fS. 
FAN PALMS, one to six feet high; CYCAS REVOLUTA, 
or SAGO PALM; Choice GLADIOLUS; Rare 
LILIES, ROSES, EVERGREENS, 
SHRUBS, ETC. 
Xln«tio and M'ii'© XSa^slcotK. 
We are selling a large part of our fine stock less than 
Half Catalogue Prices. 
Goods packed with care for shipment. 

E . E . ax O O It E , 

Seedsman and Florist, 

21v5 425 Washington street, San Francisco, Cul. 



SEEDS! SEEDS! 8EED3 ! 

"W. R. STRONG, 8 and 10 J st., Sacramento. 

Garden, J'lower and Field Seeds ; Fruit, Shade, 
Forest and Everoreen Tree and Shrub Seed ; Trees 
AND Tree hEEDLiNGs, FRurr, Timber and Ornamental, 
supplied at the very lowest rates, from the largest and 
best nurseries liere and in the Eastern States. 

Vick's Flower Seeds, Bulbs, Chronios and Catalogues 

on hand and supplied at strictly his rates. Seeds and 

small seedlings forwarded by mail to any part of the 

United Stales, Catalogues furnished free on application, 

19v5-3in 



Polishing and Fluting Iron. 




This new invention takes the place of two articles 
needed in nearly every house. As a POLISHING IRON 
it has no superior. The part used for Fluting is made 
of brass, and highly polished. A Receipt for making 
French Glossing Starch, that gives a superior polish, 
goes witli each iron. The Polishing Iron and Fluter, 
being in one, are both heated at the same time. We are 
now prepared to furnish them in quantities to suit. 
Price, $3. 

WIESTEE & CO., 
17 New Montgomery street, San Francisco, 
General Agents for Pacific Coast. 



H. K. ouMMixas. 
18C8. 



H. H, BALSTON. 

1873. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesala Fruit and Produce Commission 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1858. 
(16 and 417 Davis street, cor. of Oregon, San Francisco 

Our businMS being exclusively Oommissiou, we have 

Jio interests iliat will conflict ^tth those of the producer. 

4v23-ly 



A Good Binder for $1.50. 

Subscribers for this journal can obtain our Paten 
Elastic Newspaper File Holder and Binder for $1,50— 
containing gilt Utle of the paper on the cover. It pre- 
serves the papOTS completely and in such shape that 
they may be quickly fastened and retained in book form 
at the end of the volume, and the binder (which is very 
durable) used continuously for subsequent volumes. 
Post paid, 25 cts, extra. It can be used for Harper's 
Weekly and other papers of similar size. If not entirely 
pleased, purchasers may return thera within 30 days. 
Just the thing for libraries and reading rooms, and all 
who wish to file the Pbess. lambp 



0. p. 8HEFITEIJ). 



N. W. SPAOLDINO, J. PATTERSON, 



PACIFIC 



Saw Manufacturing Company, 



N08. 17 AND 19 FRONT ST., SAN FRANCISCO. 




REAPER AND MOWING SECTIONS, 



Planing Knives, Curriers' Knives, 



SAW MANDRELS AND SAWS OF EVERY DESCRIP- 
TION MADE TO ORDER. 
16vS'3ni 



The Pacific Irrigating Pipe and 
Pump Co., 



A. M. JEWELL, 

Superintendent. 

Office and Factory, South Point 

Mills, Berry street, between 

Third and Fourth sts., 

San Francisco, 

We call the atteution of Farmers, 
Stockmen and others using wooden 
Pumps and Pipes, to the fact that 
we are now prepared to furnish all 
kinds of House and Farm Pumps, 
also Wooden Pipe of from IJ^ to ,'5 
inches diameter, at prices much less 
than any others in this market. 

Prices of Pumps, ,,from $3,26 to $9. 

Prices of Pipe, from 10 to 50 cents 
per foot. 

0^ Agents wanted in every town. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 
23v.5-3m 




Improve Your Poultry. 

It Costs No More to Keep Good 
Fowls than Poor Ones ! 

SEND STAMP FOR ILLUSTRATED 
CIRCULAR 

Containing a full description of all 

the best known and most profitable 

Fowls in the country to 

GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

Importer and Breeder of Blooded 
Fowls, and agent for the Poultry Wokld, a monthly 
magazine devoted entirely to Poultry — tells how to keep 
Fowls for pleasure and PROFIT. Subscription only 
$1.25 per year. Address 

GEO. B, BAYLEY, Box 669, San Francisco. 
2Sv2l'-aw bp 




The Iowa Homestead and Farm 
Journal, 

A NATIONAL, AGRICULTURAL, LIVE STOCK AND 

FAMILY PAPER, 

Published at Des Moines, the Capital of Iowa. 

The Homestead was established in 1855, and is re- 
garded as the wheel-horse in the great movement of 
farmers against monopolists in the west and throughout 
the country. 

It has been the friend of the Patrons of Husband- 
ry from the organization of that Order, fighting tor its 
principles In the midst of bitterest opposition, until in 
Iowa alone it numbers a Hundred Thousand far- 
mers, farmers' wives, sons and diuiglitors, and in the 
Union many times that number — and beside its depart- 
ment on Agriculture, Stock Breeding and Household 
matters, which alone are worth many times its price, 
it gives an oilicial weekly record of the progress of the 
Order throughout the Union and Canada, with Corres- 
pondence, Questions and Answers from all parts of the 
world. 

The HOMESTEAD is read eaervwuere, and has the 
widest circulation of any paper in the entire North- 
west, Send for a copy free. 

Subscriptions, f2.00 

To Patrons, 1.00 

HOMESTEAD COMPANY, 

Jy2t Des Moines, Iowa. 



ADORN YOUR HOMES with the new Ohromo 
"Awake" and "Asleep," Sells like Wild fire, Tlie pair 
sent for 50 cents. A large discount to agents. Address 
W. F. CARPENTER, Foxboro, Mass. jn28-eow2t • 



Buyers' Directory. 

Under this head will be found the namea and address of 
some of our moat enterprising and reliable bualnesB med; 

Linsley & Collins, Commission and Prd- 

duce Merchants. Particular attention given to the sale) 
of Dairy Produce, Smoked Meats, Lard, Poultry, EggSj 
etc. 507 Sansome st.. Niimtic Buildinp, San Francisco- 



T. R. Church, 223 Montgomery Street, 

(Ru-^aHouBo Block,) San Francisco. Wholesale and re- 
tall dealer in Mens', Youths' and Boys* Fine Custotn- 
niade Clothing and Furnishing Goods; also TrunkSt 
Valises, Bags, etc. 

Luke G Sresovich & Co., Importers, 

Wholesale Dealers and Commission Merchants in Foreign 
and Domcstio Frulta. M9 Sansome street, S. F. All 

jordcrg promptly attended to. 

A. Giorgiani, Importer and Dealer in 

Tropical and Dry Fruits ; also Oalifornla Wines, Bay Salt, 
and Lime Juice in ten-gallon kegs. Nos. 419 and 421 
Washington street, San Francisco. 



Brittan, Holbrook & Co., Importers of 

Stoves ami Metals, Tinners' Goods, Tods and Machines, 
111 and 113 California. 17 and 19 Davis streets, San Fran- 
ci.sco, and 178 J street, Sacratnento, 

Jacob Schreiber, Dealer in Live Geese 

Feathers. Furniture Springs, Curled Hair, etc. The 
Cheapest House in the northern part of the city. No, 
520 Washintiton street, San Francisco, 



<*R ^.t 4"aAr''f''»y' A);pntnwni.lortl/lllrln""f»oi«'or«ln«i 
*f>tO|"l>!.l-,<.felll...«.-x,V.."l.((l.r<,l,l,n„,kol„..ror„.n,- 
worti for ualn tlnlr tv"r» nionii'filil or all llio llnio lli«iiBt«uyHi 



i-ynt 

..„. . .... ,.».. r tvaro iKoiiiftitil or an mo imio tiiftiiaiauy tiling 

•IM. Parllcolarjfrea. iildreMO. BtlDO- »Ci>.,l"ortlaoil,Malo 



Mrs. Curtis' First Premium Models, for 

sale, wholesale and retail, by Mrs Barrineer, 54 Fourth 
street, S, F, Patterns cut, and Teacher ol her system of 
Cutting all kinds of Oajmonts in the latest styles, 

Henry A. Guilixson, Importer and Dealer 

in Carpets, Oil Cloths, Matting*, etc., No. 
_jB87 Market street, San Fra ncis co. ^_ 

Lewis & Pander, Dealers in Stoves, 

Ranges, Tinware, and all kinds of Kitchen Utensils. For 
the best and the cheapest, go to No. 32 Geary street, be- 
tween Kearny and Dupont. S. F. 

San Francisco Wire Works. 665 Mission 

St., S. F. O. H. Gruenhagen A Co., Manufacturers of all 
kinds of Wire Work lor Gardens. Cemeteries, Flower 
Stands, Baskets, Tree Boxes, Arches^ Borderlne and 
Railmg. 

A. Lusk & Co., Wholesale Commission 

Dealers in California and Oregon Fruits, Oranfies, Lem- 
ons, and all kinds of Canned and Dried Fruits, etc. Pa- 
cific Fruit Market. Clay St., below Montgomery. S. F. 



Saul & Co., 579 Market Street, San 

Francisco. Manufacturers of Carriages, Wagons and 
Stase Work, of the most improved and practical styles. 



Heywood & Hendley, General Commission 

Merchants, and Wholesale Dealers in Butter. Cheese, 
Lard, Hams, etc, etc., No. 224 Clay street, San Francisco. 
Agents for the Crystal Salt Works. Agents for Santa 
<'lara Crackers. 

On Sing, Chinese Intelligence Office, 624 

.lackson street, between Kearny and Dupont, San Fran- 
cisco. Particular attention paid to orders for all kinds of 
S ervants. Cooks. Waiters. Laboring Men, etc. 

Warner & Silsby Manufacture all kinds of 

Bed Springs, including the Obermann Self-Fastening 
Spring, and the Westly Double Spiral. 147 New Mont- 
gomery street. 



Davis & Sutton, Commission Merchants, 

For California Fruits; also for the sale of Butter. Eggs, 
Cheese, Hops, Green and Diied Fruits, etc, 75 Warrei 
street. New York. RefcT to Anthony Halsey. Cashier, 
Tradesmen's National Bank, N Y. ; kllwunger A Barry, 
Rochester, N, Y, ; c. W, Reed, Sacramento. Oal,: A. 
Lusk 4 Co., Pacilic Fruit Market. San Francisco, Cal. 



Choice Bred Fowls, and Eggs 
for Hatching. 

I will spare a few EOGS from my Imported Stock of 
Poultry, consiBting of 

LIGHT AND DARK BRAHMAS, 
BUFF AND PARTRIDGE COCHINS, 
SPANGLED GOLDEN AND SILVER POLISH, 
SPANGLED GOLDEN AND SILVER HAMBI'RGfl. 
PURE WHITE-FACED DLACK SPANISH, 
SILKIES, BLACK. RED GAME, 
AYLESBURY AND ROUEN DUCK. 

— ALSO— 

Chester County White Pigs, China Pigs. 

M. FALLON, 

Seventh and Oak streets, OAKLAND. 

17v.')-3m 



THE 

PEOPLES PRACTICAL POULTRY BOOK. 

A work of 224 pages on the 

Breeds, Breeding', Kearing and General 

Management of Poultry. 

By WM. M. LEWIS, Now York, 1871 ; with over One 
Hundred Engravings. Bold by Dkwkt A Co., Rural 
Press office ior $1.76, or sent postage paid for $2.00. 



Carpets, Oil Cloths, Etc. 

THE CHEAPEST PLACE IN SAN FRANCISCO TO BUY 
Carpets, Oil Cloths and Upholstery Goods, 

IB AT 

SOHLtJETER & VOLBERa'S, 

14 Third Street Throe doors from Market, 

San Franoiboo. 

6v5.3m 

TOBACCO GROWERS! ""ZC^lI^^l' 

Saves Tobacco, Labor, Time and Annoyance. No 
Tobacco Grower will do without, having once tried It, 
Pays for Itself (list year. Bend for circular for p»r. 
tlculars, B, KEMPSHALL ji CO,, 

aavB-Sm New Britsln, Ooua, 



AS 



«3^ IP M> jB S S« 



[July 12, 1873. 



Resolutions of the Patrons of Husban- 
dry. 

We have received the following from head- 
quarters of the Granges of California. We 

say headquarters, because Napa Grange, No. 
1, was the first Grange organized in the State; 
and as if determined to be worthy of their posi- 
tion, the members of that Grange are coming 
squarely to the front, with an expression of 
opinion that does them credit, and which we 
most heartily indorse. The expression alluded 
to, is embodied in the following preamble and 
resolutions : 

Wbebeas, The avowed object of the Order of the Pa- 
trons of Husbandry, it to remove the onerous burdens now 
crush iug and paralyzing all our industry in various States 
of the Fnlon; in the form of crushing taxation; villainous 
combinations of unsonipulous men and corporations to 
depress the prices of our produce and increase the cost 
of conveying the same to the consumers and the mar- 
kets of the world, giving the producer the smallest pit- 
tance for his products, and charging him the v«ry high- 
est rates for every imi)lement and article of machinery, 
goods and wares used on our farms or in our families; 
And, 

Whebeas, California in her agricultural, political, 
and social Interests, is being threatened by "Death" in 
every channel leading to progress and prosperity, her 
calamities being mainly the fault of unnatural divisions 
among the producers, and caused by a few mischievous 
and corrupt parties who are, as barter, bought and sold 
by sordid monopolies. But still having an abiding 
faith in her patrons, who are the producers and the 
sheet-anchor of Hope to our body politic— we have de- 
termined to unite in an unsel&sh struggle for its re- 
demption; Ami 

Whereas, Among other remedies for our oppression, 
we must also resort to wholesome legislation for some 
relief, and being now on the eve of an important local 
election for County Officers, Member of the State Legis- 
lature, and ultimately a United States Senator, all of 
whom are supposed to be a reflex of the people, and not 
of a clique, it becomes important at this time that wv 
make known some of our demands, therefore. 

Resolved, 1st. That we will not support any candidate 
for office who is not eminently qualified for the position 
sought for, and whoso past record has identified him 
with men or measures inimical to our interests, by 
reason of increasing the burdens of which we complain, 
and for which we now demand a remedy and reform 
for the future. 

Resoh'ed, 2nd. That the salaries of our Co\inty Olficcrs 
are disproportionately high to the relative amount of 
aer\'ice6 rendered, thereby increasing our taxes, which 
are now enormous, and which the farmer has almost 
entirely to pay — wo tlu-refore (leman<l a reduction of the 
same to such a figure aslnisiuessmen would consider such 
services worth if rendered iu any legitimate business; 
and those candidates for official positions who expect 
the support of the producers of our County shall be re- 
quired to ple<lge themselves to accept such reduction 
•f their salaries as the Legislature may see fit to make; 
and that they will assent to the same without contro- 
versy to the provisions of such salary bill to take effect 
upon its passage and approval by the Oovemor of the 
State. 

Resolved, 3rd. That we are epposcd to the theory of 
taxing growing crops; of exempting all solvent debts 
from taxation; also opposed to double taxati >n; 
and we most emphatically condemn the 
interference of powerful and moneyed corporations and 
corrupt cliques in our local and general elections, when, 
by the lavish expenditure of money the bona fide tax- 
payer is cheated out of hone^trepresentation, and must 
submit to gross abuse of his political rights. 

Iltsnlvfd, 4th. That in selecting a candidate to repre- 
sent the County in the halls i>f the Capit<^l, we shall act 
independently of party lines, and support only such a 
man as in our opinion possesses the brains, ability, and 
known honesty, as will be sufficient guarantee that he 
can and will grapple with these and all otlier grievances, 
and will strive to apply such remedy as shall be effect- 
ual, and whose past record will give us confidence that 
he will not be an instrument in the hands of any tyran- 
nical monopoly; and further 

Rf.folved, 5th. That our Representative to the Legisla- 
ture will use every exertion in asserting the undoubted 
rightsof the people in checking the rapaciousoiicroach- 
mcnts of existing railioad companies on the rights of 
the people: that he will laimr assiduously for a reduc- 
tion and equalization of railroad tarifi's to fair li\ing 
rates; and also aid in abolishing all obnoxious charges 
against trade and commerce; and further— that in se- 
lecting a candidate for the United States Senate, he will 
apply the same rule we apply to himself. 

Resolued, 6th. That In the event of tlie prominent par- 
ties failing to nominate candidates on the foregoing 
basis of retrenchment and reform, that a call be issued 
for mass meetings of the independent voters of Napa 
County to nominate a list of candidates who are 
thoroughly identified iu the reforms whicli we now and 
forever will insist upon demanding until accomplished. 

Resoh'ed, 7th. That a copy of the foregoing resolu- 
tions be forwarded to every Orange in the State, and 
also to the Press of the State. 
Daniel Omdley, J. Mansfield, 

E. B. Sawieb, E. Young, 

H. N. Ahsbukv, Wm. Clabk, 

W. A. Fisher, .J. D. Blancuabd, 

Jas. B. Saul, 
Committee Napa Grange Patrons of Husbandry, repre- 
senting one hundred and four members. 
Juna 28, 1873. 



A State Gkanoe. — ^Masters of Subordinate 
Granges in the State of California, with their 
wives who are Matrons , as also Past Masters 
and their wives who are Matrons, are hereby 
requested to meet in Napa City at 10 o'clock 
A. M. of Tuesday, July 15, 1873, for purposes of 
co-operation, and the institution of a State 
Grange of the Order of the Patrons of Hus- 
bandry, for the State of California. 

By order of the Worthy Master of the Na- 
tional Grange of P. H. of U. S. 

N. W. Gabretson, Special Deputy. 

June 24, 1873. 



EvKBT farmer in California should be a reader of the 
Paclfio RtnuL Pbess. It la an agricultural paper of 
great excellence. The subscription price is $4 a year, 
but we have made arrangements with the publishers 
whereby we can furnish the Rubal Press and the Flag 
together for $6 a jen.—Healdsburff Flag. 



Butter Making In the Mountains. 

One of our patrons says, it would accommo- 
date him very much if we would send his paper 
to him at Truckee, while he ia in the mountains 
with his stock, and when he moves down again 
will let us know. 

We are always willing to do just this kind of 
thing, as we make it our business to serve the 
interests of our patrons when we can. 

Of his business in the mountains he writes 
as follows : 

We made about 6,000 pounds of butter last 
summer from seventy cows, and sold about half 
of it at Truckee for 35 cents per pound by the 
keg, and the balance at 40 cents. We do not 
oflfer any for sale until about the first of Octo- 
ber, and we warrant all our butter to be No. 
One or no sale. We shall not make as much 
butter this summer, as we are selling about 3G 
gallons of milk a day at Truckee, and besides 
that, feed is going to be very scarce in the 
mountains this fall. 

We shall raise about a hundred calves this 
year. We raised about eighty last year and we 
do not knock the calves iu the head wdth the 
skimmer, as I believe man has no right to starve 
the dumb brute that the Almighty has entrusted 
to his care. Last year we cut about 75 tons of 
hay; but this year we shall not cut as much as 
we have more stock. You will say, how do 
you keep your butter ? We have to keep fire 
in our milk-house about half the time , day and 
night, to keep the temperature above sixty so 
the cream will raise good; so you see there is 
no trouble to keep butter if it is well made; 
there has been fire in the milk-house for the 
last week, day and night. 

Should any of you folks come to Truckee and 
will take the trouble to come to Prosser Creek, 
which is only four miles from Truckee, on a 
good road, stages passing every day back and 
forth, I will show you one of the best mount- 
ain ranches I have seen, that is, according to 
my judgment: others may not think so. 

I have been in the mountains every summer 
since 18G0. If you happen to come you can 
rest assured of getting some good bread and 
milk, if nothing more; but no whiskey, as I 
think that one of the greatest curses upon man 
in this world. Wm. J. Peosskb. 

Truckee, July 1st, 1873. 

Stopping Hens from Setting. 

A writer in the Poultry World says his plan 
for curing hens of a desire to sit is to put them 
in an open yard, where there are no nests and 
roosting places, and differing as much as pos- 
sible in appearance from their regular quarters, 
and feed them liberally with soft food made 
rather hot with cayenne ; also, give them plenty 
of cooked meat and all the milk they will 
drink. 

Another way has been tried by Mr. J. E. 
Smith, Dearborn, N. H., who writes to the 
Journal of the Farm as follows: "I was much 
amused some days since by an old setting hen. 
Having tried all the usual ways to induce her 
to leave her nest, I concluded to use 'moral 
suasion.' I placed two lumps of ice in her 
nest after taking her ofif. The 'old critter, ' as 
usual in such cases, soon returned and took a 
seat, which seemed to disagree with her; after 
a few hours Mrs. Hen concluded to associate 
with her fellows." 



Save the Fuel. — Over a great portion of the 
woodland, old oaks, oak-tops, etc., are lying; 
which, to the farmer in general, are considered 
worthless; but in them are cords of good sum- 
mer wood, if only worked up at the proper time. 
The best way to manage this is to haul them 
out of the woods in winter on to some open 
field, and lay them up from the ground a few 
inches, and when they are thoroughly dry, the 
following summer, saw and split them into fire- 
wood, and after being corded in the fields a few 
weeks, pack in the wood-house. Any one who 
has not tried this method of economizing in 
timber, will be astonished at what an immense 
quantity of good fuel may be obtained from 
material commonly counted as worthless. 



Which is Really Cheapest? 

We sometimes hear the th<iughtless remark. "I take a 
cheaper paper," alluding to a $1 Eastern monthly. Now 
let uscompare It to a weekly of equal size. For $1 you 
get 12 Nos. of the monthly; for $1 you get 13 Nos. of a 
$4 weekly, or 1-12 more for $1. For a fl.Sii monthly 
you pay at the rate of $fi per annum for .'52 copies, the 
regular ntimber of issues of a weekly. 

Considering the groat variety of reading in our col- 
umns adapted to husbandmen on this coast, and the 
large amount in Eastern prints that is more than worth- 
less to readers here; the Pacific Rubal Pbess is by far 
the clieapest paper issued for farmers in the Pacific 
States. Usually over one-lialf the space of even our 
best journals here is devoted to advertlslDg— but in our 
paper it is confined on an average to less than one- 
fourth. We aim to really cheapen the price of the 
Rural by increasing tlie value of its reading columns. 
Every new subscription to the paper will help us to 
do so. 



Our .^.^ents. 

OUB Fbiends can do much in aid of our paper and the 

cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents iu their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

L. P. McCaett— General Agent. 

A. C. Knox, City Soliciting and Collecting Agent. 

F. O. Sacket— Northern California. 

Frank Chapin— Oregon and Washington Territory. 



A BOOK 

For Every Farmer and Owner of 
Domestic Animals. 

A MANUAL OF HOMCEOPATHIC VETERI- 
NARY PRACTICE. 



The Latest and Best Work on the Diseases 
of Animals ever Published. 

PRICE $5.00. 



Sets of Medicines especially put up for the Book, as 
well as all Honmopathic Medicines, and Books for sale 
at the HOMCF.OPATUIC PHARMACY of 

BOERICKE & TAFEL, 

231 Sutter Street SAN FRANt:iSCO. 

jyl2-lm 



»HEALDiJ( 

fxTTBRYANT & STRATTON "TTTi ' 

BUSINESS COLLEGE^ 

It educates practically. Its graduates are qualified 
lor business and enabled to fill lucrative situatious at 
once. Its course of instruction is adapted to all classes 
and all professions -to the farmer, mechanic, lawyer 
and physician, as well as to the man of business. It 
is just the school for young men or ladies, who wish 
to learn how to earn their own living and succeed in 
life. Pupils can enter at any lime, as each receives 
separate instruction. Sessions day and evening through- 
out the year For full particulajs call at the College, 
24 Post street, or address for circularx 

E. P. HEALD, 

2v6-tf President Business College, San I'rancisco. 




CHOICE POULTRY. 

One trio Black Cochins Imported 

One trio Partridge Cochins Imported 

One trio Light Bramahs Imported 

One Golden Poland Cock Imported 

THOS. 8. DAY, 

It 732 Montgromery St. 



ASBESTOS ROOFING 



Over 15,000,000 Square Feet In Use. 



THE ASBESTOS ROOFING IS A SUBSTANTIAL AND RELIABLE MATERIAL, 
Which can be Safely Used in Place of Tin. Slate, etc.. 

ON STEEP OR FLAT ROOFS, IN ALL CLIMATES. 



It oan toe Clieapl.v "irranspoi-totl xiiicl Ensil.v A.ppllecl. 

THE PACIFIC COAST TRADE SUPPLIED BY 

FERINE & EDWARDS, 
No. 638 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

2v6-bp4te 



WRIGHT'S 

VETERINARY AND FAMILY 

IMEDICIIXES*. 

The attention of all Farmers and those who own and 
have the care of Horses and Cattle is called to these 
preparations. 

It is well known that in no department of Uedlcal 
Science has there been such rapid development and in- 
crease of knowledge as in Veterinary practice. Th» 
profession has passed from empiricism and Ignorant 
quackery to take respectable rank and established and 
acknowled position among the learned profeasioni. 
These medicines are compounded to meet this in- 
creased light and knowledge, and tbey will meet the 
approval of the best veterinary thought of the nine- 
teenth century. 




EXCELSIOR OIL. 

This is the very best embrocation now in nse, and !■ 

UNPARALLED FOR ALL DISEASES 

Requiring External Application. 

IT CURES: | 

Flesh Wounds, " 

Sprains and Bruises, 
Cramps, 

Rheumatism, 

Saddle and Harness Galls, 
Hud Fever, 

Scratcnes, 
Orease, 

Man^e, 

Swellingrs. 
Sweeny, 

External Poisons, 

Weakness of the Joints, 

Contraction of the Muscles, 
Bums and Scalds, 
Spavin, 

Callous Tendons, 
Foul TTlcers, 

Tumors. Etc., 

Some of the ctires partake of the marvellous. If yom t 
try it, yon will never be wlthont it in your family or 
your stable. 




CENTAUR OINTMENT. 

Thi6 Ointment hftfi literally no rival, and is confi- 
dently recommended as the 

BEST IN THE WORLD. 

It will heal the most "Angry'-looking Wounds, and 
start a New. Healthy. Healing Action in Old Obstinate 
Sores. 

It is also an infallible cure for SCRATCHES. No 
family, particularly, can afford to be without It, ai 
something of the kind is almost constantly reqniml. 
Every one who has ever used it is enthusiastic in its 
praise. 




WRIGHTS CHAMPION 

Condition Powders. 

This Powder is peculiarly adapted io suit the various 
Diseases of Horses and Cattle on this Coast. It has 
been adjusted by long and laborious experiments, and 
Is WARRANTED superior to all others for IMPfRI. 
TIES OF THE BLOOD, DISTEMPER, LOSS OF APPE- 
TITE, HIDEBOUND. FOUL HUMORS, COCOHS, 
COLDS. RHEUMATISM, FOUNDER, SURFEIT, 
MANGE, GREASE, SWELLED LEGS, and all diseases 
resulting from a low tone of the System. It increases 
the Appetite, gives a fine Coat, Cleanses the Stomach 
and Urinary organs, giving new life and vigor to the 
noble animal. 




WEIGHT'S 

Arabian Hoof Liniment. 

It would be almost lmpossI))Ie to overrate the value 
of the above Liniment in all cases of DISEA8E.S OF 
THE FEET, 

It is the best corrective of Contraction known. It 
wonderfully stimulates and Preserves the HOOF, and 
if used freely, no "Stopping" Is necessary. It Is now 
used In all the best Training Stables in the State, and 
by the owners of our best private road-horses. 

^ FOR SALE EVERrWHERK. 

TT. A. JEISritllVlS, 

Sole Proprietor and Manufacturer, 1066 Broadwav, 
SvClsm OAKLAND. 



i 



^ 



Hill 

mil 

'nil 



uly 12, 1873.] 
Wheat Market Quotations Compared. 



AV 1 

2. 
3. 
S. 
6.. 
7., 
8., 
9. 



13.. 
14.. 
15.. 
16.. 

n.. 

19.. 
20.. 
21.. 
22.. 
23.. 
24.. 
19.. 
27.. 
28.. 
29.. 
30.. 
31 
UN. 8.. 

3.. 

*.. 

5.. 

«.. 

7.. 

».. 
10.. 
11.. 
12.. 
13 . 
14.. 
16.. 
17.. 
18.. 
19., 
20.. 
21.. 
23.. 
2t.. 
2.5.. 
26.. 
27.. 



30. 
ll'LT 1. 



J 



8. 



1 S2ii 
182>l 
1 82}| 
1 82>i 
I82j| 

1 82J^ 
182)^ 
1 91;^ 
1 915^ 
1 90 
1 00 
1 90 
1 9U 
1 90 
1 90 
1 90 
1 92J^ 
1 904 
1 90 
1 90 
1 90 
1 90 
1 82>^ 

1 80 
1 80 
1 80 
1 83H 
1 S2ii 
1 82 '4 
1 82^ 
1 82^4 
1 82*4 
1 80 
1 80 
1 80 
I 80 
1 77>^ 
1 77^ 
1 72)i 
1 ^H 
1 67'^ 
1 67!^ 
1 6T/i 
1 67>^ 
1 65 
1 65 
1 6.5 
1 6.5 
1 61H 
1 67H 
1 67)^ 
1 67)^ 
1 67;-4 



1 67 
1 67 '4 
1 67>^ 
1 «1'4 

1 em 

1 65 
1 65 

1 «2M 



I^lTerpool. 



2 83@2 87 
2 83@2 87 

2 sac' 

2 8.5@2 89 
^2 89 
$2 89 
|2 87 
§2 87 
|2 87 
S2 87 



|2 97 
I2 87 
|2 97 
B2 87 
t2 95 
S2 95 



|2 95 

m 05 

I2 97 
m 87 



3>2 93 
|2 93 
m 93 




MAIL RE- 
POETSt 



2 85@2 98 



2 89@3 02 
'2'87@i'66' 



2 85@2 98 
'2'9i@3'03' 
2'95@3'63' 



2 99@3 11 
■3'6i®3'i3" 
'2'99®3'ii' 

■3'6i@3'i3' 



2 97@J 12 
■2'9.5@3'i6' 



DIB'. Bet. 



Mail S. F. 
4 Tel & Tel. 



12>^ 



lOii 



S'A 



1.02>^ 
1.04'4 
1.04>^ 
1.04^i 

i.04,'<; 

1.06>^ 

1.06;<; 

97)4 

97J4 

95 

96 
1.01 
1.01 

i'os" 

1.05 

i.ma 

1.06 

1.05 

1.05 

1.08 

l.lO'a 

I.lO.'i 

1.13 

1.13 

1.13 

1.10;^ 

i.i4'«; 

1.14>4 

l.H'/i 

\M'4 

1.21 

1.20 

1.20 

1 20 

1.22'z 

1.22,'^ 

1.22J4 

1.26>^ 

1.26;-^ 

1.231^ 

1.2S^ 

1.23M 

1.26 

1.26 

1.26 

1.26 

1 .25'4 

1.23H 
1.21!^ 
1.21!<i 



1.21^ 
1.21)4 
1.21M 
1.17M 

i.n>4 

1.2U 
1.18 
1.20!^ 



-Then notations given by telegraph to the Aesociatcd 
Press are mainly those of what are called by the agent of 
fche Associated Press Average California Wheat. In a 
few instances Club are given. 

+— These are quotations of California wheat in Liverpool, 
taken from the " Marie Lane Expre.ss." 

II— These ditferences are those between the mean price of 
iJalifornia wheat in Liverpool as annou.aced by telegraph 
to tlie Associated Press and as published in the ".Marie Lane 
ExpieoB,'' In all cases the "Marlt Lane Express" shows 
higher prices than the telegraph. 



S. p. P^^F^KEX R^EpOF^Y. 



At whoesale when not otherwise Indicated. 



Weekly Market Review. 

[By our own Reporter.] 
DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

San Fbancisoo, July 9, 1873. 
K Cireular, issued by Friedlander & Co., says: The 
' niifornla crop of 1872 amounted to about 16,200,000 
I rntals, and was the largest harvested in any State in 

I 111' Union. The crop was not only th»> largest ever pro- 
duced here, but the quality was exceptionally good— the 
1,'iain being plump and heavy, and of good color. The 
' rnp we are now harvesting promised througbjthe early 
I -art of the season to exceed considerably that of last 
\far, but the failure of the spring rains ruined all the 
volunteer, and much of the late planted grain, and 
seriously curtailed the yield of the balance of the land. 
How many bushels the crop will turn out cannot be 
told until it is threshed; but our own conviction is that 
it will show a considerable falling off from that of 1872. 
The prices obtained for our Wheat last year were, on 
the whole, satisfactory, particularly when we consider 
the enormous charges to which we are subjected to for 
treights. From the commencement of harvest up to 
Christmas, prices ranged from ?1. 80 to $1.55, averaging 
jnobably $1.65 per cental, whi-oh was the pivotal point 

II uring the season of heaviest exports. The new year 
was ushered in with a sharp rise, which carried the 
laarket up to $2.20, which was the maximum price of 
the year. From that point it settled gradually down to 
rl 75, which isthei^rice at which the new crop comes in. 
V noticeable fact in connection with the shipments of 
the past year, is the way that the cargoes that left here 
ti.'ive been scattered. In former years almost the whole 
'if our wheat went to Liverpool, but during the past 
i-cason a very considerable number of cargoes were 
sent to outlying British ports, and not a few to the Con- 
tinent; — a fact that shows that the grain is growing in 
favor with the country millers abroad. This argues 
well for the permanence of our trade. The market for 
tlie new crop can scarcely be said to have opened as yet. 
With the present high rates of freight, in order to till 
English orders, wheat would have to be placed on 
lioard ship at $1.65 per 100 lbs, or even less; but no 
purchases can be made at any such figure, and eveo as 
-1.70@$172>4, which is about the market price, farmers 
urc very slow to sell. It appears likely that business 
will drag through the whole month of July, for farmers 
■iije in ruling prices no inducement to hurry their work, 
and instead of following the reaper with the threshing 
machine, they will in very many cases stack their 
\vheat, and economize labor bills by helping one another 
in the field. As we write, the market is inactive, but 
firm, and prices range from $1.70 to $1.75 per lOOltis. 

On this we may remark that the estimate of last years 
I rop seems to us to be too high, and that of this year's 
1 1 10 low. We believe that we will have a crop fully 
niual to that of last year. If some localities will fall 
short, others will exceed the yield of 1872-73. The 
present prospects in most sections are bright. Talking 
with a farmer from the Santa Clara Valley the other 
ilay, he remarked that the most of the farmers there 
I onsidered themselves extremely lucky as, anticipating 
:i small cr:>p, they are having even a larger one than that 
of last year, and that they look on the increased yield 
above that which they anticipated, as so mncb profit. 

Receipts. 
Receipts of arti<Ie8 of Bay Produce generally show a 
large Increase of thogeof last week, although the 4th of 
July has intervened. We have received half as much 
more Flour; four times as much Wheat; fifty per cent, 
iidditlonal of Barley; five times as much Oats; and fifty 
per cent more of Potatoes. Receipts of Bran have de- 



creased one-half; of Middlings, eight-ninths; of Wine 
one-eighth; those of Potatoes have increased one-fifth . 
those of Brandy, eight-fold; and those of Hay, nearly,' 
fifty per cent. 

We summarize receipts of Bay Produce to date as 
15,130 qtr.-sacks of Flour; 142,8 12 centals of Wheat; 9,407 
do of Barley; 530 do of Oats; 12,079 do of Potatoes; 
1,053 do of Bran; 571 do of Middlings; 144 do of Beans ; 
41,080 gallons of Wine; 1,600 do of Brandy; 738 Hides; 
94C bales of Wool; 449 centals of Corn; 679 do of Onions; 
788 tins of Hay; 11 centals of Mustard Seed; and 5 bales 
of Hops. 

Receipts of Wheat at Oakland Wharf aggregated 37,- 
600 centals or 188 car loads. 

Receipts of Coast Produce aggregated 899 centals of 
Wheat; 4,296 do of Barley; 166 do of Oats; 3,783 do of 
Com; 2,121 do of Potatoes; 145 Hides; 4.57 bales of Wool; 
1 barrel, 1 half barrel, and 1 case of Wine: 26 sacks of 
Mustard Seed, and 240 do of Bran. 

From Portland, Oregon, wo have received 1,520 half 
and 1,585 quarter sacks of Flour 8 20 bags of Bran, 629 
bales of Wool, 1,604 sacks of Oats, 174 barrels and 9,513 
cases of Salmon. 

Barley. 

Barley comes in quickly, receipts being more than 
5,000 sacks ahead of those of last week, without includ- 
ing those of Oregon. Prices have consequently slack- 
ened ofl'from 23<i to 5 cents. For export to South Amer- 
lea 10,001) centals have been sold at private rates. Other 
sales to be noted are 8,900 centals of Coast Feed at 12)4, 
2,780 at $1.15; 1,200 old Feed at SI. 17;^, 280 do at $1.20 
and 5,000 new forexport,and 2,000 do for Brew at private 
terms. 

Butter. 

Butter comes in quite freely from the country . East- 
ern Butter does not come in freely, and California But- 
ter is conseque itly firmer. However, it may be expect- 
ed to slacken after a while, as we shall have a good 
deal of Eastern here after some time. 

Oats. 

There is little of the new crop coming in, but a good 
deal of Oregon. Prices have fallen 5 cents. We note 
sales of 300 tons of Oregon at private rate, and 700 of 
California at $1.75 to $1.80. 

i:'otatoes. 

Receipts are in advance of those of last week, aggre- 
gating 14,000 Sacks. Prices are weaker. We note sales 
of 400 bags of Cuffee Cove at $1.62 M. 
Cheese. 

Cheese is very dull. There is little or no demnnd. 
California Cheese is very plentiful. The market is full. 
Flour. 

Flour has shown the fate of Wheat, and is down 25o. 

per barrel on the best. Exports have aggregated 1,702 

half-sacks 19,665 qatr-sacks of Wheat. The "Cyphrenes," 

for China, took by much the greater part. 

Hay. 

Receipts, chiefly of Wheat, have been larger thisweek- 
We note sales of three cargoes at $13, 13.60, and $14; 40 
tons of choice Wheat at $15 to $15.25; 25 do of fair old 
Oat at $14.60; a cargo of tame Oat at $13.25, and one 
of wild Oat and Clover at $13.50. 
Hops. 

Locally there is no change In prices this week. Em- 
met Well's New York circular, June 26th says; 

Notwithstanding the cohtinued discouraging crop 
reports from England, our market shows no signs of 
improvement; on the other hand, last week's outside 
quotations for the last growth have not been obtainable, 
and prices are ofl'3 to 5 cts. per lb., which is doubtless 
the result of continued favorable reports from our home 
districts. The dullness of trade here, and the improve- 
ment in Loudon, is evinced by the re-shipment, this 
week, of !)G bales of English Hops to Liverpool, and the 
engaging of .500 bales of old Americans for shipment 
next week. If there was anything to give promise of a 
better market here, these Hops would not be shiped out 
o( the country. Wo still hold to the opinion, that noth- 
ing short of an unfavorable turn to our own crop will 
be likely to produce any favorable change in this mar- 
ket. The weather is still cool and unseasonable for the 
Lager Beer traffic, and Lager Brewers generally com- 
plain of dull business. 

We note the arrival this week of 300 bales of Califor- 
nia Hops of the last growth, consigned to Messrs. Field- 
husen k Kuhlke, Hop Merchants of this city, who 
claim the Hops to be of superior quality. This con- 
signment is beleived to be the last that will arrive 
from that country this season, and local Brewers who 
are in want of a few Califoniians, will do well to 
send In their orders soon. 

Wheat. 

The new Wheat and what remains of the old has be- 
gun to come in, receipts for the week aggregating 181,- 
281 centals. The price in Liverpool has gone down 
again; being to-day, according to the telegrams received 
by the Associated Press and at the Merchants'Exchange, 
$2.81 to $2.85 per cental. This is a fall of six cents. 
Freights remain the same as last week. We note sales 
of 400 centals of old at $1.62 'j, 3,400 do of ordinary Mil- 
ling at $1.60 to $1.62 's, 50,090 of Shipping at $1.65, 7,000 
do Shipping and Milling at $1.70, 3,400 do Choice at 
$1.72 }5, and 4,900 do choice Milling at $1.75. 
Wool. 

Sales for the past week aggregate only 250,000 lbs., 
business being slack in consequence of the holidays. 

GENERAL. MERCHANDISE. 

Business during the week has been tolerably fair. 
Imports have not been very large. Exports have in- 
cluded the cargoes of the " Emily K. Farnharm," to San 
.Jose de Guatemale; of the " Cyphrenes," with Flour to 
Hong Kong; of the "Arizona." to New York, with 3,487 
gals, and 2 cases of Brandy; 4,324 gals, and 253 cases of 
Wine; 22,870 lbs. ol Wool, to Panama, with a gen'l cargo. 
Including 24,o:)5 lbs. of Rice, and to Liverpool, with 
536 cases of Borax and 3,380 do of Salmon; by the"Car- 
rolltoii" to Liverpool with 2,000 cases of Salmon, and 
44,271 centals of Wheat; by the "Humboldt" to Mel- 
bourne with a cargo of Lumber; by the "Prince Alfred" 
to Victoria with a cargo including 4,640 lbs of Tea; by 
the "Star of Brunswick" to Quceustown with a cargo ol 
46,278 centals of Wheat; by the "Atlantic" to Liverpool 
with 31,667 centals of Wheat; by the "Crusader" to 
Molando with Railroad Ties; and by the "Laura M. 
Mangard" to San Paz with a general cargo. These ex- 
ports aggregated $425,0(X). 

LUMBER MARKET. 



CARGO PKICES OF 
REDWOOD. 

Rough, ^ M »20 00 

RouSh refuse, 1« M 16 00 

Rough clear, ^ M 32 .50 

Rouch clear refuse, M .. 22 60 

Rustic, ViM 3.500 

Rustic, refuse, Tfl M 24 (10 

Surfaced, ^jM S2 .50 

Surfaced refuse,^ M... 22 .50 

Flooring, * M 30 00 

Floorinu. refuse, 1j« M.. 20 00 
Beaded iloorinif, 'PM... 32 .50 
Bcailed Hour, refuse, M. 22 SO 

Haifinch Siding, M 22 50 

Half-inch siding, ref, M. 16 00 
Half-Inch, Surtao(>d,M. 25 Otl 
Half-inch Surf. ret.. M . 18 00 
llalliucli lialtcns, M... tl .5H 
Pickets, rouKh.^M.... 14 00 
Pickets, roiiKh, p'nid... 16 00 
Pickets, tancT, p'ntd — 22 .50 
Shingles, *M 3 00 



PUOET SOUND PINE 

-Retiill Price. 

Rough, ?(M tf]H 00 

Flooring and Step, H M .'iO 00 
Flooring, narrow. ^ M.. 32 .50 
Flooring, 2d quality. M. .25 00 

Laths,!* M 3 00 

Furring, ^ lineal ft.... ):i 
Roagh ret use, ¥> M 10 

R ED WOOD-Rctitl 1. 
Rough I'iiikcts.TH M.... 18 110 
Rough Pickets, p'd M.. 20 00 

Fancy Pickets, i|« M 30 00 

Siding, W M 25 00 

Toiiguetl ami (Jrooved, 

surfaced, 'Jt M 3.5 00 

Dodo refuse, * M 27 .50 

llall-luch Hurlaced,M.. ;)? .'lO 

Ru.stio,!* M 37 .50 

Battens, 'ft lineal foot. . . 1 
Shingles * M 3 00 



29 



San Francisco Retail Market Rates. 

WED^ESDAY Noon, July 9, 1873 

FRUITS, VEGETABI.es, ETC. 

All kinds of frviit are now coming in in large quanti- 
ties. Peaches are coming In by the quantity. Melons 
and Canteleups are coming in freely. Cherries and 
Apricots are getting scarce and Currants soon will be. 
Oyster Plant is in newly. Vegetables are in good 
quantity. 



Apples, pr lb 6 

Pears, per lb 6 

Apricots, lb 8 

Peaches, lb 6 

PineApples,each .50 

Bananas, ^doz.. 75 

Canteleups 15 

Blackberries.... 16 

Cal. Walnnts. lb. — 

Cranberries, ^ g — 

Strawberries, lb 10 

Raspberries. lb.. 12'-; 

Gooseberries*... 8 " 

Currants 8 

do Black — 

Cherries, 1^ D>,.. 26 

Oranges,!^ doz.. 75 

Limes, per doz . . 25 

Figs. dried (::al. * i2 

Figs, fresh 15 

Figs, Smyrna, lb 25 

Asparagus, lb.* — 

Artichokes, doz. 37'; 

Beets, ^doz 20 

Potatoes, New%(lb 2 

Potatoes, sweet,* 5 

Broccoli, ^ PC 10 

Cauliflower, t .. 10 _ 

Cabbage,^ doz.. 75 m 

Oy3terPlant,bch 15 @t 

POUI.tr Y, GAJIIE, FISH, 51 EATS, ETC 

Poultry Is plentiful in the market with a little bet- 
ter demand. Hare is not plentiful. Neither wild nor 
tame Rabbits are plentiful in the market. Fish are in 
plentiful supply but sell badly. There are no large 
Smelts in the market. Fresh Mackerel and Salmon 
Trout are again in the market. Rock Cxi have fallen 
In price. 



Carrots, $ doz.. 

Celery,^ doz 

Cucumbers, dz. . 25 
Tomatoes, %*lb.. 5 

Green Peas 6 

String Beans.... 6 
Egg Plant, lb.... - 
Cress, * doz Dun 25 
Dried Herbs, doz 25 

Garlic "# lb - 

Green Corn, doz. 
Lettuce, ^doz.. 
Mushrooms, % lb 
Horseradish,^ B) 
Okra, dried, ^ D) 

do fresh, ^ D) . 
Pumpkins. ^ lb. 

Parsnips, doz 

Parsley 

Pickles,^ gal... 
Radishes, doz.. 
Summer Squash 

Marrowfat, do. 

Hubbard, do. . 
Dry Lima, shl... — 
Spinage, 'ft bskt. 25 
Salsify, ^ bunch — 
Turnips^ doz.. 20 
Rhubarb 6 



20 @ 



Chickens, apiece 60 
Turkeys, Wit).. 30 
Mal&CanvBk.pr. — 

Tame, do 1 .50 

Teal, 1* doz.... — 
Geese, wild, pair. — 

Tame, 'S pair.. 3 00 
Snipe, V doz... — 
Pigeons, dom. do — 

Wild, do — 

Hares, each ... — 
Rabbits, tame.. 2.5 

Wild,do,5?dz.2 00 
Beef, tend, W 9>. 20 

Corned, fib. . 6 

Smoked,!* B>.. 
Pork, rib, etc.. lb 

Chops, do, # lb 
Veal,^ B) 

Cutlet, do 

Mutton — chops.* 
LegMutton, $ B) 

Lamb, * lb 

Tongues, beef, . 

Tongues, 

Bacon, 

Hams, 

Hams, Cross' s c 

Choice D'ffleld 20 

Whittaker's.. 18 



12.'- 



10 g 

10 & 

10 <0 



;ues, Deei, . . io (^ — 

:ues, pig, lb 10 @ — 

n, Cal., «( B> - @ 18 

s, Cal, Vlb. 16 i — 

s. Cross' s Q — @ 20 



Flounder,^ D).., 
Salmon,* B).... 

Smokea, new,* 

Pickled,^ B).. 

Salmon bellies 
Rock Cod, ^ B).. 
Cod Fish, dry, lb 
Perch, s water,n) 

Fresh water, lb 
Lake Big. Trout* — | 
Smelts.large^Ib — 1 
Herring, Sm'kd. .75 
Tomcod, * Bi.... 10 I 
Terrapin, ^ doz.3 00 
Mackerel, p'k,ea l2>^i 

Fresh, do Bi . . . 37i-Ji 
Sea Bass, f) lb. . . 18 

Halibut 60 1 

Sturgeon, f lb . . 4 
Oysters, * 100... 1 00 

Cheap. ^ doz.. 76 

Turbot 50 I 

Crabs « doz....l 00 

Soft Shell 37>^ 

Shrimps 10 1 

Sardines 8 

Soles 26 

Young Trout — 

Young Salmon.. — 
Salmon Trout. . .2 50 



20 @ — 
- @ - 
12>^@ — 



12J^ 



I 12;i; 
»3 .50 



@ 10 
& 30 



® 20 
1IIISCEI.I.A1VEOUS. 

Corrected weekly by B. Sbabboro A Bbo., Grocers 
Washington street, San Francisco. 



Butter, Cal. pr Bi 25 
Cheese, Cal., B>.. 15 

Lard. Cal., B) 12;iS 

Flour, ex. lam, bl 6 76 tc 
Corn Meal. Bi.... 2',i^ 
Sugar, wh.crsh'd 11}^^ 

do U.brown,lb 10 
Cofl'ee,Sbarboro's 

family gr'nd,lb 
Coffee, green, ft.. 18 
Tea, flue blk,. 50, 6.5, 75 
Tea,finstJap,.55,75, 90 
Candles, Ad man t'c 17 

Soap. Cal . lb 

0anM0ysters,dz.2 50 „ ._ 
* Per H). tPer dozen. 



Syrup.S F.Gol'n. 

Dried Apples 

Dr'd Ger.Prunea 
Dr'dFigs, Cal... 
Dr'd Peaches.... 
Oils, Kerosene . . 

Eggs 

do Eastern 

Wines. Old Port 3 .50 

do Fr. Claret.. 1 00 

do Cal ,dz.bot3 00 

Whisky,0.B,gal.3 .50 

Fr. Brandy 4 00 

Rice, lb 10 

Yeast Powders, dz.l 60( 
H Per gallon. 




Leather Market Report. 

IReported for the Press by Dolllver & Bro.l 

San Fbancisoo, July 9, 1873. 
Trade contlimes very quiet. Manufacturers only 
buying what they are compelled to. California and 
Eastern stocks are a shade lower under the continued 
pressure in the money market. French stock continues 
firm at old prices. 

City Tanned Leather, If* B> 26@29 

Santa Oruz Leather, ^ Bi 26@29 

Country Leather, W B) 25@28 

Stockton Leather, # tti 26®29 

Jodot,8 Kil., per doz ».50 00@ 54 00 

Jodot, 11 to 19 Kil., per doz 66 00@ 85 00 

Jodot, second choice, 1 1 to 16 Kil. 1? doz 56 00® 70 00 

Oornelliac, 12 to 16 Ko 67 00@ 67 00 

Oornellian Females, 12 to 13 60 00@ 64 00 

Cornellian Fcuialcs. 14 to 16 Kil 66 iiO@ 72 00 

Beauracrville, 15 Kil 60 00® 

Simon, 18 Kil.,Wdoz 60 00@ 62 00 

Simon, 20 Kil. « doz 65 00@ 67 OU 

Simon. 24 Kil. 1^ doz 72 00® 74 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 36 00(a> 40 00 

trench Kips, ^J* lb 1 110® 130 

California Kip, '* doz 50 00 to 60 00 

French Sheep, all colors. f( doz 8 00@ 15 00 

Eastern Calf i^or Backs, If* B) 100® 126 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, W doz. ... 9 00® 13 00 

Sheep Roans tor Linmgs.H doz 5 ,50a 10 .50 

Oahfornia Russett Sheep Linings 176® 4.50 

Best Jodot Oalf Boot Legs, 'ifl pair 5003 8 26 

Good French Calf Boot Legs, ^ pair 4 0t® 4 75 

French Calf Boot Legs,?* pair 4 (HI® 

Harness Leather, !» fe 30® 37H 

Fair Bridle Leather, }* doz 48 00® 72 00 

Skirting Leather, ^ ft 34® 37)< 

Wolt Leather, « doz 30 00(5 .50 OO 

Buff Leather, * foot 20fi 22 

War Side Leather, * foot 17I& 19 

Eastern Wax Leniber 36 



San Francisco Metal Market. 

Wkpnesdat, July 9, 

Iron.— 

Scotch Pig rron,'^ ton $.56 00 ® 

White Pig, '# ton 65 (HI ® 

Refined Bar, bad assortment, ^, B) @ 

Refined Bar. good assortment, fi lb @ 

Boiler, No. I to 4 - 06>^@ 

Plate, No. 6 to 9 — 06)4® 

Sheet, No. 10 to 13 — 07>4@ 

Sheet, No. 14 to 20 — 08 ® 

Sheet, No. 24 to 27 — 08 @ 

Horse Shoes, per keg 9 00 @ 

Nail Rod 11 ® 

Norway Iron 9 

Rolled Iron «H 

Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, etc. 

Oopi'Kn.— 

Bra/.iers , — ^^ @ 

CopncrTin'd — 60 @ 

O.NIol'sPat — 56 ® 

Sheathing, ^ lb ® 

Sheathing, Yellow a 

Sheathing, Old yellow ® 

Composition Nails — 25 

Composition Bolts — 26 

Tin Plates.— 

Plates, Charcoal, IX ¥ box 14 60 ® 

Plates, I OCharooal H 60 

Rooting Plates 13 00 

BancaTin, Slabs, Vl D) — 40 

Stkei..— English Oast, fl lb — 20 

Drill 20 

FlatBar 22 

Plough Pointa 16 

Russia (for moald boards) 17 

Zinc 9)4 

Zinc. Sheet — 9 

Nails— Assorted tlzM — iH® 



— 06 
-06X 

— 06 

— 07 

-08X 

— 09 



6)<@ 9H 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



— 26'^ 


16- 
14 - 
13.50 


-17 
18 
10 

- 10 

- 8 



BAGS. 

Eng. stand. Wh't 14 
Detrick's Mach'e 

Sewed, 22 X 36, 

Gilroy E 

do, 22x36, do W 

do. 22x40, do... 

Flour Sacks )is.. 

•' As. 

Stand. Gunnies.. 

" Wool Sacks. 

" Barley do... 
Hessian 15-in.gds 

do 60 

Burlaps, yard « 2i."# .• 

CANNED GOODS. 
AssfdPie Fruits 

in 2'4 a> cans. 3 00 @ — 

do Table do. . 4 — ® 4 25 
Jams <t Jellies 4 — @ 4 25 
Pickles '4 gl.. — @ 3 50 

C:OAI.— Jol.blud. 
Australian, ¥toul3 — @14— 
OooseA Bel . Bay. 8 .50 @10— 

Seattle 13 00 

Oumberl'd, ck3..26 00 

do bulk.. 
Lehigh. 




.20 00 ( 
.11 00 I 
..14 00 ( 
.12 00 ( 
.10 00 ( 



Liverpool 

West Hartley. 

Scotch 

Scranton 

Vancouver's Isl..l2 0(1 
Charcoal. ^sk... 75 
COFFEE. 
Sandwich Island 19)^@ — 
Costa Rica per lb 19'-.''3i 20 

Guatemala I9)i@ 20 

Java — ® 23 

Manilla '.9 @ — 

Ground in cs — 27;^® — 

Chicory 10 ® — 

FISH. 
Pao.Dry Cod.new — ® - 

cases 9 @ — 

Eastern Cod 10 @ — 

Salmoninbbl3..8 00 @ - 

do a bbls4 .50 ®5 00 

do 2>4 D& cans — @ — 

do 21b cans.. — ®3 25 

do lib [cans .2 OO @2 25 

Pick. Cod, bbls.. — @ — 

do a bbls. — ® — 

Bosion Smoked.. 



(ias Light Oil. ... 37M® 
PAINTS." 

Atlan. W. Load. 11>4 

Whitening 

Chalk 

Paris White 

Ochre 

Venetian Red... 

Red Lead 

Litharge 

RICE. 
China No. 1, ^ B) 6}^i 
do 2, do. .53^(5., 

J»Pan-; V ''^'^ 

Leain Cleared... 6 'Si 

Patna 7 " 

Hawaiian 8 .« o 

larolina lOK® — 

^ , „ SALT. 
Cal. Bay .per ton. 6 00 @16— 
Carmen Island.. 14 00 @30— 
Liverpool fine.. .25 00 ®26— 

coarse 19 00 @20— 

SOAP. 

Castile IK B) 91.4 

Local brands f,% 

SPICE.S. 
Allspice, per »>.. 16!f 
Cloves.. 
Cassia.. 
Nutmeg 



i'A 



30 
1 15 



Herr'g, box... 
Mack'lJjo.l,>^bls 



40 @ — 
®9 00 



il .50 
1 40 



Extra.... 11 00 
" in kits.... — @2 .50 

" mess — @3 50 

NAILS. 
Assorted size. B>. b%@ 9 — 

oii.a. 

Pacific Glue Co. 

NeatF'tNo. 1. — @ — 

Pure 1 25 la — 

Castor Oil, No. 1..1 45 

do do N0.2..I 35 

Cocoa Nut 60 

Olive Plagniol..6 00 

do Possel 4 76 

Palm 9 

do Baglcalupi. — 

Linseed 1 00 

China nut in cs.. 77' 
Sperm, crude. .,.1 26 

do bleached.. 1 90 
Coast Whales... 40 

Polar, refined 65 

Lard 95 

Coal, refined Pet 37'^® 40 

Oletiphine 37,',^® 40 

Devoe'sBril't... 43 @ 45 

Long Island 37!^@ 40 

Eureka 37;^® 40 

Downer Kerose'e 60 @ 62H 



Whole Pe'liner... — 

Ground Allspice 26 

do Cassia . . 36 

do Cloves.. 30 

do Mustard 26 

do Gmger.. 26 

do Pepper.. 2V4 

do Mace. ...I 26 lu.. 

SUOAR, ETC. 

Cal. Cube per B). 11 ' 
Circle A crushed 
Dry granulated 

Extra do 

OoldenO 

Hawaiian 20"® 22!^ 

Cal. Syrup in bis. .52>i 

do In H bis. .56 

do in kees.. 60 
TEA. 

Oolong,Canton,Bi 19 

do Araoy... 28 

do Formosa 40 

Imperinl, Canton 26 

do Pingsuey 45 

do Moyune . 60 

Gunpo'der.Cant. 30 

do Pingsuey 60 

do Moyune. 66 

Y'ng Hy., Canton 28 

do Pingsuey 40 

do Moyune.. 66 
Japan, ^ cnests, 

bulk 30 

Japan, lacquered 

bxs,4,',^and6 lbs 46 ® 67 

Japan do,3 D> bxs 46 ® 90 

do prnbx,4>^lb 35 

do KAIB) paper 30 ® 55 

TOB ACX'O— Jobbl ngf. 



1 05 
82,' 2 



45 



Bright Navys 
Dark do .. 
Dwaif Twist.. 
12 inch do ... 
Light Pressed. 
Hard do 
Conn. Wrap'r.. 
Penn. Wrapper 
Ohio do 
Vrigi'aSinok'g. . w 
Fine ct che'g,Kr..8 60 
Fine cut chew- 
ing, buc'ts.V B)..75 
Banner fine cut..9 25 
Eureka Cala 8 60 




DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 



BRANS. 

Beans, sm'l wh. lb 6'^® 7 

do, butter 6 (^ — 

do, large, do. .. 7 ® — 

do, bayo 3'^® 3->. 

00, pink '•^ii'A 3^ 

do. pea 6'i.OT 7 

BROOM CORN. 

Per ton S69®1.50 

DAIRY PR4)DUCE. 

Biitter.Oal. frsh.B)— @ — 

do, ordin'y roll 26 ® 26 

do, choice 30 ® — 

do, new firkin. 28 ® — 
do, pickled ... 2'i ® 30 
do, Western ... '20 M 22 
Cheese, Cal new 13 ® U 
do. Eastern ... 14 ® — 
Eggs, t'al. fresh — ® 35 

do. Oregon — ® 25 

do. Eastern. .. . — ® — 
FEED. 

Bran per ton JO — ®'/l 5 1 

Middlings 30 — g 

Hay 12 -'316 - 

Straw 12 — ® 

Oil cake meal... 30 —a 

Corn Meal 30 -® 

FI.OUR. 
Alviso Mills, bbl .4 00 @6 .50 

Oalilbrnia 4 00 85,50 

Cily .Mills 4 00 «5 60 

Comme'l Mills..4 00 ®5 .50 

Golden Gate 4 00 95 50 

Golden Ago 4 00 a 5 .50 

National Mills.. 4 (HI ®,5 .50 
SantaClataMiils 4 (II liib .50 
Genesie Mills... 4 00 a5 ,50 

Oregon 4 00 ®5 .50 

Vallejii Star 4 00 ffl5 .50 

Venns.OaMaiid..4 Oil ®') .50 
Stockton City... 4 00 ®.5 .50 
Lombard. Sue... 4 00 fc)6 .50 

FRF.SII MEAT. 

Beef, fr quality.. lb 7 ® 8 

do, second do. . 6 ® — 

do, third do... 5 @ 6 

Veal 7 @ 8 

Mutton 5>i;f«i 6 

Pork, undressed. 6K® 6! 

do, dressed ... M^i® 9) 

ORAIN, ETC. 

Wh'tOal. o'st.cl.l 6(; a - 

do, shipping . . 1 (iO ®1 65 

do, milling 1 70 ®l 75 

Barlev. DarkO'stl 12,'<!®l 15 

do, t.igbt .1 15 li n; 

do. Brewing... 1 22!^®! 30 
" ■ ■ 70 Si 76 



Wednesday m., July 9, 1873. 

Buckwheat 1 25 ® — 

Rye 2 00 ® — 

HOPS. 

California, 1871. lb — @ 

do 1872... .50 ®- - 
Eastern. 1872. ft.. 60 ® 62'i! 

MISCELLANEOrs. 
Beeswax. per lb.. 32 @ 35 
flone.v, choice... 10 (aj 22'-t 
L.08 An^. Honey I2'-6^ 

rVcw Onions 1 

Flaxseed 3 

"anary do 4 

Mustard do.wile IS^ 

do. brown 2 

Altalia .15 

Ky. BlueOrass.. .50 

'Imothv 35 

Italian Rye 18 

Perennial do . 35 
NUTS. 

Pesnuts per lb... 3 
Chile Walnuts.. 

Prcan nil IS 

Hickory do 

Brazil do 



Oats. Diirk 1 

do, Light 1 75 

do OrcKon 1 75 

('orn. White I 26 

do, 5'ellow I 26 



9- - 
full 86 
ffll '27' 
®1 21% 



14 



17'. 
VA 

6 



5 
15 
18 



16 (a 
.I26 00| 



16 



23 



\2)i 



O'oc'anuts,W10i0. 
A.lin'dsh'rd she 

do, soft 

POTATO EST 

Sweet, per lb — @ — 

New _ ®i 00 

do Cuftee Cove — ®1 60 

do H. M. Bay.l 25 Hi 60 

do MissiiiT) 1 00 ®1 JO 

POULTRY * GAME. 
Live Turkeys B). 23 m — 
Hens, per dz... 8 00 (gi9 00 

Roosters .-6 50 ®7 60 

Spr'g lliickei.s, .5 00 MS 00 

Broilers 4 00 ®6 00 

Ducks, tame,doz7 UO @9 00 
Goose, per pair. — ®2 00 
Hare, per doz... 4 00 iS — 
Snipe, Eng., doz — 

Rabbits 1 fiO 

Venison, per lb.. — 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, per lb llJi® 
F.astern do 12>i,® 

do sugared 12 ® 

Cal. Hams — ® 

Knstcrn old 10 ® 

do new 16 (3 

Cal. Smoked Beef 10 ® 

WOOL, etc; 

Spring, short.Bi. 16 @ 

do choice Nort '22 ® 

Burry 12 l| 

Hides, diy 17 ® 

do wet salted 8 @ 
Tallow 6 ® 



m 00 
Si 75 




FRUIT MARKET. 

All fruits as yet are In good supply. Apples and Pears 
have fallen In price. So also have most other fruits. 
FRUIT MARKET. 

Taheltl,Or.Tt*UI00 40 -®45 — 

Cal. do a 

Limes, f*|M.... L5 -®20 — 
Oal.Lemon«,1000.(>0 — ®- — 

Messina do 8(1 — ® 

Bananas,^ bnch 3 — .'aj 

Pineapples, Tf» &/. Si 7 50 

Apples.oat'g, bx. 76 al IH1 

Early I'oars .50 ^ 

Cherries 10 

Strawberries 3 00 

<}ooseberrlC8. ... 

Raspberries — 

(Currants 4 

Apricots 3 

Pears, Eating . . . — 
PomeKran'8,'plOO — 
Grapes. Mission. — 

DRIED FRUIT. 

Apples. * Bl 8 f<» 9 

rears, *tt> 6 09 



Peaches, 

Aprlcois, 

Plums, ^ 

Pitted, do 

l<alsln», ■» 

Black Kig»,%( Bl.. _ 

While, do 16 

VEOETABLE8. 

Cabbage, « dz 50 9I 00 

(larllcjl lb 6 ®- 

Groon Peas — ®3 

Green Corn ^ doz. 16 926 
Marrowfat Squash 

[»er ton 7.50®— 

Artichokes. H lb.... l^'d 2',i 
String Beans, Vfl) ... 3 ® 8 

Lima Beans — ®— 

Peppers dry — 4^26 

Okra 36 ^40 

Ok rn. Green — ft«'26 

(Jucuinbers, dz 10 fValS 



We will CHANdK TIIK ADDiiKSH fiiKK for any subscribe 
who notllUs us in writing of bis nfir address, with the OLD 
P. O. address to enable us to llnd bis name among thous- 
ands of others. 



30 



[July 12, 1873. 




For the Harvest of 1873. 

'■LORIGlNAL^'^^lRELIABLE 




^SARgJE^ 



The ".ffiTNA" is the latest and best Mower or Self- 
Bake Heaper in the country. 
It possesses not only all the advantages of every other 
improved machine, but has that which no other has — a 
Patent double motion, by which (simply on moving 
a lever at the hand of the driver, either a fast or slo'w 
speed may be given the knives or sickles in a moment, 
and without in the least distivruing the ordinary gait of 
the team. 

Treadwell Sc Co.'s list of Harvesting: Ma- 
chines 
embraces the Standard Improved Machines of the coun- 
try, fresh from the manufactory this year. 

^E T IV A 

Mowers and Self-Rake Reapers, 
Haines' Headers, Ithaca Horse Rakes, 
Hoadley's Engines, Pitts Horse Powers, 
Russell Separators, Whitewater Wagons, 

Kirby and McCormick Mowers and Reap- 
ers. Kussell Horse Powers, Cultivators, 
Header Trucks, Hay Presses, Barley Forks, 
Hay Cutters, Victor Hay Forks, Hand Rakes, 
Scythes, Snaths, and every description of Im- 
proved 

Agricultural Implements, 

And a fresh stock of 

^^Our headers sre built this season, and have all the 
improvements for 1873, with also the Doane Patent 
Adjustable Reel- Our Russell Separators have the 
Laufenberg: Patent End-Shake Shoe when de- 
fiired, (S^Please send for circulars and prices, 

TREADWELL & CO., 



At the 
Old Stand, 



Corner Market and Fremont Streets, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 
9T6-3m 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 

American Chief Gang Plow. 



Took the Premlnm over all at the great Flowing 
Match In Stockton, In 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what ig re- 
quired In the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adjusted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Beet and Most Desirable Oang Plow 
In the world. Send for circular to 



14T3-3m 



MATTESON h WILLIAMSON, 
Stockton, Oal. 



THE BAIN WAGONS. 




MlUflMlMUU-tW- 

These Wagons are now recognized as 

The Best Farm and Freight Wagons 

IN THIS M.UIKET, 
being made particularly for this climate. 
We are now receiving a full stock of 

Farm "Wagons, 

irelg-ht Wagons,\,and 

Header Wag-ons. 

SEND FOR A LIST OF PRICES TO 

BAKER & HAMILTON, 

I5t6-3ih Sacramento and San Francisco. 



THE WHITEWATER WAGON. 

PRICES.— Thimble Skein, 3 inch, $100; 3H inch, $105; 3)fi inch, $110; 3i^ inch, $115* 4inch,$125 
—including, in each case, wagon gearing complete, with whiffletrees, neck yoke and stay chains. Beds, Brakes 
Seats, etc., $40 to $50. complete, according to style. Iron Axle, $130 to $185, according to size. 

We invite the attention of buyersto the supenor workmanship and linish of these justly celebrated Wagons. They 
are known throughout the Weat.^and have long t-akon the lead of all others: and ever sjnce first introduced to the Cali- 
fornia farmer, have given the most complete satisfaction. The timber la of the choicest selection, «erond irrowth, and 



the iron used the t>est that can 
be obtained. The manufactur- 
ers Bay: "A thorough system 
of inspection is strictly ad- 
hered to, BO that we are pre- 
§ared to warrant each part to 
e perfect; if defective, it will 
be replaced without charge. 
We claim by actual Vtnt a 

SAVING OF FIFTEKN PER CENT. 

m DRAFT over any other 
li^agon offered for sale. 

This ease of draft has been ac- 
complished after years of close 
study, and on strictly scientific 
principles, and is a •eoret 
known only to oarselvea. 
Knowing that a Wagon, to be 




popular in California, must be 
a irood one, and desiring to 
bnng out for oar trade not 
only the best Farm Wagon in 
the country, but one also that 
could be sold at a popular price. 
we finally selected "The 
Whitewater" as the wagon 
before all others for the (Cali- 
fornia trade. Tlui manufac- 
turers of these Wagons are 
among the oldest and largest 
in the United States (Win- 
chester A Partridge, of White- 
water, Wis.), and their Wagons 
may be found in all parts of 
the country. We are prepared 
to furnish Wagon beds. Brakes 



and Seats in any style to suit customers and the trade- Oar California Rack Bed is far superior to any in the market. 
The side pieces are made of 2x6 oak ; the bed is 14 feet long, and thn spring seat 4 feet from the box— giving ample room 
to load wood, sacks, etc . without interfering with the driver. Our California Roller Brake can be used with or without 
a box. These beds, as well as the " Whitewater" running-gear, are peculiarly adapted to California use. The brakes 
have hitrdwood bant, and the seat-s hardwood Standards ; the beds are nicely proportioned, well framed and 
boltfid together, painted inside and outside, neatij striped and ornamented, and well varnished. The wheels of the 
" Whitewater" are extra heavy, with slope-shouldered or wedge-shaped spokes, in larfje hubs and deep felloes, wide and 
heavy tires RiviTED ON THROUGH EVERY joint. The wheels are all soaked in hot boiled oil. twice during working, and 
again before being painted, so as to prevent any possible slirinkage of the wood in our long and hot dry seasons. They 
itre wnrriinted to stand the Climate of California, being made especially for this market. The axles to our 
Thimble Skein Wagons are made larjje and strong, and of thoronffliily seanoued hleWory, and the skeins put on by a 
machine, so that each one is perfectly true and never works loose. The Iron \«'ork of " The Whitewater" is 100 pounds 
heavier than on any other farm wagon made. Our Iron Axle Wagons are made expressly for freighting and heavy work, 
and we guarantee a better made and stronger wagon for the price than any ever before offered in this market. If you 
want a wagon, and want a GOOD 0\E, at a low price, give the "Whitewater" a trial. TR£A]>lV£L.r. A. CO., 
San Francisco, General Agents for the Pacific States. 14v5tf 



B O IV IV E Y '>i« 

PATENT EXTENSION TOOTHED HAY RAKE. 




Saves more aud better Hay than any other Rake in use, being free from dirt and dust. Holds 
twice the amount, as the teeth can be used any length. Runs 

light and is easily handled. 
FIRST PEEMIXJM AT STATE FAIR, SACRAMENTO. 

Manufactures also the old Stationary 
^A/^ood-Toothed Rake, 

(Improved,) which I sell cheaper than any other Whul 
Bake. AlBO luy 

Patent Adjustable Grin L 

For Header, which can be nm at any inclination, as BCeu 

at D in cut ; can be attached to Header in 15 miuuteH ; 

18 the cheapest in use and gives the 

best satisfaction. 

Parties can save additional the cost of a set in one day's cutting. Make to order also, HEADER APRONS and 

GRAIN BELTS of all kinds. All orders or enquiries to 

O. BONNET, Jr., 281 Mission Street, San Francisco, 

Promptly attended to. 12v5-lam 




FIRST PREMIUM AWARDED at the State Pair of. 
18fJ; also First Premium at Mechanics' Fair, San Fran- ' 
ciico, 1871; and Silver Medal and First Premium (or 
best Farm Wagon, and First Premium for the best im- 
proved Thimble Skein at State Fair, 1871. Alao State 
Fair GOLD MEDAL for 1871. 



•p2l.3m 



E. SOULE, 

San Qaentin, Cal. 



■. c. Bowxjn. 



C. CKEGO. 

CREGO & BOWLEY, 

Iiiil>ortoi*!B* aiKl >Iuii tiniotitrers 

—OF— 

CARKIAaES and WAGONS, 

No. 9 Merchant's Exchang'e, 
CALIFORNIA STREET SAN FRANCISCO. 

Keep constantly on hand top and open Baggies, top 
and open Rockaways, Jump-seat Buggies, Track and 
Road Sulkies, Skeleton Wagons, Basket Phaetons of 
the very latest styles and finest workmanship. 

We would call particular attention to our fine stock 
of light Road and Trotting Wagons, made to order by 
the following celebrated makers: 

Charles B. Coffrey, Camden, New Jersey; 

Helfleld & Jackson, Rahway, New Jersey; 

Gregg k Bow, Wilmington, Delaware; 
And other first-class makers, which we are prepared to 
sell on the most reasonable terms. 

Also, a large assortment of single and double Har- 
ness, of the most celebrated makers: 

C Graham, New York; J. R. Hill, Concord; Pittkin 
Ji Thomas, Philadelphia. 

Also, a full assortment of Dress and Light Blankets, 
Fur and Lap Robes, Whips, Halters, Surcingles, etc., at 
wholesale and retail. 

CREGO k BOWLEY, 
No. 9 Merchants' Exchange, California street, 

2<v5-3m San Francisco. 



WE NOW OFFER TO THB FARMERS 

The Best Horse Fork in Use. 

The Fork is made in the most substantial manner, of 
steel, with hickory beads. They are so constructed 
that the Fork does not drop Its load until the Fork man 
is ready to unload his Fork. Many maimed men can 
appreciate the value of this improvement who have 
been injured by the old style Forks. 

For sale by 

BROWN & DOANE. 

209 El Dorado street, Stockton, Cal. 
26v&-2m 



FAIRBANKS 





^^ 



M?^^R 



The Latest and Best in the Country. 

HAS A DOUBLE MOTION. 
Giving FAST or SLOW SPEED to the knife or sickle, besides 
allotUer improvements of rtrat-class machines. »^ Send 
for Illustrated pamphlet, and don't fail to see the ^H'NA 
before buying. 

TREADWELL & CO., 
Sole A};ents Pacittc States San Francisco. 
Old Stand, Market, head of Front Street. f22-3m 



K£:iL.X.£:iS &, CO., 

43, 46, 47 J STREET, TREADWELL BUILDtNO, 
SACRAMENTO. 

AGENTS FOB 

CLAPP'S BRASS-BEARING WAGONS. 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 

SACRAMENTO AND SAN FRANCISCO, 

Importers of 

HAItDWAHE, 

Agricultural Implements, 

Harvesting Machinery, etc. 

Offer the latest improved and most reliable machines 
to be found in market, viz: 

CHAMPION MOWERS, CHAMPION REAPERS— Hand 
Bake or Self Rake: WOOD'S MOWERS, BURT'S MOW- 
ERS and Hand Rake Reapers. 

Haines' Genuine Headers, Bain's Header 
Wagons, Bain's Farm Wagrous. 

The celebrated PITTS IMPROVED THRASHERS and 
Horse Powers. 

Portable Steam Thrashing Engines. 

Hand and Horse Power Hay Presses. 

Lock Levers; HoUingsworth and Whitcomb's Wheeled 
Hay Rakes. 

Wood's Revolving Horse Rakes. 

Hand Rakes, Scythes, Snaths, Forks, Shovels, Baling 
and Fencing Wire, Rope, Nails, Bolting, Machine Oils, 
etc. A full stock of SHELF HARDWARE. 

EXTRA PARTS for repairing Harvesting Machinery. 

Orders by Mail or Express will receive prompt at- 
tention. Send for Circular. Address 

BAKER & HAMILTON, 

15T6-3m Sacramento or San Francisco. 




THE ONLY RKLI A-BIL.E 

STANDARD. 



6,000 to 40,000 pounds capacity. Length of 
platform to suit purchaser. The same scale is used for 
weighing cattle, hogs, etc. Scales adapted to all 
branches of business. Address 

FAIRBANKS k HUTCHINSON, 

537 Market street. 
Agents for MILES' ALARM MONEY DRAWERS, a 
sure protection against till thieves. 16v26eowbp6m 



MAIN & WINCHESTER, 



And also a superior Iron Axle Wagon. 

MEBBITT k KELLOGG'S SELF-PROPELLINQ 

THRESHING ENGINES. 

John Deer ]Moliiie F*lo-*v. 

Also COLLINS' PLOW (Smith's Patent). 

THE GORHAM BROADCAST SEEDER AND CULTI. 
VATOB. 

KXCELSIOB MOWRB AKD ftRAJPKVi, 

The "EXCELSIOR" MACHINE took the first pre- 
mium at our State Fair. 

We are Sole Agents for "Excelsior" BRASS-BEAR- 
£NG WAGON, Merrlttfc Kellogg's TRACTION ENGINE, 

*^ Please call and examine. 17v4-ly 



X NO 430 ^\ 




214 and 216 Battery St., 

SAN FRANCISCO, 

Have the Largest and Best 

Assortment of 

HARNESS, SADDLES, 
Bridles, 

WHIPS, 

SADDLERY, 

HARDWARE, and 

Oollars 

i)f every description, of their 
own and other manufacture. 

Ever Offered on the Pacific 
Coast. 
26T»-3m 



Write r.ir a Price List to .J. II. .JOIIXSTOjr, 



JREAT WESTERN 



iXte 



MITHFIEUST PinSBUBGH PA< 

Breech-Loading Sliot Gnns, Ho to $3(X). Double Shot 
Guns, $8 to J160. Single Guns, {-i to $20. Rifles, $8 to 
$76. Revolvers, $n to tK. Pistols, $1 to $8. Gun Ma- 
terial. Fishing Tackle, ic. Large discounts to deaiert tyr 
duhs. Army Guns, Bevolven), etc., bought or traded 
for. Goods sent by express 0. O, C, to be examined 
before paid for. 

PCBCHA8EB8 please say advertised. In PariHc Rural Press. 



July 12, 1873.] 



31 





Pure Blooded French Merino Rams and 
Ewes, 

For B&Ie by ROBERT BLACOW, of Ceutreville, Alaiueda 
County, Cal., near Niles Station, on the WcBteru and 
Southern Pacific Railroad. 

These Sheep are guaranteed of pure descent, from the 
French Imperial Flock at Rambouillet. 

Also a few well-bred young Bulls of the Durham 
blood. 12v5-3m 



HMITM Sc OVJEKHISEH, 



SOOOESiORS TO J. D. Pactebbon, 



Breeders of First-Class Thoroughbred 



SPANISH MERINO 



FRENCH MERINO SHEEP. 



OUR PRICES WILL BE LESS THAN THE SAME 
QUALITY can be purchased of any other 
RELIABLE BEEEDEK9 in Cal- 
ifornia and the Eastern 
States. 



Rams will be sent to San Francisco, and sold by 
Christy & Wise; also at Wm. L. Overhiser's, near 
Stockton; and at Patterson's ranch, near Grayson, San 
Joaquin river. 

C. C. SMITH, 

Grayson, Stanislaus County. 



23v5-tr 



WM. li. OVERHISER, 

Stockton. 



N. GULIMLORE, 

Importer and Breeder of 

Angora or Cashmere 
GOATS 

— or — 

PURE BLOOE 

— AND — 

ALL GRADES. 

For Bale In lots to suit purchasers. Location, four 
miles from Railroad Station, ooimecting with all party 
of the State. For particulars address 



BvS-eow-tf 



N. GILMORE 
El Dorado, El Dorado county, 

California. 



THOS. BUTTERFIELD & SON, 

Breeders and Importers of the 
Ootawold, Liincoln, Leicester, Texel and 
^^^^ South Down 

TiiB* -A1.80- 

ITH.'E ANGORA. GOA.T. 

Now offer for sale the Pure Bred and High Grades. 
We hare a good lot of Bucks of crosses between the 
OotBwold and South Down, between the Lincoln and 
Leicester, and the Lincoln and Merino. 

THOS. BUTTERFIELD & SON, 

ISrMf HoUister, Monterey County, Cal. 

Pure Berkshire Pigs For Sale 



R. S. THOMPSON, Napa, California, 

Importer and Breeder of Improved 

Berkshire S\7lne. 

23v.V2m 



FOR SALE. 

T'wo Thoroug'hbred Durham Bulls. 
Also, a lot of fine POLAND CHINA PIGS. 
Address CANNON & STAPLES, 

23T6-2m St isnn, Solano County, Cal. 



KNOWLES' PATENT STEAM P U M P. TH E STEARNS RANCHOS. 




It has no Cranks or Fly-Wheel, and has no dead points where It will stop, consequently it is always ready tr> 
start without using a starting-bar, and does not require hand- work to get it past the center. Will always start 
when the steam cylinder is filled with cold water of condensation. 

CENTRAL PACIFIC R. R., OFFICE OF THE GEN'L MASTER MROIIANIC ) 
Sackamento, Cal., January 14, 187:i. ) 

A. L. FISH, Esq., Agent of the Knowles Steam Pump San Francisco— Dear Sir: In reply to your inquiry as to the 
merits of the Knowles Steam Pump, in use upon this roau, I will say that it gives me great pleasure to report tliat they 
have performed their work well whenever called upon. In no in^ttance have they failed. We have now over 30 of them 
in use on this road as firb engines, and pumping water for shop and station use. 1 consider the Knowles Steam Pump the 
best in use, and prefer it to any other. Yours truly. A. J. STEVENS, General Master Mechanic. 

U. S. NAVy YARD, New Yoek, June 3, 1R71. 
Messrs. KNOWLES & S BLEY, 92 and 94 Liberty street, New York— Gentlemen: In reply to your note of 31st, re- 
questing my opinion ot your Steam Pump, etc , as suggested from my experience with them m actual service, I have to 
state that I have used your pumps, and entertain the most favorable opinion of iheir great merit and usefulness, and for 
every purpo^^e beli'^vc them to be superior to any others, and have so recommended and adopted them. They have 
given complete satisfaction in all cases that have come under my observation. 

Yours very respectfully, WM. W. W. WOOD. 

A. L. FISH, Agent Knowles' Steam Pump— Dear Sir: In answer to your inquiries, we state that the highest award 
for Steam Pumps at the Eighth or last Mechanics' Fair in San Francisco, was a First Premium and Diploma, awarded 
to the Knowles Patent Steam Pump, as published in the tJfllcial List September 23d, 1871. 

A. S. HALLTDIE, President Board of Managers. 

W. H. Williams, Sec'y Board of Managers Eighth Industrial Exhibition M. I. 

"WE BXni-D AND HAVE CONSTANTLY ON HAND 

The Largest Stock of Pumps in the World, 

And for Every Conceivable Purpose. 

THE CELEBEt^TED BOOIMER, PRESS, 

For Wine, Older, Lard, Paper, 'Wool, Hops, Hides, Tobacco, Bag-s, etc.— the Slost Powerful 

in TTse. 



A. L. FISH, Agent, 

Pfos. O and 11 First Street, ^an Francisco, Cal. 

10v26 lambp 



P. s. All kinds of new and second-hand Machines on hand. 




We have 145 Pure Breed Angoras and 2,000 grades of 
12 years' breeding to select from. Those wanting Bucks 
will find it to their interest to send for pamphlet on 
Breeding, and to examine our stock of Augora Goats 
and Cotswoid Sheep. 

LANDBXTM & KODQERS, 

20v5tf Watsonville, Santa Crnz County, Cal. 



WATT & MCLENNAN, 

WOOL COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

626 Sansome street, comer Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO. 



Eecelve Consignments of Wool, Sheep 
Skins, Hides, etc. Liberal advances made to 
consignors. Keep on hand the best quality of 
Wool Sacks, Twines, and other supplies. 
10T3-3m 



40 Thoroughbred Angora Goats for Salel 

Imported by a native of Angora, direct from Asia Minor. 
For specimens see the flock of Thomas & Shirland, 
Sacramento, Cal. Address A. EUTYOHIDES, Spout 
Spring, Appomattox Covmty, Va. 10v4-ly 



HIGH GRADE SHORTHORNS. 

For sale, a few Cows and Heifers, ranging in age from 
three to six years, all in calf to thoroughbred Shorthorn 
Bulls, and will calve from September to November. 

Each one guaranteed in the quantity of milk she will 
give. Also, pure bred Shorthorn Bulls coming two 
years. Apply to JOHN B. REDMOND, 

Sneet Farm, Black Point P. O., Marin Co. 

N. B.— Black Point is 11 miles from San Rafael, on 
the Petaluma road. 26vr>.4t 



SPANISH MERINOS.— We ofier for sale low, about 100 
of our fine Thoroughbreds. Scud for Catalogue Orders 
solicited. John Sheldon k Son, Moscow, N. Y. 



IMPORTANT TO FARMERS^ 
Line to Liverpool 

DIRECT. 
The A 1 Ships 

TWILIGHT— Gates, Master, 

HELEN MORRIS— Chase, Master, 

BLUE JACKET- Grozier, Master, 

Are now loading aniJ intended to sail with 
dispatch. To be followed by other vessels. 
Freight taken in lots to suit shippers. 

Apply to E. E. MORGAN'S SONS, 

320 California Street, 
San Francisco. 

THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 

Sanitary Hotel and Industrial 

COLLEGE ASSOCIATION. 

Incorporated Under the Laws ok the State of 
Oalifohnia. 

CAPITAL STOCK $250,000.00 

Divided into 2,500 shares, of $100 each. 

The subscription books of this Association will be 
open on the 24th of this month (May, 1873), at the pres- 
ent office of the Association, No. 10, Temple Block, Los 
Angeles, California, where copies of the By-Laws and 
Articles of Incorporation can bo had. 

President J. R- TOBERMAN. 

Treasurer F. P. F. TEMPLE. 

Secretary GEO. O. GIBBS. 

Directors— George Stoneman, Thos. A. Garey, and 
Wm. Moore. 
General Superintendent, F. M. Sliaw. 



MONTGOMERY'S HOTEL, 

'i'i7and'«9 Second street, SAN FRANCISCO. 

This Hotel has been newly fnrnlshcd, and is sltnated in a 

central and healthy location, and i.s one ot the few 

Hotels in San Francisco conducted on 

"rcmiierance PrinciplcB. 

board, per week. $3..'iO. BOARD AND I.ODOINO, $4 TO $.5. 
SIX MEAI. TICKETS FOR $1. 

CHA»t- MOKTOOMKKTf, Proprietor. 

«5>- Passengers and Bagsage taken to the Hotel free. .*« 

Hv2t>-awbp 



Farmers, syerywhere, write for your paper. 



CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DANIEL & OO., 

M»nufacturers of and Dealers in 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 

MANTEL PIECES, ETC., 

4'il Pino street, between Montgomery and | 

Kearny, San Francisco. 

21v2.1y 



MINERALS WANTED. 

Liberal prices paid for good ASBESTOS and AMIAN- 
THUS otherwise known as H-.ck-Wood, Bock-Cork, 
Motuitain Leather, Fossil-Paper, Fossil-Flax and Earth 
Flax. Address by mail, giving specimens and price 
p«rton, H. D. JARVE8, 

10 Dc'ODsblre street, Boston, Mags. 



ALFRED ROBERTSON, Trustee. 

642 Market Street 8AN FBANCISCO. 

90,000 Acres of Land for Sale, 

In lots to suit, suitable for the culture of Or- 
anges, Lemons, Limes, Figs, Almonds.Waluuts, 
Apples, Peaches, Pears, Alfalfa, Com, Rye, 
BarleT, Flax. Ramie, Cotton, etc. And, also, 
many thousand acres of 

NATURAL EVERGREEN PASTURES, 
Suitable for Dairying. 
Good water is abundant, at an average depth of six 
feet from the surface. On almost every acre of this 
land, FLOWING ARTESIAN WELLS can be obtained, 
and the more elevated portions can be iiTigated by the 
water of the Santa Ana River. 

Most of these lands are naturally moist, requiring 
only good cultivation to produce crops. 

Terms— One-fourth cash, balance in one, two and 
hree years, with ten per cent, interest. 
I will take pleasure in showing these lauds to parties 
Seeking land, who are invited to eonio and see this ex- 
tensive tract before purchasing elsewhere. 

WM. R. OLDEN, Agent. 

Anaheim, Los Angeles county, May 24 187:). 

zevsif 



Land for Sale in Solano County. 

One tract of 190 acres, all under fence, liv ig . ater, 
with 30,000 ten-year-old Grape Vines, mostly f reign; 
10,000 Muscat of Alexandria variety; 1,000 Fruit Trees, 
including all the best varieties, from the Apple to the 
Orange — all in the most flourishing condition, in a pure, 
salubrious climate, free from frosts sufficient to Injure 
any fruit, from the hardier to the semi-tropical. 

Must be SEEN to be appreciated. 

THREE MILES WEST OF VACAVIL . 

Religrious, Educational and Social Facilities 
Easily Attainable. 

Also one tract of 160 acres; and one of 50 acres. 

Also one tract that can be sold in small quantities 
from $3,000 upward. 

Also one tract ou Putah Creek of l(i5 acres, with 3,000 
bearing Fruit Trees of the hnest and choicest varieties, 
and the EARLIEST IN THE S DATE. 

Purchasers looking for improved homes in California 
would do well to visit this favored fruit-growing section . 



Apply to 
20T5-3m 



H. T. BARKER, 

At M. Blum's Store, 
VacavlUe. 



LANDS, FARMS, ETC. 

Parties wanting to sell would do well to send us a 
description of their property. 

B»-WE MAKE NO CHARGE unless we EFFECT 
SALES. 

We have 500 Farms and over 600,000 Acres of and 
for Sale. 

Address BRANDON & BIBBIN5, 
Pacific Land Exchange, 
5v5-ly eamy street, San Francisco. 

Farm for Sale. 



Containing IfiO Acres, within one mile of the city of 
Petaluma; well fenced and watered, with comfortable 
house, barn and outbuildings. Title, United States 
Patent. Will be sold on reasonable terms. 



Apply to 
jl4-lm 



O. P. SUTTON, Pacific Bank, 
San Francisco. 



FARMING LANDS FOR SALE 

IN STANISLAUS AND MERCED COUNTIES, 
Either in large or small tracts. 

Apply to W. T. S. RVER, 

No. 408 California street, 
17v6-tf San Francisco, Cal. 



Farmers and Gardeners 

Are invited to examine our stock of Scientific Books ou 

Domestic Animals, Fruit and Floriculture, 
Scientific Farming, Architecture, Etc. 

Send for Catalogues. Books promptly sent by mail 
to all parts of the country. 



23v5eow2m 



A. L. BANCROFT & CO., 
721 Market street, San Francisco , 



TO GRAIN, COTTON AND WOOL 
GROWERS. 



The undersigned are prepared to ext«nd every facility 
to Farmers who desire to ship their produce abroad. 

Wo will advance liberally on any shipments, only 
charging interest at the rate of 6 per cent, per 
annum- Freight at the chartered price paid the ship, 
insurance and other charges at the lowest rates obtain- 
able, thus netting the shipper the full value of his 
crops, while paying at the lovrest interest for his 
funds. Any further information desired will be 
promptly furnished. 

J. C. Merrill & Co., 

204 »nd 206 California St., BAN FRANCISCO. 



TTANTED. 



Orders for good White and Chinese help of all kinds 
for Families, Hotels, Gardens, Farms, Factories, Con- 
tractors, Railroads, et<-. Satisfaction guaranti'ed. 
CHA8 P. BECUEUEB ii CO.'S General White and (-hl- 
nese Employment Office, No. 6M Sacramento street, 
near Kearny, San Francisco. 18TB-3m 



I 



32 



LJuly 12, 1873. 



Farmers, Buy the Best. 



18T3. 



1873. 



BA.K:ER &c HA^IVriLTON 



IMPORTKR-i OF THE ONLY 



We would o»ll the attention of farmers to the import- 
ant improvements made in the BUFFALO PITTS 
THRESHING MACHINES within the past year, making 
them the greatest labor-saving machines in use. 

San JoAyDis, Cal., Nov. I. 1872. 

Messrs. BAKEK k HAMILTON, S. F.— 

Deah Sirs: I threshed in «« days, with the improved 
Pitts Separator I boutjht of you, 69,000 bushels. The 
largest day's work in wheat was 1,8*0 bushels, and in 
bwley 1,000 sacks. It is the best machine I have ever 
ever seen. Did not cost me a cent for repairs except 
new teeth. I made clear 12,100, and wages were higher 
than usual this year. 



Yours with jespect, 



JOHN FISHEK. 




THE BUFFALO PITTS MACHINES, under the iiu- 
perrision of Mr. Brouson, have been altered and im- 
proved BO that their further alteration is nuneceaury. 
They are now as nearly perfect aK machines can be 
made, being capable of threshing and cleaning without 
cracking or wasting all the grain that it is possible for 
the usual company of men in attendance to handle 
with the aid of Horse Forks and other machluery. 



GENUINE BUFFALO PITTS THRESHING MACHINES, 



THE GENUINE PITTS MOUNTED POWERS. 



By means of three concaves in 
the NEW BUFFALO PITTS 
THRESHER, new patent ad- 
justable concave hangers, en- 
larged Fans, Improved Shoe, 
bp.>ut, and Straw Carrier 
Shakers, they are capable of 
such nice adjustment, that 
(,'iain, whether threshing easy 
or hard, in tough, wet or dry 
straw, can be separated per- 
fectly. 




THERE ARE NUMEROUS 
SO-CALLED PITTS POWERS 
IN MARKET, BUT NONE ARE 
(iENUINE EXCEPT THOSE 
MADE BY JAS. BBAY. 
LEY , OF BUFFALO. 

FARMEBS, SEE THAT ITOU 
GET THE OENDINE 

BUFFALO PJSVE:{, 
AND BUY NO OTHER 



^ ^ ^^iS-,-xi*,-x>y £if^/u. 



FARMERS, BEWARE OF IMITATION PITTS MOUNTED POWERS! 

The Genuine Buflalo Pitts Powers are made only by Jas. Brayley, of Ruflfalo, and we are his only agents on this Coast. The improvements made in the Pitt« Genuine Mounted 
Power are covered by patents which protect us in their exclusive use. CAUTION. — Various persons throughout the country are making repairs for powers by means of patterns which are 
taken from castings, and are necessarily imperfect. Users should order direct from us. 



PRICES REDUCED ! 



Owing to the partial failure of Crops we have reduced our prices 
and terms, and are determined to place the 



GENUINE PITTS MACHINES 



in Farmers' Hands at the Lowest Possible Figures. 




AMES THRESHING ENGINES 



These Engines are ready for the Field, and are Superior to 
any we have ever sold. They give universal satis- 
faction, and are the 



Cheapest Engines in Market. 



AMES THRESHING ENGINE. 



^^^I^ESI=1. %Sc HA-nV^nLiTOINJ-, 



3 to 19 Front street, 
San Francisco- 



9 to 15 J street, 

Sacramento. 




Volume VI.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 19, 1873. 



[Number 3. 



Spice Plants— Ginger. 

We present iu Fig. 1 of our illustrations, an 
engraving in miniature of the ginger plant ; 
root and top; and from the root of which is ob- 
tained a pungent but agreeable spice, well 
known aad extensively used in all civilized 
countries. Ginger is cultivated in both the 
East and West Indies, as well as in South 
America, Africa and China, and could be cul- 
tivated in California with profit. The rhizome, 
or woody root-stalk which forms the ginger, is 
dug up when of sufficient size, cleaned, scraped 
and dried and in this state is called uncoated 
ginger; but when the outer skin is not removed 
from the root-stalks, it is called coated, and 
presents a dirty-brown appearance. 

Independent of this difference in color, which 
is in the mode of preparation, it is supposed 
there are two varieties of the species, one pro- 
ducing white, and the other dark-colored ginger. 
Its well known hot, pungent taste is due to the 
presence of a volatile oil; it also contains a large 
quantity of starch and yellow coloring matter, 
inclosed in large cells. Ground ginger is large- 
ly adulterated with starch, wheat flour, ground 
rice, mustard, etc., in various proportions. 

In a young state the roots are tender, fleshy 
and mildly aromatic; in this state they are pi-e- 
served in sirup and form the delicious conserve 
known as preserved ginger. Ginger is an aro- 
matic stimulant, principally used as a condi- 
ment, and much employed in the manufacture 
of various liquors, cordials and beers. An in- 
fusion under the name of ginger tea is much 
used as an aromatic tonic. 

The Nutmeg. 

The nutmeg tree. Fig. 2, is extensively culti- 
vated in tropical regions for its valued pro- 
ducts. It is comparatively a small tree, seldom 
reaching a height of more than 30 feet. The 
leaves are aromatic, and the fruit is very much 
like a peach, having a longitudinal groove on 
one side, and bursting into two pieces, when 
the inclosed seed, covered by a false aril, which 
constitutes the substance known as mace, is 
exposed. The seed itself has a thick outer shell 
which may be removed when dry, and which 
exposes the nucleus of the seed, which is the 
nutmeg of commerce. 

The mace or covering, which is of a fine red 
or cinnamon color when fresh, becomes a 
golden yellow when dry. The nuts are liable 
to be injured by insects; to guard against 
which, they are repeatedly dipped in lime- 
water for several weeks after gathering. Even 
the fleshy pericarp is often used as a conserve. 
Nutmegs and mace are largely employed as 
condiments. They are both used in medicine 
as stimulants, carminatives and flavoring 
Agents. 

The best nutmegs are grown at Penang, or 
Prince of Wales Island, in the Straits of Malac- 
ca; they are about an inch in length, shaped 
like a damson plum, pale-brown in color and 
furrowed on the exterior, and gray on the 
inside, with veins of red running through 
them. From the foregoing it will be seen how 
widely the true nutmeg difiers from that of the 
so-called wild nutmeg of California, as well in 
its general make up, as in the form of its fol- 
iage. 

The Caper. 

Here in Fig. 3, we have a creeping plant, a 
native of the South of Europe. The flower 
buds, and in some parts of Italy the unripe 
fruit, are pickled in vinegar, and form what are 
known as capers. There is an African species 
that furnishes berries with a pepper-like, pun- 
gent taste, and when dried are used as food, 



There are several other species, nearly all of 
which are possessed of vermifuge properties. 
The smell of this plant in some of its varieties 
is so detestable that no animal wiU eat the foli- 
age. 

The Cinnamon Tree. 
The true cinnamon is obtained from a tropi- 
cal tree reaching a height of 30 feet and culti- 
vated in many countries. Ceylon has long been 
noted for the excellence of its cinnamon, but 
commerce is largely supplied from the West 



Grasses of the Coast Counties. 

An Eastern dairyman, now visiting Cali- 
fornia, with the view of engaging in the produc- 
tion of butter and cheese, and passing, on his 
way to San Francisco by rail, over the dry and 
gleaming plains between the foothills to the 
east of Sacramento and Livermore Valley, via 
Stockton, asks this question: Whether there 
is any part of the State where green and grow- 
ing native grasses can be relied upon during 



Fig. 1. 



Fiff.2. 




SPICE PLANTS. 



Indies and South America. Its leaf and flower 
stalk are shown iu Fig. 4 . It is prepared by 
stripping the bark from the branches, which, on 
drying, naturally rolls up into quills, the 
smaller of which are introduced into the larger 
and then the drying completed in the sun. 

Good cinnamon is generally known by the 
thinness of the bark; as a rule the thinner and 
more pliable, the finer the quality. When 
broken, the fracture should be splintery. It is 
largely used as a condiment for its pleasant fla- 
vor, and its astringent and cordial qualities 
give it a value as a medicine. From the root 
an excellent camphor is extracted, and the dried 
flowers are used as a spice. Cassia, has the 
flavor of the true cinnamon, but the bark is 
thicker, coarser and not so delicate in flavor, 
and is much used to adulterate the true article; 
the bark is more brittle and less fibrous in tex- 
ture. 



the entire summer season as food for dairy 
stock, without a removal to the mountains; 
and if there is, desires we would name the 
locality and kind of grasses produced. 

Humboldt, Mendocino, Sonoma and Marin 
counties, bordering upon the ocean, have the 
soils and climate adapting them admirably to 
dairy purposes. To a very great extent the 
lands of these counties consist of rolling hills, 
with swales between that are more or less 
springy. Fogs supply surface moisture. Here 
is pasture all the year round. 

January Grasses. 

On or before the first of January, the hill 
ranges are covered with the well-known fine- 
flbered bunch-grass, that, if iiot eaten down, 
is from three to five feet high at its full 
growth; and mixed with this is a coarser va- 



riety not so nutritious. Cattle first eat off the 
finer grass, and then the second-best; both of 
these grasses renew their growth as they are 
eaten off, keeping up an excellent bite for stock 
to the end of March. 

April Grasses. 

Another grass, much like "June grass," but 
with a much finer leaf, and not exceeding 
twelve inches in height, covers some of the 
hills, and whilst it lasts is preferred by cattle, 
on account of its sweetness; but, as it has a 
shallow root, ripens and dies out in April. 
After this grass runs out, its place is'supplied 
by a mixture of red and white clover, that 
reaches a height of eighteen inches. 
Midsummer Grasses 

About the middle of July the clovers run out; 
then comes up all over every dry spot, the wild 
poppy; and this pretty carpeting adorns the 
surface till the fall rains come or other more 
vigorous grasses overshadow it. It should be 
known that, so far from the wild poppy being, as 
usually supposed, a profitless weed, it is a val- 
uable forage plant. Not only do cattle thrive 
upon it — eating leaf and flower — but it gives 
them herbage when other grasses fail. 

This faculty of blooming when all else dries 
up, is invaluable to the herdsman. We must 
not judge of the value of the wild poppy by 
what we see of it iu the usual way. We sus- 
pect that its weight of herbage might be largely 
increased by cultivation, and its nutritive 
quality proportionably increased. If uponun- 
tilled land it sustains our herds in thrift, what 
may we not expect if its roots are encouraged 
to spread in deeply plowed ground ? 
Wild Cheat. 

There is a species of wild cheat widely dif- 
fused upon the uplands, and which has great 
fattening properties. It ripens its seed in May 
and June; grows two or three feet high, and 
bears a coarse but very tender blade; it is ex- 
ceedingly nutritious and cattle are very fond of 
it. All through this cheat the bushy sun-dial is 
mixed, which, by the shade it affords and by 
its faculty of sponging up the fog and dripping 
it upon the ground, greatly stimulates the 
growth of other natural grasses; so much so, 
that if this bushy plant were removed to make 
room for more grass, there would be a shorter 
crop certainly. 

The richest pickings are those nosed out by 
cattle under the immediate shadow of this 
bush. The cheat, though not so drouth-proof 
as the wild poppy, is worthy of attention, for 
it fully makes up for the difference, in the 
greater quantity and quality of its herbage. 

Lowland Grasses. 
We have spoken only of the highland grasses; 
the grasses of the moist swales, or land grooves 
between the ridges, are perennial. During the 
long summer these swales are green; the chief 
natural growth, is a coarse-bladed grass that 
often attains a hight of 5 or 6 feet. This the 
cattle luxuriate upon by day, while at night 
they always retire to the higher grounds and 
there partake of the upland pasturage as a de- 
sirable change of food — never omitting, when 
it is to bo found, a considerable nibbling of the 
golden poppy. 

An interesting article on "Forage Crops for 
Dry Climates," from an occasional correspond- 
ent, will also be found in this number of the 

BCBAL. 

A Client remarked to his solicitor, 
"You are writing my bill on very rough 
paper, sir." "Never mind," was the reply 
of the latter, "it has to be filed before it 
comes into court." 



34 



[July 19, 1873. 



]^ORRESPONDENCE. 



San Joaqain Valley Lands. 

Editors Rural Press: We are now in the 
midst of harvest, but our crops are quite light 
as regards quantity, though the quality is very 
good, the berry being plump and well-filled. 
All the wheat grown on light, sandy soil (which 
is the nature of most o' the land in this and 
Merced counties) is of the best quality; while 
that grown on the more heavy or adobe soil is 
very much shriveled, and the yield will be 
much less per acre, and will be rated as second- 
claes' wheat. Yet with all the dry 'seasons that 
we have had, and though most of the farmers 
when they first came to this valley were among 
the poorest in the State, and have had to pay 
for their lands, make all their improvements, 
buy all their machinery, farming implements, 
etc., — notwithstanding all these, they are to- 
day more independent, less in 'debt, and in a 
much better condition, financially, than they 
ever before have been since their settlement in 
the Valley. 

This, I think, proves that the San Joaquin 
Valley is one of the best farming sections in 
California, and offers better inducements to 
men of limited means than any other portion 
of the State, and I might say. United States. 
While we do not deny the fact that the soil is 
considered by many as poor, and is of a light, 
sandy nature, and has been thought by almost 
every one who has known the country to be 
nearly 'valueless ; yet time and experience have 
proved that it is more productive and much 
richer than it is represented to be, and can be 
cultivated with less expense per acre, and is 
more desirable than any land in the State ; in 
fact, it is almost inexhaustible. 

I am aware that when I say iuexhausta- 
ble, I am at variance with the popular 
opinion. I feel safe, however, in making 
the statement, because the same facts and 
demonstrations that have convinced me, will 
satisfy all who will take the trouble to investi- 
gate the matter. I know of a certain piece of 
land, situated in San Joaquin county, that has 
been in cultivation continuously for nineteen 
years, and it has as good a crop on it this year 
— and it is a good one — as it has ever pro- 
dticed. 

The land referred to is about ten miles south- 
east of the city of Stockton, and appears to be 
of as poor a quality of sandy soil as I know of, 
or as can be found in the State. We have no 
land on these plains of so poor a quality but 
can be made to produce, oy irrigation, an 
abundant crop of almost anything that can be 
produced on the Pacific Slope. No man can, 
to-day, tell anything of the number of people 
that can live and grow wealthy in the valleys of 
California, by a proper system of irrigation. 
Irrigation is the great thing this valley needs, 
and this need will and must soon be supplied. 

There is no part of the habitable globe that 
is better adapted, or can be irrigated with less 
expense, than the great valley of the San 
Jonqnin. There is now sufficient water flow- 
ing through the valley, winding its way 
through the channels of the variou.- mountain 
streams, to irrigate nearly every acre of Mand, 
and which can be made to produce sustenance 
for millions of human beings, with, perhaps, 
one-fourth of the labor that is now required, 
besides giving comfortable homes and happy 
fire-sides to occupants, who, to-day, do not 
own an acre of the soil they live upon; and, 
instead of their being the means of building up 
and strengthening monopolies, would, on the 
contrary, make every man a lord of his dom- 
icil. 

If it be true that most of the arable land in the 
State has passed from the general government 
into the hands of private parties, the greater 
number of whom are adventurous speculators, 
still the most of them are anxious and willing 
to sell their lands now, at a small advance, in 
tracts to suit men of limited means and on 
easy terms, and not at starvation prices as has 
been frequently said. We have many farmers 
that are well to do men to-day, that came here 
but a few years since without anything unless 
you would call a large, helpless family of chil- 
dren anything: many of these have bought 
their lands, and all their first supplies from 
these rfame speculators, and so-called land 
sharks. 

I only bring this in to show that the men 
who bought up so much of the public lands of 
this valley have not been so much a detri- 
ment to the settling up and developing 
the resources of the country as has been often 
said of them ; but on the contrary they have 
been rather advantageous instruments to its 
settlement. I do not make these statements to 
help the speculators, nor do I desire to approve 
their course, but simply because I cannot 
honestly say any thing worse of or about them. 
I hope to see the day speedily come when all 
their broad acres will pass into the hands of 
practical husbandmen. The statement so 
often made and published in so many of our 
newspapers and believed by so many of our peo- 
ple to be true, that all the public lands in the 
State had been bought up by land monopolies, 
moneyed sharks and speculators, and that a 
poor man in California had no chance any 
more, is what has retarded immigration, and 
caused the settling up and developing of the 



resources of the country to come to such an 
abrupt stand-still. 

But this delay is only momentary,' for the 
success the farmers have had in the last four 
years, attended with all their oppressions and 
the continuous dry seasons that we have 
had, are sufficient matters for thought 
that will tempt investigation and result in 
causing a stream of immigration to come pour- 
ing in that will fill up our whole state. Then 
our valleys will soon become one complete net- 
work of irrigating canals and ditches; and the 
arid plains that are to-duy productive of noth- 
ing pleasing or delightful to any of our senses, 
will be made to produce an abundance of all 
the necessaries of life, and bloom like summer 
houses prepared by the most scientific horti- 
cultural skill, and the sweet odor and fragrance 
from thousands of ever green fields of grasses, 
fruits and flowers cultivated by hundreds of 
thousands of happy and independent lords of 
the valley, will be wafted by commercial breezes 
to every civilized country of eaith where our 
products find their marke*ts. 

Jas. McHeney. 

Modesto, July 10, 1873. 

Silk Cultnre. 

Editobs Peksb: — Herewith I send you a sam- 
ple of cocoons raised by me, being the first 
raised in Lake county to my knowledge. Brief- 
ly, my experience in silk raising is as follows: 
Obtained 1% ounces of eggs from Ed. Mnller 
of Nevada county, by express, on the 20th of 
January; kept them in a dry cellar, packed in 
charcoal until the 16th of April, when I took 
about 30,000 of them in my silk room for hatch- 
ing — which room is a common frame building, 
sided on the outside and nothing more — and 
the weather being very cold for the time of 
year, but using no fire. They did not com- 
mence to hatch until the 12th of May. Dur- 
ing the feeding I used no artificial heat, though 
on several mornings the thermometer was as 
low as 48". Still the worms appeared to do 
well, and June 20th they commenced spinning, 
losing but very few of them, and what few 
died I blame myself for in getting the different 
ages mixed, and disturbing them in time of 
moulting. 

The cocoons I sent yoVi are about an average 
of the lot and nothing more (are they of aver- 
age size?) and now I am feeding the balance of 
the 1% ounces of eggs, or about 30,000, which 
are doing finely, growing faster than the first 
lot. I kept the eggs in cellar until June 8th, 
then examined them and found they had com- 
menced to hatch; took them out, and in 4 or 5 
days they were all out; I also got a few from 
Mr. Gillet, of Nevada county; received them 
by express the 2-tth of May ; on the 25 they 
commenced hatching, and on the 1st of July 
they commenced spinning. I prize them very 
highly, taking every thing into consideration, 
the cold season and a new beginner. I consider 
that the practibility of raising silk in Lake 
county a sure thing; and now the question,is, 
will it pay ? 

What can be done with the cocoons or eggs ? 
Can either be sold in San Francisco, and at 
what price ? How many pounds of cocoons 
does it take to make one of reeled silk V By 
answering the above through the Press you 
will oblige a regular contributor to the same. 
Isaac Alter. 

Our correspondent, like many others in Cali- 
fornia, has evidently been successful in the 
growing of silk worms and the production of 
silk; and this can be done in any country where 
the mulberry will grow, from Maine to Texas 
and from the eastern to the western verge of 
our family of States; but what we want to 
know, is, just what seems to puzzle our corres- 
pondent; will the growing of silk pay? We 
know of no one advertising to buy cocoons or 
reeled silk in San Francisco; we do not know 
their value here. 

As to whether silk growing will pay, it is to 
just such men as are eminently successful in 
the growth of silk, as Mr. Alter has been, that 
we must look for the truth of the matter. The 
KuRAL has never strongly urged the culture of 
silk, for the profit of the thing, whilst the man 
ufacture of silks from the raw material, can be 
made largely profitable. With Chinese labor 
at low prices, silk may be grown profitably. Is 
it best for ua to have this kind of labor and 
grow our own silk, saving millions of dollars 
annually, that now go out of the country for 
the raw material ? We would like to hoar from 
our farmers on the subjec t of Chinese labor. 

" Crazy Disease." 

Editors Roral Press:— Your correspondent 
— Mr. Geo. Kay Miller — in last week's issue, 
wants to hear "something more about the 
crazy disease." 

Having had some experience with that dis- 
ease a few years ago, when I lost several fine 
horses from what was termed in this neighbor- 
hood " mad staggers," but what I judge to be 
the same disease, I conclude to add my theory, 
which will dilTer from any that has been given. 

I believe the cause of the disease is Ergot, 
obtained from the wild oats, which as well as 
other cereals and grasses in unfavorable seasons, 
will probably develop that poison. My reason 
for adopting this theory was this, I called on a | 



physician in Petaluma for medicine formysick 
horses, and inquired what effect Ergot would 
have on a horse. He referred to a medical work, 
and read the symptoms of Ergot poison, which 
corresponded with the condition of my horses. 

He gave medicine (Homeopathic) to antidote 
Ergot, and the horses thus treated recovered. 
I submit this theory for the consideration of 
others, and hope it may be tested. 

Wm. Mock. 

Alder-brook, near Petaluma. 

The Lady Bog! 

Editobs Ritbal Press: — I notice in your 
issue of July 5th a short letter from Miss E. P. 
D., of Batavia, asking information as to the 
best means of destroying a Lady bug. 

Before giving the desired information, I 
would like first, to know from Miss E. P. D., 
what crime or offense has been committed on 
her premises by this most interesting little in- 
sect, one of the best friends of the gardener 
and florist, and whose presence in a garden 
ought, in these days of lice invasions, to be 
considered as a real blessing ? There certainly 
must be a misunderstanding on the part of the 
p^erson asking information about the best 
means of destroying this inoffensive and useful 
little bug; and I am satisfied that Miss E. P. 
D. means some other little Coleoptera, which 
feed on the leaves of plants and flowers, as 
certain Crioceris do. 

The Lady bug or Coccinella is a carniverous 
insect, which feeds on different kinds of smaller 
insects, more particularly the disgusting lice, 
the scourge of our gardens, and not only does 
the Lady bug feed on them in the perfect state 
as we see her flying around, but still more so 
in the larva state. She, at any rate, makes an 
enormous slaughter of lice; and it was, thanks 
to that little bug, that I got some cabbages 
three years ago, when lice were so numerous 
in this locality. In Europe, some people make 
a speculation with them, for they raise them 
in green-houses and sell them by the thousand 
to vegetable raisers, to get rid of lice. 

The larva of the Lady bug is, when fully 
grown, of the size of an apple seed; it is crawl- 
ing in habits, of a brownish color and will be 
found on plants, generally those covered with 
lice. The body is composed of a yellow sub- 
stance like the yolk of an egg. To accomplish 
its metamorphosis as a perfect insect, this larva 
sticks itself fast by the back end of its body, 
to the stems of plants or shrubbery, sometimes 
three or four on one line, and in the course of 
a week the Lady bug will appear, the nice and 
neat little insect that everybody likes, even 
children. 

But since Miss E. P. D. is intent on its de- 
struction, I might properly advise her to try a 
more powerful compound than sulphur and 
saltpetre which she tried, and employ giant 
powder; or else kill with the fingers or a little 
stick, every larva to be seen about the garden, 
for the Lady bug is not so very numerous that 
its numbers might not be considerably de- 
creased in this way. Felix Gillet. 

Nevada City, July 11th, 1873. 

Homeopathy and Wooden Shoes. 

Editors Press: — Can you or any of your lady 
correspondents, oblige me with a recipe for 
making corn bread? 

As I do not think the new batter made from 
suet is likely to chase " the good old fashioned" 
out of the market altogether, the following 
may perhaps be useful information to some of 
your readers; it comes to me from a relative, 
who lives in a hot climate, and who has, I be- 
lieve, every difficulty to contend with, which a 
hot climate can produce. She says: "I can 
now make nice, almost firm butter in the hid- 
test weather, by leaving the milk till thick, and 
then churning the milk with the cream : soon a 
little butter comes to the top, that I take off, 
then put some cold water in, and with a little 
more churning it all gathers, I then wash, etc, 
in the usual way. The butter is very good, 
and of a nice yellow color." 

She also says that all their fruit is a failure 
from the worms. I have seen this same thing 
on peaches; the trees bear well, the fruitjripens 
and looks delicious and tempting; but open it, 
and you have a worm-eaten inside, the outside 
is perfectly sound. Perhaps some one can 
suggest a remedy, and benefit a whole colony. 

Some time ago a correspondent wrote to you 
asking a remedy for his calves, which wete 
dying of some lung disease. Now it is a matter 
in which I have no experience, yet I would 
venture to suggest to him that I hope his 
calves are not now suffering, and to any one 
having sick stock, to try homcjtopathy. It is 
used with so much success in the Royal Stables, 
and those of noblemen and large stock raisers 
in Europe, and is f highly recommended 
that I feel sure much benefit will arise if it be 
practiced. I have read a good deal on the sub- 
ject, and the cures made are very wonderful. 

There is, I know, much prejudice against the 
system, but this often arises from a want of 
knowledge of it; persons run aw.iy with the 
idea that tlie cure lies in the smallness of the 
dose. There cannot be a greater mistake: 
homoeopathy has nothing to do with quantity; 
the system is that " like cures like," and with 
regard to the smallness of the dose, I would 
ask why use more of any thing than is required? 
We do not practice waste as a general rule, 
then why should we use more medicine than is 
required to effect a cure? 



I have seen the benefits of Homceopathy in 
my own family, and can advise all parents to 
take it into consideration; they will find it a 
pleasant, and interesting study, they will be 
able to do the most of the doctoring themselve-:, 
can attack disease on its first appearance and 
80 cut it short, and can administer medicines 
to their little ones, which they will not find 
"nasty." Messrs. Boericke & Tafel of San 
Francisco can be relied upon to furnish pure 
medicines, no doubt others t Ibo. I merely men- 
tion this firm (not knowing any other) for in- 
formation to any one who may wish to obtain 
books, or medicines, and I trust my few 
remarks may lead to the enlightenment of 
some of the readers of the useful P. R. P. 

I fear, Mr. Editor, you begin to find me 
tedions, but before I close I beg to say a word 
on the subject of boots for children. All who 
have families know how expensive it is to keep 
several children in boots, especially where the 
ground is of a gritty kind; now I have thought, 
it would be good if wo could get the kind of 
wooden shoes (sabottes) worn by the French 
peasants. They would look odd at first, but we 
should got used to them; the shoes are durable, 
cheap and tidy and keep the feet warm and dry 
in winter time. It is many years since I was 
in France, but I do not now remember to have 
seen any barefooted children or women as we 
do in other parts Ihou^jh ihe pay of the working 
people there is verj' small. 

The French also mannfactnro square niles 
for the use of children iit school : they are a 
great improvement on the round ones generally 
in use, and would, I feel sure, be much used if 
once introduced. b. t h 

July 7th, 1873. 



Early Breakfast. 

A bad custom is t)revalent in many fam- 
ilies, especially among farmers, of working 
an hour two before breakfast, attending to 
"chores," hoeing in the garden, cutting 
wood, mowing, etc. This is convenient on 
many accounts, but is not conducive to 
health. The prevalent opinion is that the 
morning air is the purest and most health- 
ful and bracing, but the contrary is the 
fact. At no hour of the day is the air 
more filled with dampness, fogs and mias- 
mas than about sunrise. The heat of the 
sun gradually dissipates the miasmatic 
influences as the day advances. An early 
meal braces up the system against these 
external infiuences. Every one knows the 
languor and faintuess often experienced 
for the first hour in the morning, and this 
is increased by exercise and want of food. 
We do not agree with the boarding school 
regime which prescribes a long walk before 
breakfast as a means of promoting health. 

Probably the best custom would be to 
furnish every member of the family, espec- 
ially those who labor out of doors, with a 
single cup of warm coffee, well milked, 
immediately after rising from the bed. 
Then let them attend to chores, or mow- 
ing, hoeing, etc. for an hour or two, 
while the teams are feeding and the break- 
fast preparing. They will feel better and 
do more work. —Am. Agriculturist 

In every direction for a distance of fifty miles 
up and down the San Ynez valley, by a width of 
ten or twelve miles, the country is covered by 
a dense growth of white oak timber; down to 
the coast it exists in about the same quantities 
as in this section. We measured several trees 
that were eighteen feet in circumference, many 
of which contained not less than twenty cords 
of four foot fire-wood, each. The question is, 
can this vast body of timber, amounting to 
many millions of cords of wood, be cut, trans- 
ported and put into market at rates that will 
leave a margin for profit ? As a railroad is 
doubtless practicable from the ocean to this great 
forest we believe it would pay to build a cheap 
railroad, for the transportation of this wood to 
tide water, if for no other purpose. The sub- 
ject is worthy the attention of capitalists, 
inasmuch as the timber resources of the coast 
counties, at least those contiguous to market, 
are very nearly exhausted. — Sanln Barbara 
Index. 

Cube fob Houses Pullinoat Halteb. — A 
year ago I had a four-year old mare which had 
contracted the habit of pulling back whenever 
she was fastened. She would be sure to break 
loose, if what held her could be broken by her 
drawing in such a backward way. She was 
cured of the habit by taking a rope two feet 
long, fastening one end around her body just 
back of her uhoulderK, and passing the other 
end through the ring of the halter, and tying 
to the post. She lay back for her usual pull 
for a few times when fixed in this way, but, 
soon found she was drawing from her body in- 
stead of her head, which she did not relish, 
and .soon gave it up entirely. She can now be 
left anywhere with perfect safety, as nothing 
will induce her to pull back when fastened. — 
Country Gentleman. 

Interkstino to T0B.ICC0 UsBBs. — Dr. J. 
Richardscn, of Philadelphia, has discovered 
that the corpuscles of the saliva aie migrating 
white blood-globules. So the more you spit 
the more you rob your system of blood. 
Smokers and tobacco chewers will do well to 
take notice. 



July ig, 1873.] 



35 



An April Holiday. 

[Wiltten for the Press by Mabgabkt Fkanoes.] 

[Concluded.] 
At nine o'clock, on a cool, clear morning, 
we entered the carriage that was to convey us 
to the " Springs." The sun was shining 
brightly, but the penetrating morning air of 
California made warm shawls and wrappings 
very acceptable. The horses started off at a 
brisk trot, which was kept up, unvaryingly, to 
the end of the fourteen miles; they knew every 
step of the way so well that the driver, a skill- 
ful hand, seemed scarcely necessary, and their 
ready obedience made the whip a useless thing. 
Indeed, the driver told us that when compelled 
to carry travelers over this narrow and moun- 
tainous road, on a dark night, he was wont to 
trust entirely to the instinct of these faithful 
animals, and did not attempt to guide them. 
But it is passing strange, to me, that any one 
should be willing to risk the danger of such a 
midnight journey, and lose, besides, the op- 
portunity of viewing that enchanting scenery. 

We soon left the town behind us, the wind- 
ing road stretching onward, between rich fields 
of grain and springing corn, and opening up 
to us, at every curve, charming glimpses of the 
valley; the dense redwood forests enclosing it 
to the west, and the hills on either side, con- 
verging more closely at every step. At last we 
were fairly in the woods. Up and up, wound 
the road. Steeper and steeper grew the ascent. 
We looked down, with a thrill of admiration, 
not unmixed with terror, on the narrow gorge 
through which gurgled and foamed the moun- 
tain stream — how many feet below us! A sin- 
gle false step— a loose rolling stone — might 
precipitate us to that rocky channel! Above 
us, towered the wooded hills; the trees threw 
trembling shadows across our path — ^that love- 
ly, shifting light and shade, so grateful to the 
eye; the road was smooth and hard, and per- 
fectly graded; and the trained feet of the 
horses carried us swiftly forward, from vista to 
vista of romantic beauty. It was like a drive 
through some magnificent domain, where the 
hand of Art had reverently refrained from mar- 
ring the sacred majesty of Nature. As we 
went on, higher and higher, until the moun- 
tains completely enclosed us, on either side, — 
the dark, deep gorge lying between — the char- 
acter of the road constantly reminding me of 
the beautiful Cumberland river; as that river, 
a winding course hides each sucessive view 
from sight, until the bend is past; so, on this 
road, did we wind in and out, around the 
mountains, with only a few yards of our way 
in sight. The road declines gently, in two or 
three places, till it reaches the level of the 
brook ; and crosses the crystal and sparkling 
waters, before disappearing again in the hills. 
As we approached nearer our journey's end, we 
saw that the stream below us was choked with 
lar^e boulders — immense rocks— that one 
might fancy had thundered from the heights 
above, in some volcanic convulsion. The im- 
patient waters dashed against them, forcing a 
passage through ; and its murmuring struggle 
made sweet, wild music, as it stirred the quiet 
air. What deep, dark pools were there! what 
rippling eddies! what reaches of pebbly bed! 
But is it possible that we can go further? Can 
a way be found, through this tangled thicket, 
or between these frowning mountain walls? 

So doubts the skeptical traveler; but our dri- 
ver smiles superior; and suddenly without a 
moment's warning — with the transition of a 
dream — we are carried round a sharp project- 
ing point; and before us lies the lovliest of 
sunny glens, where the fairies well might con- 
gregate, to hold their fabled revels. And what, 
think you, is the name of this beautiful spot? 
Has legendary lore done honor to its christen- 
ing? Or have the children of the forest be- 
stowed a nobler, a more sylvan title? Alas, 
and alas ! for the glamour of romance — for the 
untutored poetry of Nature! We may but 
speak of it — my pen falters, over the terribly 
prosaic words— as "Skagg's Springs." 

The Hotel stands near the entrance to the 
grounds belonging to it; a long, low building, 
shadowed by big trees; with a veranda running 
round th3 front and one side. There are also 
cottages, or small separate buildings, to ac- 
commodate those who prefer more seclusion, 
or who fail to find room at the main house. 
The apartments, etc., are all that could rea- 
sonably be expected; the attendance, prompt 
and efiicient; and the table d'hote faultless in 
its arrangement, and its healthful and tempt- 
ing fare; rich, creamy milk; fresh eggs; deli; 
cious butter; vegetables of every variety, mos- 
delicately served; trout from the mountain 
brook, and venison from the forest might satis- 
fy, one would think, the most capricious invalid 
or most dainty epicure. And what with bath- 
ing and walking,andriding-the whole day, near- 
ly, spent in the open air — methinks there are 
few who fail to do justice to each repast. The 
landlord is most attentive to the comfort of his 
guests, and anxious to promote their pleasure; 
which, no doubt, adds sensibly to the populari- 
ty of this summer resort. 

No attempt has been made to improve the 
grounds, but their natural beauty needs little 
aid from Art; yet a few arbors, and rustic seats 
and two or three swings, judiciously placed, 
would add much to the enjoyment of visitors, 
and cost but a trifle, 

A small stream, fed partly by the "springs," 
runs through the enclosure; a carriage road 
follows its cour .e — the bath to the bathing 
houses intersecting it, a short distance from 
the hotel. The bathing-houses are constructed 
with primitive simplicity ; yet answer their pur- , 
pose well. Two long sheds, standing at right- \ 



angles to each other, are divided into small 
compartments, each containing a bath; the wa- 
ter runs through a deep, wooden trough, at one 
and of the little rooms, and can be let on, or 
oflf, at pleasure. It pours from a hot, bubbling 
spring at a little distance; and every shade of 
taste, as to the temperature of a bath, can be 
satisfied, by choosing a room more or less re- 
mote from the source of supply. The water is 
strongly impregnated with sulphur, and other 
minerals; but has never, I believe, been anal- 
ysed. It is said to be exceedingly curative, for 
rheumatic, and other complaints; and there is 
no doubt it has been of great beneut to many 
sufferers. Farther on, another spring appears, 
which has been carefully enclosad in a large 
basin. There is a roof of boughs over-head, 
and a few seats ranged around it; while on the 
edge lie cups and dippers, ready for the 
courageous souls who come to prove its nectar. 
Sooth to say, I was never one of the number, 
the first detestable sup inspired me with such 
extreme aversion, that I could better endure the 
! laughter at my cowardice, than the nausea of a 
second draught; yet those who persevere de- 
clare that it becomes, at last, a pleasant bever- 
age — to their educated taste. The water bub- 
bles up, clear and hot; you could not bear your 
hand in it an instant, and an egg held in it will 
be boiled quite hard in five minutes. Leaving 
the spring we stroll back to the road, or wan- 
der off to climb some of the beautiful, smooth 
knolls, which diversify this natural lawn. 
These knolls, although not notably high, yet 
afford very pleasing prospects; and it is quite 
a charming variety, in the usual course of a 
morning walk, to ascend to their summits, and 
mark the different aspects which the scenes 
around present, even from so slight an eleva- 
tion. But how soon we grow ambitious of 
more perilous achievements ! And gaze long- 
ingly at the mountains beyond; up whose steep 
sides we can trace the narrow, winding trail; 
and from whose topmost peak, it is said, the 
ocean may be seen on a clear day. The time 
of our allotted stay was very limited, or we 
would doubtless have proved the truth of this 
assertion; yet we were not a little proud to be 
able to say, on our return home, that we had 
surpassed all the other lady guests, and as- 
cended at least two-thirds of the distance to 
the summit; where we were fain to rest. But 
by what a magnificent prospect were we 
rewarded ! Far, far below us, the crystal 
brook rippled over its pebbly bed, but its 
liquid, murmuring music could not reach our 
ears. On the other side of the little glen, rose 
the opposite mountains; whose wooded slopes 
and rugged declivities — now shrouded in 
shadow, now sharply defined in the clear light 
of an afternoon sun — made a grand picture, 
whose outlines varyed with every position 
from which they were viewed. To our left 
the road to Healdsburg could be traced for a 
short distance ere it disappeared beaeath the 
the over-hanging cliff. To our right were 
shadowy groves and sunny, level places; sug- 
gesting, temptingly, a woodland picnic. Below 
us lay the grounds of the hotel, where we 
could watch the guests coming aud going, or 
loitering here and there in friendly groups. 
Beyond rose other hills and denser forests; 
and the long, dry beach of pebbly margin, 
which the stream leaves bare in summer, 
stretched past the perfecting point of the 
height on which we stood. Does this descrip- 
tion read but tamely? Then I beg of you to 
blame the writer, not the subject; for gazing 
on it then and recalling it now — wood, and 
water, and mountain bight, aud over-arching 
azure sky — it appeared and still appears to me 
a scene of rarest beauty. 

Last summer, when there were three hun- 
dred visitors at "the springs," we were told 
it was a sight worth seeing, to watch the hand- 
kerchiefs and scarfs waving in triumph from 
every accessible prominence, as each proud 
climber gained the coveted ascent, and the 
answering shouts of exultation rang across the 
glen. But as our visit took place at the open- 
ing of the season, we missed, of course, what 
such gala days might show. 

Another excursion we took, following the 
bed of the brook for about two miles, upward; 
but we were much too timid to have ventured 
so far, had not a kind hearted stranger — with 
whom chance made us acquainted — pitying 
our lonely and circumscribed rambles, offered 
us courteous escort; and, under his protecting 
guidance, we enjoyed a most delightful stroll. 
Fishing rods and basket, I fear, were but a 
pretense, for, beyond admiring the dark, deep 
pools " where the shy trout love to hide," and 
catching a glimpse of one or two of the finny 
tribe, darting suddenly into sight, we paid but 
little tribute to the art beloved of Walton. 
How often I recalled his quaint, sweet verses, 
during our ramble: 

"I, in these flowery meads would be, 
These crystal streams should solace me; 
To whose harmonious, bubbling noise, 
I, with my angle, would rejoice." 
Would he have exchanged his English mea- 
dows, for this wild haunt? Nay, his gentle na- 
ture found a truer affinity in that quiet lovli- 
ness than this severer beauty could have 
claimed. 

The afternoon was warm ; and we were glad 
to clamber up the hillside, and rest for a while 
in the shadow of the trees, till the declining 
sun warned us of coming evening; and follow- 
ing a trail whose devious path led through the 
woods, and down the steep descent, we reached 
the brook again; then, passing over its bridge 
of logs, we opened the gate, just as the bell 
began to ring for tea. 

It had been a day of pleasure to others as 
well as to ourselves; for several of the ladies 
had, that morning, made their first essay in 



riding; and we had watched them cantering 
home, from the wooded recess where we had 
loitered; their flushed cheeks, and sparkling 
eyes, telling plainly their exhilaration. But 
when we gathered in the parlor, after tea; en- 
joying that delightful weariness of body, which 
pleasurable exercise — not toil — induced; and 
each recounted the day's exploits, and laid new 
plans for the morrow — we felt, with regret, 
that our holiday was over; for the morrow 
would witness our departure. 

How longingly did we look back as the car- 
riage bore us away; and how willingly would 
we have prophesied a second visit to that 
sylvan wilderness, if fortune favored. Again 
we enjoyed the beauty of that mountain road. 
But our journey was destined to a sudden in- 
terruption, which had, for us timid souls, the 
zest of an adventm^; for first, as we reached 
the narrowest part, where neither man nor 
beast might venture to pass our equipage, the 
express wagon from Healdsburg suddenly ap- 
peared before us. Here was a dilemma! But 
the driver gallantly helped his lady passengers 
to a place of safety, first; and while the two 
puzzled conductors consulted together how 
best to overcome the difficulty, we clambered 
down among the rocks — stepping from stone 
to stone, to the middle of the stream, and 
thanking the delay which has given us a closer 
view of these gigantic boulders. Soon we 
saw our carriage lifted aside to allow the other 
vehicle to pass; then the horses were again at- 
tached, and it was driven out of sight, to a 
spot wide enough to admit of its turning; and 
we were left alone. 

How thrilling is the sense of utter solitude. 
Not a living creature was in sight; and the 
wind sighing among the branches — the water 
foaming against the rocks — were the only 
sounds we heard . But the carriage soon came 
rattling buck, and we regained our seats — pur- 
suing our journey without further incident. 

I was not a little struck by the different as- 
pect in which the valley appeared to us, on 
our return. We had thought no scenery could 
be more alluring; but now, fresh from the 
mountains, we were astonished to find how 
tame, how uninteresting, this smoother land- 
scape had become; and we turned our faces 
cityward with less reluctance, after this transi- 
tion. 

So ends our summer drift. The next day 
dawns; and we are back again to the "dust 
and gust" of San Francisco. Yet, welcome! 
near repose of home; and welcome! sweet, 
familiar tones of loving voices; and cold must 
be the heart that would not throb in answer 
to the beaming eyes that smile on our return. 

Steam as a Fiee- Extinguisher. — Dr. 
Weidenbusch" of Wiesbaden highly recom- 
mends steam as a fire-extinguisher, and sug- 
gests experiments as to the best method of 
employing it, as well by the use of portable 
boilers (where the connecting pipes would 
produce the chief difficulty) as by pipes aud 
boilers arranged for each building. As an il- 
lustration of its efficiency, he gives the case of 
a factory about 196 feet long and 33 feet wide, 
the garret of which was filled with rags, shav- 
ings, leather scraps, &c., in which, when the 
fire was detected, half the length of the roof 
was burning. The fire apparatus arrived 
about an hour afterward, and the extinguish- 
ing appliances of the building itself were so 
defective that the whole roof was in flames and 
had fallen in, and the lower story was on fire 
in different places. About 2% hours after the 
outbreak of the fire a steam boiler, separated 
from the building, and not in use for some 
hours, was fired up with wood, and the cast- 
iron pipes were cut by a daring carpenter who 



entered the room of the burning building. The 
effect was instantaneous. The room, filled with 
the steam issuing under highpressuie, (which, 
however, he does not consider essential), soon 
darkened, one portion after another ceased to 
burn; even the heaps of rags in the garret, 
with free access of air, were gradually extin- 
guished, and after half an hour all danger was 
regarded as past. The effect was too marked 
to be ascribed to the fire-engines operating 
during the same time, and the firemen were 
more and more impressed with the fact that 
their labor was superfluous as the steam came 
into pla y. 

Effect of Sunlight on Flodb. — It is main- 
tained that the inferior quality of certain kinds 
of wheat and rye flour is frequently due to the 
action of sunlight on the flour; even when in 
bags or barrels the gluten experiences a change 
similar to that occasioned by heating in the 
mill. The tendency thus imparted to it, to be- 
come lumpy, and to form dough without 
toughness, is similar to that of flour from 
moist grain, or of flour when it is too fresh, or 
made from grain ground too early, or when 
adulterated with cheaper barley meal. Such 
flour can be improved by keeping for some 
weeks. 



A Tele.scopic Comet is now attracting the 
attention of astronomers. On the7thinst.it 
appeared as a faint nebulous mass, its position 
being 4 hours 7 minutes right ascension, and i'^ 
34' south declination. We are not told whether 
it will come near enough to be seen with the 
naked eye. It is to be hoped that the spectro- 
scope may be so brought to bea' upon it as to 
give us some new facts with regard to this sin- 
gular class of heavenly bodies. 



Position of the Planets for July. 

The Observatory of Vassar College furnishes 
the Scientiflc American with a monthly state- 
ment of the position of .the.'planets. We con- 
dense the following for July: 

Mercuky rises on the 1st of July at 6h. 18m 
A. M., and sets at 9 P. M. 

Venus was at its greatest brilliancy on the 
10th of June, at which time it was easily seen 
at noonday, and a glass of low power showed 
it as a beautiful crescent. In the first half of 
July, it will pass the meridian a little before 
nine in the morning, rising on the 1st at about 
2 in the morning, and setting at near 4 P. M. 
Maks rises on the 1st at 30 minutes after 
noon, and sets a little after 4 in the morning. 
On the 31st it rises at Ih. 10m. P. M., and sets 
at 11 P. M. Mars is easily known by its ruddy 
light, and can be seen in the southwest after 
twilight. But little can be seen of its pecul- 
iarities with a small telescope, although a pow- 
erful one will show very decided markings on 
its disk. 

Jupiteb is still conspicuous in the evening 
sky among the stars of Leo. On the 1st of July 
it rises at 8h. 39m., and sets at lOh. 12m. It 
is much less favorably situated for observation 
than in the winter, and very few of the pheno- 
mena of its statellites are visible in this local- 
ity for the whole month. 

Saturn is more favorably situated for obser- 
vation, but is so far south that it does not 
reach, when on the meridian, an altitude of 
much more than 270. It will be best seen at 
midnight on the 22d of July, rising on the Ist 
at 8h. 48m. P. M., and setting at 6h. 14m. the 
next morning. 

Uranus is still very unfavorably situated for 
observation, rising in the morning and settinjz 
at 9 P. M. on the 1st of July. 

Neptune rises between 12 and 1 A. M. on 
the Ist of July, and sets a little before 2 P. M. 

Meteors and Sun Spots. — Meteors were fre- 
quent on May Ist, but have thus far (June 
18th) been rare in this month. Ithasalso been 
a very remarkable period for the absence of 
sun spots. No spot could be found on the 
sun's surface ( glass of low power being used) 
from June 13th to June 17th. On June 18th a 
very small one was perceived. 

New Planets Discovered in 1872. — Since 
the beginning of last year, twelve small planets 
have been discovered, as follows: 

Peitho, discovered at Bilk, bv E. Luther 
March 15. ' ' 

A not yet named planet, discovered at Ann 
Arbor, Mich., by Watson, April 3. 

Lachesis, discovered at Marseilles, by Borellv 
April 10. •" 

A not yet named planet, discovered at Ann 
Arbor, by Watson, May 12. 

Gerda, Brunhilda and Alcestis, discovered at 
Clinton, N. Y., by C. H. F. Peters, the two 
first on July 31, and the last on August 23. 

A not yet named planet, discovered at Paris, 
by Prosper Henry, September 11, and two oth- 
ers, at the same observatory, by Paul Henry, 
November 5. 

A not yet known planet, at Ann Arbor, by 
Watson, November 25, and another at Clinton, 
N. Y., by C. H. F. Peters, on February 5, 1873. 

Hardening of Dried Peas In Boiling. 

While some peas become soft in boiling, 
others become horny and hard, and it has been 
a question whether this is due to the peas 
or to the water. Prof. Kitthansen ex- 
amined two samples of peas, one said to be- 
come soft on boiling, and the other hard, and 
on boiling them in distilled water found these 
characters substantiated. The analysis of their 
ashes gave : 

Soft. 

Phosphate of lime 10.77) 

Phosphate of magnesia 8.U) 

Phosphate of potassa 59.74 

Sulphate of potassa 3,10 

Chloride of potassium 4.72 

Potash 

Phosphoric acid 4.43 

From this we see that the soft-boiling peas 
contain a considerably greater amount of phos- 
phate of potassa, a smaller percentage of 
phosphatic earths, and more phosphoric acid 
than the other kind, which, for their part, are 
richer in the earth phosphates, poorer in other 
phosphoric compt uuds, and contain an excess 
of potash. 

In the action of water on those peas poor in 
phosphoric acid, that hardened on boiling, the 
legumine, which is present in large quantity, 
although partially combined with the excess of 
potash, has also its function. It is decompos- 
ed, with the separation of a compound of lime 
or magnesia, which becomes horny on heating 
and brings about the hardening referred to. 
Cold water extracts from those peas that boil 
soft, 4.24 per cent of soluble legumine, while 
from the hard boiling kinds only 1.73 per cent 
can be derived. The difference in the amounts 
of nitrogen and sulphur was so slight, that the 
hardening could not be ascribed to a larger 
amount of albumen, or of sulphuric acid. 
Some kinds of peas, however, represented as 
hardening on boiling, softened when boiled in 
distilled water; and analysis of their ashes 
gave nearly the same results as with those of 
the other character. 



Hard. 
10.411 
1G.65 ( 
37.43 
14.80 
6.23 
11.47 



AspHALTUM deposits abound in the southern 
portion of this State and the supply is practi- 
cally inexhaustible. A very large deposit has 
lately been found near Rincon Point, in Ven- 
tura county, which is said to be from six to fif- 
teen feet thick aud covered with soil to the 
depth of eight or ten feet. It is in close prox- 
imity to the ocean. 



36 



[July 19, 1873. 



pi^RpiEf^S Ifl 



CIL. 



San Jose Farmers' Club. 

Club met July 12. President Casey presid- 
ing. 

Mr. Erkson moved that the Club adjourn for 
two weeks. He said there was so much work 
for the fanners at present that it was impossi- 
ble for them to attend. The motion met with 
no second. 

Mr. HobsoD, from the Market Committee, 
reported that he had not yet disposed of the 
fixtures— he was waiting to get an estimate of 
their value. 

In the matter of the selection of a question 
for next Saturday, the following was decided 
upon: "Besolved, That the farmers should use 
the same economy in the management of their 
affairs as a well-regulated nation does in its 
government." 

The Secretary read a communication from 
Mr. R. J. Baker in reference to his member- 
ship. 

Mr. Hobson wanted to know if potatoes 
should be thoroughly ripe in order to make 
good seed. 

Mr. Berglen said that potatoes would do for 
seed just before they were ripe enough to dig. 
Mr. Dubois said that he knew that corn, if 
planted when large enough for table use and 
dried, would grow as well as if left on the 
stalk until hard. 

Under the call for fifteen minutes speech Mr. 
Dubois referred to the motion to adjourn, made 
by Mr. Erkson at the opening of the meeting. 
He thought the Club should do nothing to jeop- 
ardize the organization, and although it was 
true that the farmers were very busy just at this 
season of the year, it would not do to take any 
chances of breaking up the Club by discontinu- 
ing its meetings for any length of time. 

He spoke of the Patrons of Husbandry, and 
although he was opposed to secret societies he 
thought the times justified this one. He did 
not consider that the Grange conflicted with 
the Club in the least particular. Each organiza- 
tion had its peculiar sphere, for which the 
Grange considered the farmers' condition in re- 
lation to other. To the Club belonged the 
duty of pointing out the bwst methods of till- 
ing the soil, the most profitable crops to raise 
and how to raise them. 

Mr. Erkson said that his proposition to ad- 
journ over was not for the purpose of putting 
an end to the Club, but in order to secure a 
full attendance. 

Mr. Hobson thought those who could not at- 
tend would have the full benefit of the discus- 
sion through the printed report. 

The question for discussion was: "Resolved, 
That the farmers of this valley should raise a 
sufficient quantity of potatoes for home con- 
consumption." 

Mr. Hobson said he was in favor of raising 
enough for home consumption of all crops. 
The early potato can be raised here to advan- 
tage, as a large portion of our soil is pecul- 
iarly adopted to this variety. Sweet and Irish 
potatoes could be both raised to advantage. 
The Carolina potato cannot be raised to ad- 
vantage, but the late sweet potato yields well. 
We are now importing a hundred sacks of po- 
tatoes per day, and these we could not raise our- 
selves if we would. He said there was not a 
farm in the county, except perhaps the black 
adobe land, where a few acres could not be found 
which would yield an immense crop of pota- 
toes. The ground should be plowed at the 
late rains, and then once between that time 
and planting, and stirred well when planted. 

Asa Vestal raised on a tract just inside the 
city limits, on the Milpitas road, eighteen tons 
on an acre and a quarter. Mr. William Boots, 
in 1867, cleared, off from twenty acres, $7,000, 
or at the rate of 180 sacks per acre. In 1871, 
from ten measured acres, he raised l.'i.OOO 
sacks. In 1872 he raised nine tons of good po- 
tatoes from 300 pounds of seed. In 1864 he 
raised many potatoes that weighed five pounds 
each, and one hundred potatoes weighed 312 
pounds. 

A man in the willows raised two crops last 
year, using potatoes of the first crop for seed 
for the second. We have an idea that potatoes 
raised in this valley are not as good as those 
raised elsewhere, and he understood that deal- 
ers would ship our potatoes to San Francisco 
and re-mark and ship them back in order to 
give them tone. But the speaker knew that 
the potatoes raised here are of first quality. 
Although he did not pretend to say that this 
valley was peculiarly adapted to raising pota- 
toes for export, yet it produced well, and in 
quality would compare favorably with the best 
coast potatoes. He thought every farmer 
should put half or three-quarters of an acre of 
ground in potatoes; this would give us enough 
for home consumption and leave some to 
spare. 

Mr. Berglen said he had never found any 
potato raised in the valley of good flavor except 
the Neshanick. He said that he had tried both 
Neshanick and Half Moon Bay potatoes on the 
black land and could not get any yield. He 
had rather pay three cents for potatoes than 
to raise them. 

Mr. Ware snid the Neshanick, Early Rose 
and Peach Blow all yield very well in this 
valley. 
Mr. Erkson said that at least $100,000 went 



out of the county 'for potatoes, and this is 
worth saving. The farmers might better have 
this money than give it to strangers. Some 
farmers cannot raise potatoes on their land, 
but even they had rather buy of their neigh- 
bors than of outside parties. Previous to 1853 
immense sums were made in raising potatoes 
for the mines, but in 1853 the excitement cul- 
minated, and everybody planted immense 
tracts of potatoes and overdid the matter, and 
much money was lost. He thought we would 
not fall into such errors now. Every farmer 
could raise enough for his own use and have 
some to exchange for groceries. 

Mr. Dubois said the time was past in this 
valley when large crops of potatoes could be 
raised. There is something in the virgin soil 
that is peculiarly adapted ^ potatoes and mel- 
ons, bat that is gone from us now. But he 
thought every one who could, should raise 
enough for his own use. because the transpora- 
tion amounts to so much. 

Mr. Hollo way said the diversity of labor, and 
the convenience of having the articles fresh 
when used, should have its weight, not only in 
this particular potato question, but in regard 
to raising aU kinds of garden produce. He 
said that several years ago he planted potatoes 
in his orchard and not a gopher troubled his 
trees; the next year he neglected to plant his 
potatoes in the orchard and the gophers nearly 
destroyed his trees. This year he planted his 
potatoes in the orchard again, and in addition 
to having plenty for his use the gophers had not 
touched his trees; now and then he noticed a 
hill of potatoes eaten out by them, but not a 
tree was touched. He thought it disastrous to 
any community to bring from abroad those 
things which we can raise ourselves cheaper 
and better. 

Mr. Woadhams said he had tried to raise 
potatoes every year, and got about three to a 
hill. 

Mr. Erkson said he had lately had a conver- 
sation with a potato raiser from San Francis- 
co, who had said he had been in the business 
for ten years, and that the last crop was the 
best. He didn't think the soil was any less 
adapted to this crop now than formerly. 

Mr. Hobson said he knew from what he had 
seen himself, and had heard from good men, 
that just inside the Hiity limits on the high 
ground of the valley, eighteen tons had been 
raised on an acre and a quarter of ground. He 
thought that the soil on any farm in the county 
could be made to raise large crops of potatoes, 
and with good profit. 

Mr. Mason said he had on his place every 
variety of soil in the valley, and for the last 
twelve years he had experimented with pota- 
toes. He had tried all varieties of seed, and all 
manner of planting and cultivation, and had 
made a failure. When he would get a few the 
gophers would take them. He could buy pota- 
toes a good deal cheaper than he could raise 
them. 

Mr. Hollaway said that Mr. Mason made a 
statement in the Club some time ago, that 
every pound of butter he made on his place 
cost him a dollar. He thought that if any 
thing was the matter we should find out what 
it is, and apply the remedy. If you have got the 
soil you can make it produce what you want, if 
it is properly managed, 

Mr. Hobson said that if he had followed the 
business of raising potatoes instead of making 
brick, he would have made four times the 
money he has made. 

Mr. Mason said that any farmer who had 
lived on a farm for twelve years, knew what he 
could and what he could not raise on his land. 
He knew that he could buy more vegetables for 
four bits than he could raise for five dollars. 

Mr. Bergland said that all the fertilizer nee- 
ded in this valley for this crop was horse man- 
ure dropped into the hill. 

.\djourned. — San Jose Mercury. 

San Joaquin Farmers' Glnb. 

The Club met Saturday, .July 12. Captain 
Thomas E. Ketchum in the chair. 

The discussion of the subject selected for de- 
bate at the last meeting, was, on motion, pos- 
poned. 

The Secretary, Mr. Phelps, read the follow- 
ing, received from the Farmers' Union, and 
which was received, filed, and continued for 
consideration until the next meeting of the 
Club: 

Whereas, Believing that the interests of our 
county and city have snfl'ered material injury 
on account of the ill will of the owners and 
managers of the Central Pacific Railroad, and 
believing that the only way to battle with the 
enemies of our county and town is to build up 
and encourage opposing forces, and believing 
that the wharf tax of ten cents per ton on pro- 
duce passing through our city is an injury to 
the city and county and a benefit to the rail- 
road, therefore be it 

Resolved, That the President appoint a com- 
mittee of three to draw up a petition to the 
City Council asking that the wharf tax be 
abolished, and present and urge the passage of 
the same. 

The President of the Club read an anonymous 
communication denouncing the proposed irri- 
gation scheme in San Joaquin Valley. The 
communication, for want of authority, was laid 
on the table, although some of the arguments it 
contained were approved. 

Mr Phelps, the Secretary, read a commiini- 
catiou, of which the following is a copy: 

Stockton, July 11, 1873. 
Wm. G. Phelps, Secretary Farmers' Club — 
Dear Sir: Kothing preventing, we will have an 
exhibition of the field-work of our machine 



next Tuesday, July 15th, at 1 o'clock. Excuse 
haste. Respectfully, 

(Signed) A. Stdart Tatix)B. 

It was voted that the communication be re- 
ceived, placed on file, and that the members of 
the club proceed to Wm. H. Fairchilds' farm, 
on the Waterloo road, on Tuesday next— to- 
morrow — and witness the practical workings of 
the above named heading machine. Mr. Phelps 
stated that he had seen the machine in oper- 
ation and highly commended its working. He 
urged the farmers to witness the forthcoming 
exhibition, and then judge for themselves of the 
value of the invention. 

On motion, the club adjourned. — Independent 

Sonoma County Farmers' Club. 

Club met July 5, Vice-President Coulter in 
the Chair. 

After transaction of the ordinary business it 
was moved and carried that the order of the 
day, the discussion of the " Cause and Preven- 
tion of Smut, ' ' be postponed until next meeting. 

Judge T. Hart Hyatt of Solano county, being 
present by invitation, addressed the Club upon 
the interest of agriculture. Judge Hyatt said: 

Bbotheb Farmkbs AND Fellow Citizens: — 
Do we all appreciate or realize the vast and 
momentous magnitude and importance of the 
groat interest which you represent and follow 
as a livelihood, and to honor and commend 
which you have come up here on this occasion? 
Who can fully estimate the mighty magnitude 
of this great agricultural industry ? 

Let commerce perish, and the country could 
go on and flourish, as many of the Oriental na- 
tions have long flourished in its absence. Let 
the mechanic arts languish and manufactures 
be crippled, the country could still go on and 
exist — with less of the luxuries of life, it is 
true, but the essentials of man's existence are 
still extant, the fundamental original support 
of man is still to be had, while agriculture ex- 
ists; obliterate or annihilate agriculture, and 
all other industries must fail and go to destruc- 
tion, and man become a nomad, a wandering 
Ishmaelite, like the Arab of the desert, or the 
wild Indian of our native forests. 

When we consider the magnitude of the 
farming interests of the United States in a ma- 
terial, practical point of view, and the great 
proportion of our population employed in ag- 
ricultural pursuits, it seems most surprising 
that the farmers of our country should so long 
have allowed their interests to be disregarded 
to such a great extent in the various acts of 
legislation in the several States, as well as by 
the Congress of our nation; that so much par- 
tial legislation should have been allowed, bear- 
ing so severely or so oppressively against the 
farming interest of our country. In the ad- 
justment of tariffs and schemes of taxation and 
railroad monopolies and grinding subsidies, 
the farming interest has been the victim, the 
pack-horse to bear the public burdens, while a 
few favored monopolies and reckless dema- 
gogues and Credit Mobilier thieves rob and 
run away with the people's money. 

Only a short time since we noticed the fact, 
that while a single session of Congress appro- 
priated for the benefit of these public plunder- 
ers to a great extent, the enormous sum of one 
hundred and sixty-five millions of dollars, less 
than one mill on the dollar was appropriated to 
aid the great agricultural interests of the nation. 

Let us see how the population, productions, 
etc., of this great interest compare with other 
peoples and other interests that have been the 
especial proteges of the plotters of these 
schemes of partial legislation and public rob- 
bery. 

By the last census of 1870, we see that out of 
a population of 38,558,371, there were 5,915,- 
759 of foreign birth; that out of our entire pop- 
ulation, those having occupations number 12,- 
505,923, of whom 1,836,288 are females. 

This productive population, or those having 
occupation, are classed thus : 

Farming popalatlon 5,921,471 

Personal and Professional 2,684,793 

Trade and Transportation 1,191 ,238 

Manufacturing, Mechanical and Mining 2,707,421 

By which it appears that the farming popu- 
lation of the United States is about double that 
of the highest of any other class, and lacks 
only a little over half a million of being equal 
to them all combined. And leaving out of the 
calculation the personal and professional class- 
es, the farming population outnumbers all 
other industrial classes combined, by over 
2,000,000. 

The total population of California was 560.- 
247, of which 250,416 are natives of the United 
states. This population is 

Farming Population 47,863 

Personal and Professional 76,112 

Trade and Transportation 3.3,165 

Manufacturing, Mechanical and Mining 81,608 

The farming population of this State now 
(1873) doubtless numbers over 60,000, and is 
increasing more rapidly than any other class 
in the State. 

Net Annual Production In California. 

Farming $39,486,777 

Mining.. »2.994,693 

Manufacturing and Mechanical.. 18,106-641 $21,101,334 

Agricultural over all three interests 1«,38!>,443 

Being nearly double the net products of min- 
ing, manufacturing and mechanical combined. 
United States Net Annual Production. 

Farming $2,137,2.'i8,:m 

Manufacturing & Mechanical $J«»,413,857 

Mining 63,861,259 l,«t3,27S,116 

Farming all over 493,983,267 

And while the product of each farmer amounts 



to $1,017, the net earnings to each of the 
other classes named is less than $400. 

Amount and Value of Farming Lands. 

United States. Califoniia. 

Acres 407,635,041 11,427.105 

Value $9,262,803,861 $141,240,028 

Implements 336,878,429 6,316,690 

Livestock 1,625.276,457 37,964,752 

Total $11,124,958,747 $184,521,470i 

Average Size and Value of Farms. 

United Utates. California. 

Acres 163 482 

Value peracre $22.76 $12.36. 

Ten and a-half millions of acres of land in 
California have been donated to railroad mono- 
lies as subsidies to enable them to oppress the 
people. 

Value of All Farm Products. 

United States. California. 

Products $2,447, 5;»8,668 $49,856,024 

Less paid Wages 310 280,288 10,369,247 

Net Products $2,137,268,373 $39,485,777 

Manulacturing and Mechanical Capital and Pro- 
ducts 

United states. California. 
Capital $2,181,208,769 $38,728,202 

Amount of Products 4,233,325,442 66,594 566 

Less Materials and Wages ... . 3,263,911,685 48,487,915 

NetProducts $969,413,857 $I8,IM,641 

Mining Capital and Products. 

Ignited States. California. 
Capital $222,381,854 $20,079,916. 

Amount of products 142,698,994 8,281,633 

Less Wages and Msterikls 88,736,735 6,286,940 

Net Products $63,862,259 $2,994,693 

Here we see that the total farming interests 
of the United States, in lands and farm imple- 
ments and stock, amount to $11,124,958,737 as 
its capital; while the capital employed in the 
manufacturing, mechanical and mining inter- 
ests all combined, is but $2,324,593,619, a little 
over one fifth the amount of the farming inter- 
ests; in California, less than one third; tnat the 
net proceeds of the farmer's industrj', amount 
to $2,137,258,363, as against $1,121,404,195, of 
the net products of the manufacturing, me- 
chanical and mining interests combined; or 
nearly double all these interests; and more than 
that, in California. The raw materials, the 
wool, the cotton, the timber, the hides, bread- 
stuffs, etc., that supply all these indnstries, are 
furnished by the farmer. 

Hence the necessity of all these great indus- 
trial pursuits going hand-in-hand with each 
other. There should be no antagonism between 
them. The farmer needs the products of 
mechanical and manufacturing skill; the me- 
chanic and manufacturer cannot exist without 
the farmer's products. Then let there be a 
fraternal feeling, a bond of union between 
these productive classes. Let them unite 
against the monopolies, the ring sharps, the 
bread buccaneers, who will and do rob and op- 
gress the mechanic, and the manufacturer and 
the miner, as soon as the farmer, when oppor- 
tunity occurs. 

These industrial classes all feel the effects of 
high freights, and high fares, and extortionate 
commissions, and ruinous rates of int«rest, and 
log-rolling, corrupt legislation, and the robbery 
of the people by useless and extravagant taxa- 
tion, by the wicked combinations of public 
plunderers who are sapping the foundations of 
our Government and bringing impending ruin 
upon our country. Then let all these indus- 
trial classes unite in one grand crusade against 
the common enemies of the people — these out- 
laws against God and man. Let our Farmers' 
Clubs and Patrons of Husbandry, and all agri- 
cultural associations, extend the right hand of 
fellowship to all these sons of industry, make 
common cause with them, and we shall soon 
see the power of these monopolies broken, 
shattered in pieces, and a happier day dawn- 
ing upon those who raise their bread or earn it 
by the sweat of their brow. Let these co- 
laborers resolve, as we patrons have done (and 
mean to carry out, too), that they will support 
no men for law-makers, or for administrators 
of our laws, or for any position of public 
trust, no matter to what party they may belong, 
whose character for integrity and honesty of 
purpose, and whose fidelity to the true inter- 
ests of the farmer and the working classes 
(which are the true interests of our country) 
are not beyond a doubt. In this way we shall 
soon purify our State and National Legislatures, 
purge out the corrupt vampires that are suck- 
ing out the life blood of our nation — cleanse 
the Augean stables in every department of our 
Government, until foul Credit Mobilier swind- 
lers and salary stealers shall be known no more 
forever. 

We have at this date in California 60,000 
sturdy yeoman — a Spartan band — and in the 
United States over 6,000,000, wha must no 
longer bow the knee to Baal, who have only to- 
speak and act as it becomes honest men and 
patriots to speak and act. and California and 
out Union will no -onger be ruled by c rrdpt 
rings and crushing railroad monopolies. 

Tell me not that this is a political crusade, 
that this is a treason to party. No party that 
cannot endure these sentiments is fit for hon- 
est men to support. And whether or not this he 
the true doctrine for an old "political war 
horse" to preach, it is my doctrine. Your 
speaker believes in standing upon the platform 
of his party (and he has done so unswervingly 
for more than forty years) so long as there is 
a plank of principle left to stand upon; when 
that ceases to be, then is "Othello's occupa- 
tion gone." As Patrons of Husbandry, in- 
side the portals of the Grange, we know no 
Democratic party, no Republican, no politi- 
cal, no sectarian dogmas. Outside we are all 



l| 



July 19, 1873.] 



37 



Democrats, all Kepublicans, all patriots, all 
Christians, all lovers of one country. 

And we are fast growing to be a mighty host. 
Our Patrons are the rear-gnard, consisting 
now of over 1,000,000 determined workers, and 
seem to be taking the lead in the great crusade 
that has got to be waged by the farmers against 
the overshadowing grain and railroad monop- 
olies that are seeking to crush out the vitality 
of the farming interests of our State and na- 
tion. As I understand the motives and de- 
signs of the Patrons of Husbandry, they do 
not seek to become a political party; but they 
■do seek to reform some of the flagrant abuses 
that have been creeping into our system of 
Oovernment, and are making it a by-word and 
a mockery to all honest men. 

All, therefore, that our outside political 
party friends have to do is for each party to 
vie with the other in putting up good men and 
true for office; honest men; men who cannot 
be duped or bribed to do the bidding of cor- 
rupt politicans or designing monopolists. 

I believe the farmers can effect these great 
reforms, correct these glaring abuses, better 
through their organizations than in any other 
way; hence, I have felt it my duty to co-op- 
erate with them, and I hope all our brother 
farmers will do so. — Sonoma Democrat. 



Santa Cruz Farmers' Club. 



The Club met at the Court House on Satur- 
day afternoon, July 5th, 1873. The President, 
J. S. Mattison, in the chair. 

Mr. Tidball from the Committee on Granges 
read the following report : 

Your Committee appointed to inquire into and 
report upon the matter of changing the Club 
organization into a Grange of the Patrons of 
Husbandry, beg leave to report : 

Your Committee, from such examination of 
the subject as it has been enabled to make, is 
satisfied that the objects for which this Club 
was organized, can be more effectively 
carried out through the agency of the Granges 
of the Patrons of Husbandry; but, inasmuch 
as there are some members of the Club who 
would not be eligible to membership in the 
Grange and who have contributed largely to 
the library of the Club, your Committee does not 
deem it advisable to make any change in the 
organization of the Club. 

Respectfully submitted: D. C. Feeley, T. T. 
Tidball, B. Caboon, Martin Kingsley, Comit- 
tee. 

On motion the report was adopted and or- 
dered placed on file. 

The Committee on Currency made the follow- 
ing reports : 

To the Farmers' Club of the County of San- 
ta Crnz: 

Your Committee appointed to investigate and 
repoit to your body upon the currency question 
respectfully reports : 

1st. Your Committee has carefully consid- 
ered the whole subject, and for reasons stated 
in the accompanying paper, believes that the 
circulation of Legal Tender notes and National 
Banknotes, as money in the State of Califor- 
nia, will materially advance the prosperity of 
the farmers, mechanics, manufacturing and la- 
boring men of this State. 

2d, That some legislation is necessary to 
effect such result. 

3d, We recommend such legislation by the 
next Legislature of this State, as is necessary 
to procure currency to be introduced for gener- 
al circulation, and that all State and County 
taxes be paid in currency; and that the salaries 
of all officers, and the legal costs of all prose- 
cutions and actions to be paid in currency. 

B. CAHOON, Chairman. 
To the Farmers' Club of the County of Santa 
Cruz. 

Your Committee would present the following 
reasons for arriving at the conclusion embodied 
in the accompanying Beport: 

A State to become prosperous and wealthy 
mu-it contain a population and capital sufficient 
to develop not only its agricultural resources, 
but its mineral wealth and manufacturing facil- 
ities. The same kind and order of money 
must be circulated in each and every State of 
the Union, or intelligent men and women will 
not migrate to a new State where from 10 to 
25 per cent, of their earnings and capital will 
be lost to them on account of the depreciation 
of their money in value. 

The wealth of the United States naturally 
centers in the great cities of Boston, New 
York and Philadelphia, the same as the wealth 
of our States naturally centers in San Francis- 
co. In the Eastern States gold and silver is a 
commodity; it is not used for circulation but is 
simply used for speculative purposes, the same 
as currency in California. Our merchants pro- 
cure goods for coin and export from the States 
millions of dollars yearly. This coin is never 
returned to this State, but becomes available 
only for speculative purposes thereby deprecia- 
ting the value of currency, and therefore leav- 
ing not a sufficient amount of money in the 
State to do the actual business. 

No new State has increased in population so 
slowly as ours.although her area is as large as 
twelve of our most prosperous Eastern States; 
and no State has a better quality of soil, bet- 
ter facilities for manufacturing, greater miner- 
al wealth, or more healthy and genial climate. 
Our State is upon the highway of the immense 
trade between Asia, Europe and America; and 
our commerce is insignificant. All this your 
Committee believes is owing to our exclusive 
money, and your Committee believes that our 
population will be more than doubled in two 



years; our mineral wealth developed; our 
streams utilized for manufacturing purposes; 
railroads completed, and the wild lands occu- 
pied and culivated, and California will be what 
Nature intends her to be— the garden spot of 
the earth. 

Farmers, with a capital of from two to ten 
thousand dollars, will not remove to California, 
where they know they must lose from 10 to 25 
per cent, of their capital; therefore, they invest 
in Kansas and Nebraska and the Territories 
east of the mountains, where they sacrifice not 
one dollar. The result is the intelligent emi- 
grant stops short of our State. The emigra- 
tion now is almost exclusively confined to the 
barbarians of Asia, and a foreign element, un- 
acquainted with our language, laws and cus- 
toms, instead of the intelligent emigrant from 
the older States of the Union. 

The settlers within States east of the moun- 
tains have unlimited water power. Manufac- 
turers about to invest and seeking a new 
location, well knowing the loss they incur by 
establishing their business in California, on 
account of our repudiating currency, establish 
their cotton mills and woolen mills in the 
Eastern States, and procure our wool and 
transport the same East, and then send back to 
us the manufactured articles. 

Establish manufactories here and we will 
ship eastward the manufactured goods, and 
thus consume at home our own material, and 
with a population such as California can sup- 
port, we can work up our cotton, flax, silk and 
wool here as cheap or cheaper than in the 
Eastarn States. By our unwise course upon 
the currency question, we have already driven 
from California much of our own capital, and 
Nevada and Utah have been benefitted thereby. 
European and Eastern capital now develops 
the mines of Utah. That capital will come 
here as soon as we adopt currency. 

Yoiu- Committee are of the opinion that had 
our State never repudiated Legal Tenders, her 
people would have received all the benefits of 
the advance in the value of currency which 
other States have received, and which has been 
lost to us up to the present time, and we still 
would have had a currency which would have 
answered all of our business purposes, the 
same as in other States and the same as coin 
has been with us. 

Millions of dollars have been lost to us by 
the appreciation of currency. And we have 
not received one dollar of benefit by our course. 
It is a fact that when gold advances, our banks 
send forward to New York large sums of coin 
to be sold upon speculation, at the same time 
drawing so much from our circulation, tight- 
ening the money market, thereby enabling our 
banks and money loaners to loan their money 
at a rate of one to one and one-half per cent, 
per month upon loans. 

Admit currency and interest on money will be 
no higher than in the other States, and capital- 
ists will then invest in manufacturing interests 
and other industries; but so long as they can 
obtain from one to one and one-half per cent, 
per month interest on loans, they will not in- 
vest their capital in factories or any other 
industry that will advance the prosperity of the 
State. 

B. Cahoon, Chairman. 
P. S. — The report, and this paper, is unani- 
mous, all members of yourCommittee agreeing 
thereto. 

The consideration of the report was postponed 
for two weeks. 

On motion of Mr. Feeley, a committee of 
three, consisting of Messrs. Feeley, Cahoon 
and Adams was appointed to consider the best 
time for holding the Fair the coming fall. 




AXAKEDA. 

Transcript, July 10: Califobnia the Favored 
OF ALL Lands. — This is the season for strangers 
to visit California if they would see our vast 
varieties of fruit in their fullest perfection. It 
has seldom been more abundant than now. 
For instance, at the small huckster's shop be- 
low our office we counted no fewer than seven- 
teen varieties of fruit, i. e. oranges, lemons, 
limes, figs, cherries, plums, peaches, apricots, 
pears, apples, strawberries, blackberries, cur- 
rants, grapes, pineapples and bananas. And 
all of the above with the exception of the latter 
two were grown within the borders of this 
State. In no State of the Union, in no king- 
dom or country on the face of the globe, can 
there be raised one-quarter of the varieties of 
fruits found in perfection this day in our high- 
ly favored commonwealth. 

The weather, of which little notice has been 
taken lately, is of an unexceptionable charac- 
ter throughout the day, but the evenings are 
uncomfortably chilly, necessitating light over- 
coats for out-of-doors locomotion. 

There are thirty Russian families, all resid- 
ing in the immediate vicinity of Haywards. 
Most of them are farmers. 



El Dorado Cocntt. — The Angora goat en- 
terprise in this county,as throughout^the State 
is steadily and rapidly advancing, and in a few 
years will be regarded as one of our leading in- 
terests. They were first introduced into the 
county in the Winter of 1867-8, but nothing 
was realized in the way of increase till the 
Spring of 1869, and they now number about 
100 head of pure bloods and about 5,000 grad- 
ed, many of them now being up to a fleece 
bearing animal, especially the kids of last 
Spring. The first shipment of mohair from this 
State to a foreign port — London — was from the 
goats of El Dorado county, except a por- 
tion of the shipment being from a flock in 
Placer county; and this county can almost 
claim that flock, as they were kept here foi 
nearly four years. I am now ranging a flock of 
1,800 on the high mountains southwest of Lake 
Bigler. Nearly all of the country directly west 
of the lake is occupied with sheep, principally 
from Sacramento county numbering at least 
60,000 head. — Sacramento Record. 



two 



Irrigation — Its Results. — Our readers 
aware that in our county there are 
organizations, engineered by men of 
practical experience, surveying the fertile 
lands between this point and the Merced river 
on the one side, and the San Joaquin on the 
other. Whichever route is chosen — by which 
organization it is of no material interest, so 
long as like material benefits shall accrue— it 
will be a wise plan for those owning lands to 
be benefited by either of the proposed canals, 
to do everything in their power to push this 
splendid project on to a glorious ending. To give 
us permanent prosperity, we must have a well- 
defined, practical system of irrigation. Having 
this, it needs no prophet to foretell the result. 
— Merced Argut. 



ALPINE. 

Chronicle, July 5: A New Wat to Dry 
Peaches. — Never pare peaches to dry. Let 
them get mellow enough to be in good eating 
condition, put them in boiling water for a mo- 
ment or two, and the skins will come off like 
a charm. Let them be in the water long enough, 
but no longer. The gain is at least six-fold — 
saving of time in removing the skin, great sav- 
ing of the peach, the part of the peach saved is 
the best part, less time to stone the peaches, 
less time to dry them, and better when dried. 
A whole bushel can be done in a boiler at once, 
and then the water turned off. This very 
morning we had over two bushels skinned, 
stoned, halved, and on the boards, long be- 
fore quarter of them could even have been 
peeled. 
CONTRA COSTA. 

Gazette, July 12: Weather and Crops. — 
Though we have had during the past week a 
few hours, on several days, of quite warm 
weather, it has generally been cool and suffi- 
ciently damp with fog to make the grain straw 
rather tough for threshing or heading, and 
much of the wheat in our section is still de- 
layed in ripening by this continuance of damp, 
cool weather. In the portions of the country 
where threshing has been done, and in the 
San Joaquin Valley, the turn out is said to fall 
much below the expectations indulged before 
the grain was cut; and we imagine it will be 
generally so in the State. 

Feuit Dhving Factory. — From a discription 
in the Oakland Transcript, we learn that the 
Fruit Drying Company's establishment at San 
Lorenzo is a four story and basement building, 
40 by 80 feet in size, prepared for ten furnaces, 
each of which with the consumption of half a 
ton of coal is capable of drying daily by the 
Alden pneumatic evaporation process, from 
four to five tons of fruit, which is said to gain 
largely in sugar by this process, and to be in 
flavor and appearance much superior to that 
dried in the air. The process is said to make 
superior raisins in from eight to twelve hours, 
and is also applicable to the drying of vegeta- 
bles, not only without deterioration, but with 
improvement of their quality. If the advan- 
tages of this process are as great as represented, 
it is calculated to give great additional impor- 
tance to the fruit growing interest of the State, 
and make the dried fruit exporting business 
one of our material commercial resources. 
LAKE. 

Bee, July, 12: Aoricdltoral Society. — We 
have been requested to announce that Mr. A. 
A. Ritchie, of Guenoc, is authorized to canvass 
this county for subscriptions to the amount of 
$1,000 in all, to enable Lake county to join 
with the Napa and Solano District Agricultural 
Society. Each subscription of one share or 
more will entitle the subscriber to a life mem- 
bership. Twenty-five per cent, is payable in 
cash at the time of subscription, and the bal- 
ance between this and the time of the Fair, as 
called for by the Board of Trustees. The re- 
quired amount ought to be easily raised in Lake 
county, for our farmers should feel sufficient 
interest to join the society. 

Farmers throughout the county are now har- 
vesting their crops. The yield of grain is good, 
and we hear of no complaints from any quarter. 
We have had extremely hot weather for the 
past week or ten days. An afternoon breeze 
generally comes, however, to temper the sultry 
atmosphere. 
MONTEREY. 

Democrat: Harvesting has fairly commenced, 
of wheat as well as barley. Farmers make good 
reports of each, as far as thoy have progressed, 
looking for the full realization of anticipations 
heretofore indulged in. As far as the yield is 
concerned, the season will undoubtedly'.be good 
and if the producer is in a condition to hold, 
the prices will be equally satisfactory. 
UEROED. 

Tribune, July 12 : Harvesting. — The work of 
harvesting the crops in this vicinity is now at 
its height, and grain is daily arriving at this 
point in large quantities. The majority of our 
farmers are most agreeably disappointed in the 
yield of grain per acre. 

Ibbtoation. — With Mercfld as the pioneer in 
the great scheme of irrigation, our lands will 



rapidly rise in value; the immense tracts now 
held by single individuals will bo divided up 
into small farms, and Merced City, being in 
the very center of the rich agricultural country 
to be benefited, will gain in wealth and popu- 
lation till she becomes — what is already hers 
by right of geographical position— the largest 
city in the great Valley of the San Joaquin. 

Without irrigation in the valley, our lands 
will never assume a permanent valuation — 
give us irrigating canals, and none can name 
the vast boncflts that will accrue therefrom. 

PLUMAS. 

Nalionid, July 12: Splendid Cheese, — Mr. 
Chas. Beard, of Clover Valley, left us a sample 
of cheese, ttie other day, which we consider, A 
No. 1. Mr. Beard is making the article at the 
rate of 250 pounds per day, and is selling it 
very reasonably, in fact, much lower than ever 
sold before in this section. He will enlarge 
the capacity of his factory another year, and is 
making calculations to milk from three to four 
hundred cows. 

SACRAMENTO. 

Jefegmp/t, July 5: We see it stated that a 
Pond Lily, at Calistoga, lately planted there, 
is the first brought to this coast. This is a 
great mistake, and Calistoga is sis years be- 
hind time. About six years ago, Mrs. H. G. 
Livermore, then on a visit to Massachusetts, 
obtained several roote of this beautiful flower, 
and brought them with her to Folsom on her 
return . Here they were planted in a reservoir 
of the Water and Mining Company, in Schlin- 
ghyde's Garden, by Chas. Zeinwalt, now gar- 
dener at East Park, Sacramento. The next 
year they bloomed, have continued to bloom 
ever since, and now cover a considerable space 
in the reservoir. 

Alfalfa.— Beardslcy, of Bcardsley & Watt's 
Ranch, at Salmon Falls, in El Dorado County, 
has cut three crops of alfalfa hay thus far 
this season, and can cut another if he desires 
to. Who says alfalfa won't grow in the foot- 
hills? Besides this, they have five hundred 
head of sheep, which do finely on this tract, 
which contains thirty acres in alfalfa, and it 
cuts sufficient hay to sustain this band of sheep 
through the winter, which are a choice breed, 
mostly Spanish Merino. 



SANTA CLARA. 

Mercury, July 10: Speaking of heavy oats, 
our farmers should examine some oats recently 
imported from Australia by Pfiater & Co., for 
seed. They weigh about forty-six pounds to 
the bushel— fourteen pounds above the standard. 
The above firm imported 200 sacks for the pur- 
pose of introducing them to this valley. 

Gilroy Advocate, July 12 : Grain Field. — We 
have seen occasional items in some of the pa- 
pers, stating that the crops in this valley would 
be a failure. Where the information was. de- 
rived from we are at a loss to know. The most 
reliable information obtainable .warrants the 
assertion that an average yield will be had 
throughout the valley, and in many localities 
far above an average. We were shown this 
week a bunch of wheat from Australian seed, 
plucked at random from the field of Mr. E. A. 
Sawyer, of San Felipe, containing 300 acres, 
which it is estimated will yield forty sacks to the 
acre. This, calculating 100 pounds to the sack, 
would be about sixty-six bushels to the acre. 
The appearance of the heads shown us bears 
out this assertion, as they are very large, and 
the kernels are full and plump. We challenge 
any part of the State or United States to show 
a field of the same size which will yield the 
same amount. 

Tobacco. — To one who has never visited the 
tobacco fields of San Felipe, the assertions 
made in regard to the rapidity of the growth of 
the tobacco plant, and the immense size it at- 
tains, naturally appear incredible. Without 
ocular demonstration one can form no adequate 
idea of the prolific growth, and the immensity 
of the enterprise cannot be described, with the 
hope of having it credited by the general 
reader. We were shown this week a tobacco 
plant, taken from a tobacco field now being cut, 
which measured seven and a half feet, con- 
tained twenty leaves, averaging .sixteen inches 
( ach in length. 

There are about ten acres in which the 
plants stand seven foot high, and this from a 
growth of only six weeks. The texture of the 
leaf is very fine, and the tobacco on the stalk 
we saw, when properly cured, is said would be 
worth $4. With the above were also exhibited 
several leaves of volunteer Jchewing tobacco, 
from Florida seed, which were Iwenty-seven 
inches long by sixteen and a half inches wide. 
The company have about 300 acres of this des- 
cription, and it will all average about the same 
sized leaf. It has been growing but five weeks. 
The work of cutting is now rapidly progress- 
ing, and although the accommodations for re- 
ceiving the plants are liberal, they find that 
they will be cramped for room to cure the 
large crop. Four houses, 40x100 feet, are 
already nearly full, and three more are in pro- 
cess of erection. Some of the tobacco grown 
this year is already sufficiently cured to make 
cigars of. Mr. Geo. T. Headon has thirty 
acres of tobacco under cultivation on the 
Reeves place, and ho informs us that it is doing 
exceedingly well. 

The remarkable success of the experiments 
thus far made in tobacco raising in this sec- 
tion is attracting a great deal of attention to 
that industry, and we apprehend that a very 
large area will be devoted to its cultivation next 
year. 

(Continued on Pag'e 44.) 



1 



38 



p&Qmm mwmAS ^msss- 



[July 19, 1873. 



To Obtain a Patent 

Editor Morning CaK:— As the Caii seems to be 
posted pretty much upon all topics, would it be 
kind enough, in the present instance, to inform 
an old and regular subscriber, through its 
columns, the way to apply for a patent. No 
one hereabouts seems to have any knowledge 
of the matter. No matter where you inquire, 
you are as once referred to those agents who 
make it a busiae.ss, and who expect a round fee 
for their services— too much. Furthermore, 
you are compelled, in employing those parties, 
to disclose your secret, which is something 
altogether t-'O hazardous, as not a few have 
found out to their cost before now. What 
your subscriber desires to know, is, how to place 
his application before the Commissioner of the 
Patent Office at Washington, in such shape as 
to have his business properly recognized, with- 
out the aid of the " middle man," the cost of 
the fee, and where to get the proper blank, and 
how to send it, and when to expect a notice of 
his application at the hands of the Commis- 
■ioner. The way to obtain a copyright is sim- 
ple enough. But proper information in 
respect to a patent is not so easily reached. 
By giving this information j'ou will confer a 
favor, doubtless, on many of your readers. 
The money that might be required to fee the 
agents might not be so great an obstacle. It 
is the cold fact that you are placed in the 
power of those who might take advantage of 
your plans and inventions, and so work it to 
your loss and confusion, which they palpably 
could. Trusting that my meaning is_ clear, 
and hoping that the favor will not occasion too 
much trouble, your respectful subscriber signs 
himself, Inventob. 

[We can do no otherwise than to refer "In- 
ventor" to some respectable and responsible 
patent agency. "Inventor" would not at- 
tempt to defend an intricate and difficult law- 
suit without the aid of a lawyer; and in 
obtaining a patent, just as a claim before 
Government, it is best and cheapest to secure 
an efficient and experienced agent. We never 
beard of one of these stealing a man's inven- 
tion.— J^d. CatL] 

The above letter published in the Morning 
Call of this city, during the past week, fairly 
illustrates the feeling of a class of people in 
every community, in regard to Patent Agents. 
While we stand ready to acknowledge that all 
Patent Agents are not immaculate, we do 
deny the sweeping charge made by "Inventor." 
He certainly never talked with any person 
who had ever done business through the 
SciESTiric Pbess Patent Agency. 

It is the same with Patent Agents as it is 
with lawyers, doctors, preachers or the mem- 
bers of any other profession. Either can do a 
community a vast amount of good, or a vast 
amount of harm, according to his manner of 
doing business. The inventor however, has 
one consolation, and that is, that a patent 
agent who abuses the confidence of his clients 
is sure to reap the result of his errors, by be- 
ing avoided by subsequent inventors. The 
best test in the world to prove the standing of 
any professional person, is to find out what 
his old clients think of him. If they rec- 
commend him, and give him their business, 
why should you distrust him? Dewey & Co. 
have conducted a Patent Agency with this paper, 
for the past 12 years. During that 
time we have procured over three thou- 
sand patents for Pacific Coast inventors, 
and we venture the assertion, that to-day not a 
man can be found out of the large number 
for whom we have done business, that will 
assert, that we ever attempted to take the 
slightest advantage of him or his invention. 
On the other hand you will find hundreds, and 
we might say thousands who will tell you that 
Dewey & Co., have, as faithful advisers, saved 
them hundreds of dollars, which otherwise 
would have been spent in a friiitless attempt to 
patent an old device, and further, these same 
persons will tell you that the Patent Agency of 
Dewey & Co. has disseminated a knowledge of 
patent matters amongst inventors on this coasi, 
which they could not have obtained in any 
other way. 

"Inventor" grumbles at the "fee" charged 
by Patent Agents. Did "Inventor" know that 
Dewey & Co. charge precisely the same fee for 
procuring a patent that New York or Washington 
agents charge ? or, knowing this, does he wish 
to abolish Patent Agents entirely ? He certainly 
does not expect them to exist and work for 
nothing. For the future benefit of "Inventor" 
we will give him this piece of information. 
Not only is it beneficial to the inventor to em- 
ploy a competent agent' to do his business, but 
the Patent Office in Washington prefers that 
inventors should apply through an agent. 
First: A patent specification is a legal docu- 
ment, requiring both legal and mechanical 
skill in its preparation, otherwise it will fail 
when you apply the test of the courts to its va- 
lidity. Secondly: The rules, regulations and 
forms, required by the Patent Office to be ob- 
served, are continually being changed so that 
it requires the undivided attention of the agent 
to keep himself posted. We venture to say 
that every case presented to the Patent Office 
by the inventor himself, causes more trouble 
and annoyance to the Examiners than twenty 



cases presented by a competent attorney. 
These are facts that have been long established 
and we are familiar with a number of instances 
where the Examiner refused to proceed further 
with a case until a competent agent was em- 
ployed and the case put into shape . In every 
such instance the application was made by the 
inventor and was found to be informal. The 
inventor, not being familiar with the rules, &c., 
of the office, each step he took placed his case 
in a worse condition than before, until finally 
nothing short of the skill of an attorney could 
get it into proper shape. 

The Patent Agent should be posted not only 
in the legal and Patent Office practice, but his 
business is such that he becomes familiar with 
the existing state of all the arts. By making 
frequent preliminary examinations, he learns 
what has been done in almost every field of 
art and commerce, hence he is qualified to ad- 
vise as to the novelty and patentability of any 
particular invention. There is a certain list 
of inventions which are reproduced every few 
weeks by enthusiastic inventors, who would 
rush "bald headed" for a patent, and pay out 
their money only to be rejected, were they not 
checked before hand; for instance, every few 
weeks we have some one to present us the 
model of a combined beer faucet and tap, the 
object of which is to draw beer from a barrel 
without driving in the cork. Within the past 
year this same device, without the slightest 
alteration, has been presented to us at least 
twenty times, and in each case we have saved 
the inventor his money by showing him the 
illustration of it in the Patent Reports. 

Wo might recite numerous points of benefit 
which the inventor obtains by being able to 
consult a competent Patent Agent, but the 
above shows sufficiently the error of "Inven- 
tor's" statements. Let "Inventor" seek an hon- 
est, reliable, responsible and competent Patent 
Agent, and place his case in bis hands, and we 
will warrant him that he will fare much better 
than if he attempted the business himself. To 
find such an agent let him go to those persons 
who have procured patents before him , and 
find out by enquiry whom to go to. 

Seedlngs. 

The apple, peach, pear, plum and cherry 
trees have not been very satisfactory to the 
cultivator in Southern California, for the 
reason that their growth has been singularly 
irregular and their crops quite uncertain. The 
remarkable phenomenon of a peach tree loaded 
with fruit, and not a leaf on the tree, is no 
rare sight in this vieinity. Apple trees often 
present nearly the same appearance. Of course 
this shows an abnormal condition of the tree. 
The leaves are the lungs of the tree, and no 
growth can be obtained without leaves. 

Then, again, it is well known that apple, 
peach, plum and pear trees often appear per- 
fectly dormant until June and July, and even 
August, except at the root of the tree, and at 
that late date they put forth leaves and appear 
to try to catch up with other trees which were 
in leaf as early as March and April, and they 
then continue to grow in full leaf, till February 
and March, when other trees drop their leaves 
in October and November. 

This is the situation. What is the remedy? 
Is there a remedy ? There is happily, a remedy, 
and it is all-sufficient. It can be stated in one 
word, namely, seedlings. 

In no instance, after four or five years of 
watchful attention, have we found a seedling 
of either of the trees named that was not a per- 
fect grower, in full leaf at the usual season and 
always in full bearing. This, then, is a simple 
and satisfactory solution of a very unsatisfac- 
tory problem. 

During the month of June we have examined 
all the seedling trees of the kinds named which 
we could find, and in not a single instance 
have we discovered the least evidence of the 
abnormal condition almost always presented 
by the grafted trees which have been imported 
here. 

Moreover, the seedling takes kindly to the 
graft of any variety germane to itself, and the 
graft partakes of the normal vitality of the 
stock. Hence, of course, a full crop of fruit 
every year, with trees of fine, healthy, normal 
growth, can be secured on every farm and in 
every kitchen garden throughout this region by 
raising and grafting seedling trees. 

We have introduced this topic to our home 
readers at this particular time to try to induce 
them to save every cherry, plum, pear and ap- 
ple seed and the peach pits when they come, 
and plant them. Don't let the seeds get dry, 
but plant them at once. Only a small spot of 
ground, well tilled and properly cared for, will 
suffice for the raising of a thousand trees. The 
country sadly needs these fruits in abundance. 
This is the way to secure them. Peach trees 
bear the second year, and other trees nearly as 
soon. Plant now, and it is not long to wait. — 
Santa Barbara Press. 

The above is simply another indorsement of 
the position we have always maintained — viz. : 
the superiority of seedlings over sections of 
roots for the propagation of long-lived, healthy 
trees; and if possible, planting the seeds where 
the trees are to remain. 



A LAzy dyspeptic was bewailing his own mis- 
fortunes, and speaking with a friend on the 
latter's hearty appearance. " What do you do 
to make yourself look so strong and healthy V" 
inquired the dyspeptic. "Live on fruit alone," 
answered the friend. " What kind of fruit ?" 
" The fruit of industry; and I am never troub- 
led with indigestion." 



Supporting Attachment for Horse- 
Bhoes. 

We illustrate herewith a device intended to 
keep horses from sinking in soft ground. It is 
styled a "supporting attachment for horse- 
shoes," and was recently patented through the 
agency connected with this office by Robert K. 
Jordan, of Alameda county. The nature of the 
attachment can be easily seen by reference to 
the cut. It is an ordinary horseshoe, the heels 
or extremities of which are made longer than 
usual, and the extension thus formed bent out- 
wards in opposite directions as shown. A met- 
allic rim-plate of the desired width, (usually 
from an inch to an inch and a half) is bent so 
as to encircle the shoe; its length being great- 
er than its width, so as to extend a short dis- 
tance both in the front and in the rear of the 
heel and toe of the shoe. The sides of this 
surrounding rim-plate are secured to the out- 
wardly bent extensions, by means of rivets or 
bolts, while the forward part of the plate is 
bent upwards and supported by a bar or plate 
from the toe of the shoe. 

The bar or plate will usually be welded or 
permanently secured to the toe of the shoe 
when the shoe is made, and in fastening the 
plate to its opposite or upper end, a bolt or 
screw can be used so that when desired the 
rim-plate can be removed from the foot. The 
bar or plate shown stands upward at an angle. 




JORDAN'S HORSESHOK ATTACHMENT. 

so that its upper end will support the forward 
end of the shoe at a point above the plane of 
the shoe, thus preventing the rim-plate from 
interfering with the stepping of the horse. 
The band which encircles the forward part of 
the horse's hoof can be used or not, as de- 
sired, but the inventor prefers its use, as it aids 
in binding the shoe with greater firmness to 
the foot; when it is used its opposite ends are 
also secured to the extensions at the heel, as 
shown. The attachment can be applied to 
worn out horseshoes if desired, as the charac- 
ter of the soil on which the bearing rim 
would be likely to be used, would not require 
that the shoe should be as perfect as is neces- 
sary on harder ground. The inventor claims 
that with this attachment to their hind shoes, 
horses can travel over ground in which they 
would sink to their knees if not provided with 
any supporting device. The attachment is 
cheap, simple and light, and Mr. Jordan thinks 
it will not interfere with the travel of horses 
after they once become accustomed to wearing 
it. 

PincUng Berry Canes. 

Although the season is late, the young canes 
of raspberries and blackberries have already 
got a good start, and will soon require pinching 
to make them grow strong, branch freely, and 
make compact, self-supporting heads. 

When the new canes have attained a growth 
of from one and a half to two feet, pass rap- 
idly over them and pinch ofif the terminal bud. 
After the lapse of a week, pass over the plan- 
tation again, and you will find some that were 
too short the first time but are then the proper 
height for pinching. It will probably be neces- 
sary to go over them three or four times to 
make certain that none have escaped ; but, after 
they have been carefully pinched twice the 
operation will be a short one. 

After trying trellises of various kinds we like 
nothing so well for supporting raspberry canes 
as good strong stakes, liigh enough to sustain 
the top of the canes. They should be tied 
rather loosely at the top and again midway. In 
using a stake the stalk expands in every direc- 
tion and is exposed freely to the sun and air. 
Besides, the frnit is more handily picked. — 
Rural lloine. 

A CoBBESPONDENT of the Praint Farmer 
writes that ticks may be kept from sheep, and 
even driven from them, by putting sulphur in 
their salt once a month. He keeps lice from 
his cattle, horses and hogs by the same means. 
If lice trouble hogs, he puts sulphur in their 
food. If chickens are troubled with them, he 
puts sulphur in their food, and sprinkles it in 
their nestSj 

Wanted. — A needle to sew a patch on the 
pants of a tired dog. 



Wool in New York. 

The market was quiet all through Jane. 
The light business transacted was mainly in 
fine wools, the prices of which were barely 
sustained; low clothing kinds were neglected 
by buyers and a concession in prices on the 
part of holders did not materially make busi- 
ness more active. 

DOMESTIC WOOL. — The large markets 
are pretty well cleared of old wools. New 
fleece is now beginning to arrive; in condition 
it shows some improvement over last year; the 
best Ohio coming in brings 47 to 50c; Mich- 
igan 44 to 47c., and from other states propor- 
tionately. 

CALIFORNIA and OREGON Wools of the 
clip of '72 have of late been urged on the mar- 
ket — sales of considerable quantities have been 
made at heavily reduced rates. 

New California Wool daily arriving meets 
with ready buyers, as the wools seem cheap at 
the prices which owners accept. TEXAS 
Wools also find a ready market; the receipts 
thus far have been rather light. 

CALIFORNIA— tlnwashed. 

Spring Clip. 

APEX or XXX 96 3] 

AP " XX • 26®33 

Al " XI 26®M 

A2 •' X2 27® 32 

B " X8 2«®28 

8 " X4 18@22 

AG " XG 23@2« 

BG " X3G 20®24 

Slightly Burry and Burry of the different grades, 
3@7c. V lb. lower. 

James Lthcb. 
New York, July Ist, 1873. 



Comparative Value of Fruits. 

The comparative value of apples, pears and 
oranges in our markets does not favor the South, 
for while the past has been one of general suc- 
cess and abundance of the apple at the North, as 
well as the orange at the South, yet now we have 
o pay in New York city one-thirid more for com- 
mon fair apples over that of the best Havana or- 
anges. We think we have within the past two 
days asked prices of apples, pears and oranges 
from one hundred dealers, and when we give 
the dozen price we also give the comparative 
wholesale price, which is 40 cents a dozen for 
oranges, sweet Havanas averaging 14 to 16 
inches in circumference, and CO cents a dozen 
for apples averaging 8 to 10 inches in circum- 
ference, or what we term our second-class 
fruit. Pears now in New York city sell at 

E rices according to varieties, the Beurre d'Anjou 
ringing from 30 to 75 cents each, while Vicar 
of Wakefield brings 15 to 25 cents each, and 
bananas at 5 cents each. The wholesale rates 
are in proportion, showing plainly that not- 
withstanding we grow large quantities of frnit, 
their keeping is a point our people do not fully 
understand — Ajddi, in Cleveland Herald. 

Will not the same truth apply to the fruits 
of California as well ? We see daily on our 
streets, tine, large, sweet oranges in wagons, 
hawked about at 25c. a dozen. Apples and 
pears of good quality and equal size are 
worth more money. It is possible, perhaps, 
that oranges can be grown, sent to market and 
retailed at 2 cents a piece, and pay a profit 
over cost of production and delivery at market 
eenters; but we must be allowed to remark, 
that if -that be so, pears that bring readily 
from 5 to 10 cents, and apples from 3 to 5 cents 
each will also' pay well; but more attention 
should be given to the culture of superior va- 
rieties. 

Rape as a Honey Plant. 

I see in nearly every journal and bee paper, a 
report of some new honey plant; but what is 
the use of experimenting with new plants when 
we are neglecting the old and well tried plants, 
on one of which we can figure the dollars and 
cents just as well as on wheat, com, or any 
other crop. As it is not only a honey producer, 
not a noxious weed, as most advertised honey 
plants are, but is a regular farm crop, it is for 
several reasons the best crop to raise when a 
return in honey and seed is desired. 

1st. As a honey producing plant, the rape is 
scarcely second to linden, producing a beauti- 
ful golden honey of good flavor, and is in blos- 
som when nearly everything else is out of 
blossom, commencing about the middle of Aug- 
ust and continuing a couple of weeks. 

2d. As a farm crop, it is as good, if not bet- 
ter than wheat. The time for sowing it is from 
the middle to tbe end of June. This gives 
time to prepare the soil after the other crops 
are in ; or if wheat or com should fail in coming 
up, rape can be sown in their places. It is 
harvested from the middle to the last of Sep- 
tember, after all other grain is harvested. It 
does not impoverish the soil, but benefits it. 
From five to eight bushels more per acre of 
wheat are raised on ground which had rape the 
previous year. It allows no weeds to grow 
after it is fairly started, growing very dense; 
and its leaves completely shade the ground, 
therefore it does not sufi'er from drought like 
other grain. 

The seed has a good cash market; oil is ex- 
tracted from it. From ten to eighteen bushels 
are generally produced per acre,l)nt are oftener 
over than under this estimate Two quarts are 
sufficient to sow an acre. Thousands of bush- 
els are annually raised, and it is last as staple 
a crop as wheat. — American Bee Journal. 



July 19, 1873] 



3r 



OsEpJL If^fORfA^^flON. 



Insect Life — Something to Think 
About. 

It is often said by persons when speaking 
of animals, insects, etc., that they are poor 
brainless things; yet do they not often display 
greater sagacity or what is called witchcraft, 
than man would show by his reason under like 
circumstances? 

"Long ago, it was ascertained by naturalists 
that worms and insects are without a brain, 
and yet they pursue a course of activity which 
bears much upon the domain of reason; so we 
are accustomed to say that they act from in- 
stinct, which is no explanation at all of the 
phenomena in the higher orders of organic 
life which hava their origin in the brain. If 
that organ is severely injured, so that its nor- 
mal functions are no longer performed, con- 
sciousness and orderly manifestations of its 
influence are interrupted or suspended. But 
the insect world swarms with beings of the 
most delicate construction, without hearts and 
without brains, whose movements and habits, 
independently of thousands of contingencies 
to which they are exposed, prove in the most 
satisfactory manner that their acts are a near 
approach to the elements of a reasoning facul- 
ty, if they do not indicate reason itself. When, 
by accident, a thread of a spider's web is 
broken, the little weaver examines the misfor- 
tune with extreme care, and by taking different 
positions, surveys the damage, and then pro- 
ceeds artistically to repair it by splicing or in- 
serting an entire new cord. Again, when a 
wandering fly becomes entangled in the net, 
the cautious approach of the owner of the trap, 
lying patiently near by for game, indicates cal- 
culation in regard to the character and strength 
of the victim. Does it not strangely resemble 
reason when all its movements, under such an 
aspect of affairs, show beyond a doubt the spi- 
der considers the matter in all its relations be- 
fore venturing to seize the prey? And yet spi- 
ders are without a brain." 



Philadelphia, and while stopping in the parlor 
of the hotel there to rest, a gentleman who 
was with them — the father of one of the girls 
— called for sherry cobblers for the party, which 
were served, each tumbler being provided with 
a glass tube by which to draw the liquid into 
the mouth. When the tumblers were nearly 
empty the air, entering with water into the 
tubes, produced a gurgling sound, when the 
deaf and dumb girl became greatly excited, 
laughed vociferously, and springing to her 
feet, and calling by gesture the attention of 
her companions, pointed first to her tumbler 
and then into her ears, and then laughed again, 
and as soon as she was sufficiently composed, 
told the other girls in the manual language of 
the deaf and dumb that she distinctly heard, 
when finishing her sherry cobbler, the noise of 
the water passing through the glass tube from 
the tumbler to her mouth — the first soiind that 
she had ever heard in her life." 



Cultivation of Fish in Ditches and Ponds. 
— Experience proves that fish are much more 
easily cultivated than has been supposed. 
Much attention is now being paid 
in Gci-many to their cultivation in 
ponds and ditches, and it has been found, con- 
trary to the generally received opinion in re- 
ference to such localities, that they are more 
favorable for the purpose than other large 
bodies of water, apparently fresh and pure in 
their character. This is doubtless owing to the 
great abundance of animal life, as well as to 
the more decided concentration of vegetable 
substances in the form of living plants of dif- 
ferent kinds, including the algfe. This pro- 
duces a constant evolution of oxygen, needed 
for the respiration of the fish, and allows a 
larger mass of life to be crowded together in a 
given space. The reproduction of the species 
is also unusually rapid, and the young grow 
very quickly. 



QOOD h|Ei^LT(). 



Eyes. 

There is a wonderful diversity among ani- 
mals in respect to the number of their eyes. 
In mammals, birds, reptiles and fishes, they 
are limited to two, and are always placed on 
the head. The greater part of the surface of 
the head of the house-fly is covered by an ag- 
gregation of about 10,000 eyes; and in the 
dragon-fly they number about 50,000, and may 
be easily seen by the use of a magnifying lens 
even of very small power. 

They are not always confined to the head 
alone. In spiders and scorpions there are gen- 
erally eight or ten of them in one or more clus- 
ters, on the dorsal aspect of that part of the 
body which is formed by the union of the head 
and thorax. 

The'star-flsh or five-fingers, familiar to every 
one who has spent any time on our sea-coast, 
has an eye on the tip of each ray or arm. In 
the sea-urchin, which is homologically nothing 
but a star fish with the ends of its rays drawn 
close together, the five eyes are gathered in a 
circle around what is considered the hinder 
portion of the body. 

The scallop has numerous eyes on the edge 
of his mantle, extending from one end of the 
animal to the other, and forming a semi-circle. 
Some marine worms have them in clusters, 
not only on the head, but also along each side 
of the body, even to the tip of the tail, and 
they are connected individually and directly 
with the medium nervous cord. If we descend 
to the lowest forms, we find many infusoria 
which have neither eyes nor nerves, and yet it 
is easy to see that they are sensitive to light, 
for they either seek or avoid it. — Hours at 
Home. 



Heabino bt the Teeth. — A correspondent 
of the New York Observer, after reading an ar- 
ticle on the "Conveyance of Sound," stating, 
as a fact not generally known, that sound may 
be transmitted by the teeth, when the ears are 
closed, almost as distinctly as by the ears when 
they were open, and wishing to test its accuracy, 
experimented and wrote to that journal as fol- 
lows: — "I took the end of a long wooden pole 
(22 feet long) between my teeth, and requested 
another person to scratch with a pen-knife at 
the opposite end, when I distinctly heard the 
sound of the scratching, though when my teeth 
were removed from contact with the pole it was 
quite inaudible. 

This, in connection with the following inci- 
dent, a few years ago, suggested to me the in- 
quiry whether contact with the teeth, or inter- 
ior of the mouth, as a medium for the com- 
munication of sound, might not be resorted to 
in some cases with advantage in the education 
of the deaf and dumb. The incident I alluded 
to is this: 

In 1860 I became acquainted with a very 
sweet deaf and dumb girl, about fifteen years 
old, who was a great favorite with my daughter, 
(of nearly the same age), as indeed she was 
with all who knew her. One day my daughter, 
her dumb friend and several other young girls, 
accompanied by the parents of some of the 
latter, visited Fairmount Water Works, in 



Sensations Produced by the Inhalation 
of Nitrons Oxide Gas. 

Many of our readers may possibly feel some 
interest in learning what are the sensations ex- 
perienced during the inhalation of nitrous ox- 
ide gas, which has come to be extensively used 
as an anaesthetic. Doubtless, the sensations ex- 
perienced by any individual will be quite dif- 
ferent from those which will be felt by others 
in the same circumstances, so that the record 
of one experience would be but little guide. 
Yet the following description, from the i?nWs/t 
Journal of Dental Science, is so well written, 
that it may serve to gratify reasonable curios- 
ity of the fortunate people who have never yet 
been obliged to resort to any of the modern 
means of alleviating suffering attendant upon 
severe surgical operations : 

I had to undergo a painful operation. I 
wished to take the nitrous oxide gas. I had 
administered it a great number of times, and, 
in hearing the incoherent way in which pa- 
tients expressed themselves as to the sensations 
whilst passsing into an anaesthetic state, I 
hoped I might be able to define, somewhat, the 
effects of the gas. I say I hoped to be able, 
for, of course, it is impossible to say what may 
be the effect of such an action upon any indi- 
vidual, until we have experienced it, as I have 
no doubt different persons are differently af- 
fected, and the gas is so interesting and im- 
portant to us that everything concerning it is 
worthy of notice. I was well attended. Two 
Fellows of the Royal College of Surgeons and 
the anaesthetist were standing behind me so that 
I could only see the face of the anaesthetist, as 
he leaned over my shoulder with the mouth- 
piece; the other two were quite hidden from 
me. I am quite sure of that; I was perfectly 
composed, and as soon as the pipe was put to 
my face I formed a resolution steadily to take 
in the gas. My eyes were open and I looked 
at the distant wall. I heard them say " He 
takes in the gas freely, " which were the last 
words I heard distinctly; then I felt my eyes 
droop and close. Now I seemed to be in a dif- 
ferent atmosphere, just as we feel in passing 
into a tropical house at Kew Gardens — differ- 
ent, but not an unpleasant atmosphere. As to 
choking, we hear so much about, or suffocation, 
I felt not even the least repugnance. The only 
effect was, I remember, thinking to myself this 
is another atmosphere; it seemed sweet and 
sooty; at the same time, my ears were filled 
with a burring sound, such as I suppose is felt 
in descending in the diving-bell, but not so vio- 
lent. Immediately there danced before me a 
violent light the size of a large candle, and with 
a strange, unearthly motion, and a confused, 
burring sound, it rose higher and higher, and 
I seemed to be strangely upborne with it. Up, 
up we went to a very high altitude; at last the 
light stood still, the burring ceased, and my atten- 
tion was simply fixed on the light. It seemed 
an immense height we had come. To this stage 
I seemed to be a nonentity; all my care had 
been devoted to the sound in my ears and the 
movement of the light; all the unpleasantness 
of atmosphere had passed away. 

Now, however, a change came over me; I be- 
came a person — a some one — I felt as though I 
could see from every part of me — a sort of cat- 
aleptic state; and, just as in looking over a 
cliff at Beechy Head, on a calm day, you hear 
conversation on the sea below, though you 



cannot discern the men in the skiff, so now, 
in a strange, muttering undertone, I heard 
voice as though explaining something 
about me toothers. I was sure there were others 
present, and though explaining something, I 
did not know a single word of what was said, 
and, gradually, there crept over me the convic- 
tion that I was bound helplessly, and that they 
were doing something to me. There was a dead 
calm, the mutter ceased; I could see them look- 
ing intently, with heads inclined. Simulta- 
neously they raised their heads, and the voice 
again spoke, but I had no pain, nor had I any 
pain or feeling when the gash was made; in- 
deed (though t was cut in two places, ) not even 
the slightest prick; still, I knew when the 
tumor was punctured. Although it was aw- 
fully tender to the slightest touch in my nor- 
mal state, I had not the slightest pain until the 
tumor was violently pressed, to force all the 
blood out; then I was conscious of painful 
sensation, and I groaned, as I thought, on ac- 
count of the severity of the pain from squeez- 
ing. I felt whatever they were doing to me 
was now done, and done successfully, and I 
wanted to express my thankfulness, but I 
found myself unable to move or speak. Now 
the burring commenced, and the light which 
had hung all the time shining over my head, 
began to descend, and I with it, and, gradually, 
the talking became nearer and more audible, 
the light went out, and the burring sound died 
away in the distance, and my eyes opened, and 
with a heart full of gratitude I stretched out 
my hand to the gentlemen and cried out lus- 
tily, "Thank God ! thank God !" To which 
they replied, "It is all right ; it is nicely 
done." I rejoined, " I know it is; I know all 
about it." 

I asked if I had made any groaning when 
the pressure was applied, and I was surprised 
to hear that I was not only silent, but also mo- 
tionless all the time. I took four gallons of 
gas, and from putting on the face-piece to my 
regaining consciousness, was seventy seconds. 
I was not conscious of any sensfition of nau- 
sea or giddiness, but a decided consciousness 
of disturbance, sensation of pricking about the 
region of the heart, and a great pain about the 
main artery in the upper portion of the leg, 
like a severe rheiimatic pain, which increased, 
and though in bed, it settled into a dead cold- 
ness and want of circulation, which were not 
removed till I took two stiff glasses of stimu- 
lants; since that I have had no inconvenience. 



it, and continue to do so. " I confess I waa 
a little surprised to find a man of Dr. Ellis's 
intelligence relying with so much confidence 
on such a remedy, and I asked an explanation 
of its virtues, but this he was not prepared to 
give. If any reader tries this or the foregoing 
remedy, I should be pleased to know the re- 
sult." 



Expanding the Chest. 

Take a strong rope, and fasten it to a beam 
overhead; to the lower end of the rope attach 
a stick three feet long, convenient to grasp 
with the hands. The rope should be fastened 
to the center of the stick, which should hang 
six or eight inches above the head. Let a per- 
son grasp this stick with the hands two or three 
feet apart, and swing very moderately at first 
— perhaps only bear the weight if very weak — 
and gradually increase, as the muscles gain 
strength from the exercise, until it may be used 
from three to five times daily. The connection 
of the arms with the body, with the exception 
of the clavicle with the breast bone, being a 
muscular attachment to the ribs, the effect of 
this exercise is to elevate the ribs and enlarge 
the chest; and as Nature allows no vacuum, 
the lungs expand to fill the cavity, increasing 
the volume of air, the natural purifier of blood, 
and preventing the congestion or the deposit 
of tuberculous matter. We have prescribed 
the above for all cases of hemorrhage of the 
lungs, and threatened consumption, for thirty- 
five years; and have been able to increase the 
measure of the chest from two to four inches 
within a few months, and with good results. 
But especially as a preventive we would recom- 
mend this exercise. Let those who love to live 
cultivate a well-formed, capacious chest. The 
student, the merchant, the sedentary, the 
young of both sexes — aye, all — should have a 
swing on which to stretch themselves daily. 
We are certain that if this were to be practiced 
by the rising generation in a dress allowing a 
free and full development of the body, many 
would be saved from consumption. Independ- 
ently of its beneficial results, the exercise is an 
exceedingly pleasant one, and as the apparatus 
costs very little, there need be no difficulty 
about any one enjoying it who wishes to. — Dio 
Lewis. 



ES71C Ec@fi©|«Y. 



Grapes and Their Use. 

The following, from the Portwlogist and Gar- 
dener, is not entirely out of place even in this 
chosen home of the grape, and especially at 
this commencement of the grape season: — 

A correspondent of the Pomologist and Gar- 
dener says: — I have often been surprised that 
so few people know of any other use for grapes 
than to eat them from hand or to make them 
into wine. Why, they are good to cook! Yes, 
strange as it may appear, they are most excel- 
lent stewed for sauce, make a very rich tart or 
pie, the nicest of jellies, no fruit better canned. 
Can be dried with less trouble than most any 
other fruit. But the seeds, the great rough 
seeds, what do you do with them? We rough 
country folks care nothing for the seeds, we 
eat 'em. But it you do not wish to eat tliem, 
all you will have to do is to procure a brass 
wire sieve (they are on sale made expressly for 
the purpose) with the meshes between the 
wires just coarse enough so that the seeds will 
not pass through, squeeze the pulp and seeds 
from the skins, throw the skins into one ves- 
sel, and then rub the pulp through the sieve 
into another; but when well cooked, it stirred 
a little, the seeds will mostly settle to the bot- 
tom, and be out of the way. To dry them, cut 
the canes with the fruit and all the leaves on 
them, and hang them in the sunshine. They 
will dry in a few days, and can then be packed 
away for winter use, when they will be found 
better, when properly cooked, than most any 
other dried fruit. 

And the best thing about the whole grape 
business is that the coaser, easiest grown and 
most unpalatable of our grapes are the best 
for cooking purposes. And I have no doubt 
but that there is now, and will be produced, a 
line of grapes too pulpy and austere to be 
eaten raw at all, but will be very fine for cook- 
ing, like some pears. I have now a large, 
beautiful and productive white grape that will 
keep fresh and sound through the winter, and 
though entirely unfit to eat, I have no doubt 
but that it will prove splendid when stewed. 

Secrets of Tea-Making. 

Chemists tell us that theine is the peculiar 
principle which constitutes the virtue of tea. 
Without this element it would be valueless as 



Nasal Catarrh. — A medical writer says: "I 
will give a remedy for nasal catarrh which I 
think of some value. Many cases of catarrh 
are caused by inability of the liver to perform 
its functions properly. In such cases there is 
often a too alkaline condition of the blood. 
When this is the case, the liver does not take 
out as much of the carbon and other substances 
as it should, and the mucus membrane of the 
nose becomes a dumping ground for the foul 
matter. If persons thus affected will squeeze 
the juice of a good sized lemon into half a tum- 
bler of water, and drink it without sugar just 
before dinner, they will, if they live hygienical- 
ly, be surprised to see how soon the catarrhal 
difiiculty will diminish. When it fails to do so, 
it may be considered as due to other causes." 

A Rilibon Round the Throat. — The same writer 
says : — Dr. Ellis gave me a simple receipt for 
throat and lung affections with which 1 pro- 
pose to close this article. Upon my remarking 
on my tendency to such affection, he said 
"Now Doctor, you may go home and thank 
God for having seen me, for I will give you a 
simple remedy that will be the means of pro- 
longing your life many years. Get a silk rib- 
bon an inch or more wid*", tie it about your 
neck and wear until worn out and then replace 



a beverage. It may interest tea-drinkers who 
think tea is all right because it comes from 
China. In California we have some security 
for the purity of home wines. Grape-juice is 
cheaper than any material which can be got to 
adulterate wine; but around the tea-shipping 
ports of China, millions of pounds of all sorts 
of leaves are yearly gathered and made into 
spurious tea, as one- third the cost of the genu- 
ine. These are mixed in varying proportions 
with genuine tea. They are known to the trade 
as " cheap Canton teas." They are rendered 
deleterious not so much by the substituted leaf 
as by the unwholesome chemistry used to dis- 
guise the imposition. But last year a new 
article made its appearance in quantity in the 
London Tea Exchange. It came from Shang- 
hae, and it was found to be made of willow 
leaves so perfectly resembling tea as to be de- 
tected only by experts. Half a million pounds 
of this sham tea were made at Shanghae, in 
1870. The leaves are gathered in Spring-time 
and treated exactly as tea leaves in the man- 
ufacture. It is all mixed with green teas, in 
varying proportions of 20 to 40 per cent., ac- 
cording to conscience. The former figure satis- 
fies the Chinese factor, while the conscience of 
the Christian trader is said to have much greater 
elasticity. It should be known to tea-drinkers 
that, instead of theine, the active principle of 
willow leaves is salacene, which has properties 
nearly the same as quinine. This is much 
more sleep-banishing than theine, and its 
habitual use will generate fatal congestions of 
the internal organs. Till we raise our own tea, 
the almost universal adulterations should tend 
to made us sparing in the use of low-priced 
teas. 

Why Some abk Poor.— Cream is allowed to 
mould and spoil. Silver spoons are used to 
scrape kettles. The scrabbing-brush is left in 
the water. White-handled knives are thrown 
into hot water. Brooms are never hung up and 
are soon spoiled. Dish-cloths are hung where 
mice can destroy. Tubs are left in the sun to 
dry and fall apart. Clothes are left on the line 
to whip to pieces in the wind. The pie-crust is 
allowed to sour, instead of making a few tarts 
for tei. Dried fruit is not taken care of in 
season and becomes wormy. Vegetables are 
thrown away that would do warm for breakfast. 
The cork is left out of the sugar jar, and the 
flies take possession. Bits of meat are thrown 
out that would make hashed meat or hash. 
Coffee, tea, pepper and spices are left to stand 
open and lose their strenKth. Pork spoils for 
the want of salt, and beef because the brine 
wants scalding. 



40 



p&mmQ &wm^s ipmBea« 



[July 19, 1873. 




PUBLISHED BT 

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to extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper, 
Inserted at special rates. 

SAN FRANCISCO: 

S aturday, July 19, 1873. 
TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

OKNERAI. EDITORIALS. -Spice Plants— Gin- 
ger; GraBses of the Coast Counties, 33. The Grangers 
in Council; Farmers their Own Shippers: List of 
Granges in the State, 40. Arctic Travel and Adven- 
ture, 41. HORTICULTURE. — The Green- 
house, 41. , . 

ILLUSTRATIONS —Spice Plants, 33. Jordan s 
Horseshoe Attachment, 38. Whaling Fleet in the 
Arctic Reeions, 41. 

CORRESPONDENCE. — San Joaquin Valley 
L*nd«: Silk Culture; "Crazy Disease;" The Lady Bug; 
Homenpsthy and Wooden Shoes, 34. 

FARMERS IN COUNCIL.— San Jose Farmers' 
Club; San Joa(iuiii Farmers' Club; Sonoma County 
Farmers' Cluli; Santa Cniz Farmers' Club, 36-7. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES Irom various coun. 
tlcn in California. 37. 

USEFUL INFORMATION.— Insect Life— Some- 
thing to Think About; Eyes; Hearing by the Teeth; 
Cultivation of Fish in Ditches and Ponds, 39. 

GOOD HEALTH. -Sensations Produced by the 
Inhalations of Nitrous Oxide Gas; Expanding the 
Chest; Nasal Catarrh, 39. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Grapes and Their Use; 
Secrets of Tea-Making; Whv Some are Poor, 39. 

HOME CIRCLE. — The Patron's Song (Poetry) ; 
Marriage; " We Shall Know Each Other There; " 
Cleaning Gilded Ware; Value of What is Common; 
Devicesof Autumn Leaves; Life-Rests; Industry and 
Economy, 42. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. —Animal Adapta- 
tion: Fun and Astronomy; Vegetable Flowers; A Game 
for Children, 42. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — Early Breakfast; Cure for 
Horses Pulling at Halter; Interesting to Tobacco 
Users, 34. An April Holiday; Steam as a Fire-Ex- 
tlngultiher; Effect of Sunlight on Flour; A Telescopic 
Comet; Position of the Planets for July; Hardening 
of Dried Peas in Boiling. 35. Seedlings; Pinching 
Berry Canes; Wool in New York; Comparative Value 
of Fruits: Rape as a Honey Plant, 38. Patents and 
Inventions; Foraye Crops for Dry Climates, 44. 



The First Grange in Alameda County. 

On Thursday, the 10th inst., the farmers of 
Oakland Township organized a Grange of the 
Patrons of Husbandry, to be known as Temas- 
cal Grange. 

General Deputy N. W. Garretson, assisted 
by Mr. Nash, of the Napa Grange, conducted 
the ceremonies of the occasion. The farmers 
present represented the genuine cultivators of 
the soil, and are among the best citizens of 
Alameda county. All expressed themselves 
pleased with what they learned of the Order, 
and confident that Temascal Grange would be- 
come a strong one, and a power for good in the 
community. 

The officers that were not chosen at the pre- 
liminary meeting were duly elected, making 
a fiill list as follows: Master, A. T. Dewey; 
Overseer, Christian Bagge; Lecturer, Dr. E. 
S. Carr; Steward, J. B. Woolsey; Assistant- 
Steward, Jno. S. Collins; Secretary, Chas. H. 
Dwinelle; Gate-Keeper, P. H. Cordes; Ceres, 
Mrs. Emily Bagge; Pomona, Mrs. A. T. Dewey; 
Flora, Miss Elinore Bagge; Lady Assistant- 
Steward, Mrs. Nellie G. Babcock. Before ad- 
journing, the Grange passed a resolution ex- 
pressing their satisfaction at the manner in 
which Deputy Garretson had conducted the 
ceremonies, and congratulating the officers of 
the National Grange on their selection of so 
good a man to represent them on this coast. 
Mr. Nash gave very encouraging accounts of 
the working of the Napa Grange, and invited 
the Master, Dewey, and his lady to accept their 
hospitality during the session of the State 
Grange. The hamlet of Temascal, where the 
Grange meets, is about two miles north of the 
city of Oakland and nearer the farming centre 
of the township than the latter place. The P. 



The Grangers in Council. 

Organization of a State Grange. 

A State meeting of the Masters and Past 
Masters from the various local Granges of Cal- 
ifornia met at the Odd Fellows' Hall, in 
Napa, on Tuesday last, to organize a 
State Grange, under the direction of Worthy 
Deputy N. W. Garretson, who has re- 
cently arrived here from the East for this espe- 
cial work. The attendance was quite full, 
nearly all the Masters being accompanied by 
their wives, as Matrons in the Order. It is 
rarely that a more substantial or more enthu- 
siastic company of delegates has ever assembled 
in California. 

The Masters and Past Masters assembled at 
1.30 p. M., when the following Committees were 
appointed: Committee on By-Liws — J. D. 
Fowler, A. T. Dewey, G. W. Heuning, K. C. 
Haile and W. H. Baxter. 

Committee on Rules and Order of Business— 
Thos. Merry, T. Hart Hyatt and A. Clark. 

Reports were received from all the Masters 
present is regard to the standing of the Order 
in their various localities, to which we shall 
refer at length next week. 

Address by Worthy Deputy N. W. Garretson. 

Matrons and Husbandmen of California. I grett you 
here to-day. And in the name of our brotherhood, num- 
bered already by hundreds of thousands, I bid you wel- 
come to its counsels. In their name and in behalf of 
Napa Grange, I bid you welcome , welcome to their de- 
lightful valley, welcome to their beautiful little city 
welcome to every Patron's home, where I promise you 
a hospitality as cordial , as its comforts are abundant. 
So feel yovirselves at home, while the guests of yotir 
brethren. It seems but as yesterday (so short is the 
time) since your now fair and fruitful State was unre- 
claimed, unsought and unvalued but for its golden 
sands. Its civilization (if such it may be called) con. 
fined to mining camps, and its bread and fniits supplied 
from distant fields. Very soon, however, it was demon- 
strated that the capabilities of these valleys for produc- 
ing the cereals was as great, as'their adaptation to fruit 
culture was complete. The^ effect of this was, not 
only to change the dreams of emigrants to this land 
of gold and sunny skies, but it marked a change 
also in the character of the new-comers. Women, the 
refining guardians of our race, now swelled the caravan 
that stretched across the Plains and poured over the 
mountain range, or that landed from the crowded 
steamer. Men and women with strong arms and brave 
hearts were now coming to make homes and plant upon 
the Pacific Coast a new civilization. Your experiences 
In reaching California then, though bitter at the time, 
are garnered with the traveled past, and serve you now 
— a store of wonders to those who still cross the Conti- 
nent, born in palaces of luxurious ease. 

I am persuaded that in no State have the industries 
found so rapid a development as in California; with 
reference to agriculture especially is this trxie. At a sin- 
gle bound she takes her rank, from a land of mining 
camps to the first wheat-producing State in the Union, 
exporting last year to England alone not less than 
500,000 tons. While the product of your gold fields 
has been great, and has largely swelled the treasures 
of the world, the product of your wheat fields, under 
judicious tillage, will be far greater, affording a 
more abiding wealth, and promising a prosperity 
by far more stable. The fertility of your soil is equalled 
only by the enterprise and intelligence of its tillers. 

I utter this not as words to flatter, but as the sum of 
my observations since I have come among you. I think 
I see in the farmers of California, that quick discerning 
intelligence, which is not found so general among that 
class as a whole, elsewhere with this characteristic attri- 
bute these men might have successfully prosecuted al- 
most any business pursuit; but seeing the wondrous ca- 
pabilities for profitable production oflered by the diver- 
sity of soil and climate in this bcautif\il summer land, 
their hearts were wont to respond to the invitations giv- 
en of comfort and enjoyment in farm life. So they turn- 
ed away from other pursuits, to that, above all others, 
God given and enobling— agriculture. 

Little did they dream while their thoughU were giv- 
en to the work of their hands; in producing bread for 
the hungry of all classes, loading their tables with the 
rich product of orchard, vineyard and garden, that many 
of those beings thus fed, were plotting and combin- 
ing for the impoverishment of their benefactors. 
Yet it 1; true that these same men, who stand between 
you and the market, and whose duty It is to transfer 
and distribute the products of your labor to and among 
the consumers of the same, for a reasonable toll, have 
combined to flank the law of " demand and supply," 
forming rings and comers at your expense, and are 
gambling recklessly and wickedly— your rights and 
your mont-y being their stakes. By so doing they have 
gotten to themselves fortunes, made up of the differ- 
ence between what the producer has received and that 
which the consumer has paid; and, to complete the 
work of their aggrandizement and your ruin, this Ill- 
gotten gain is employed as a comiptlon fund, to turn 
aside the arm of justice, and buy the men, to whom 
you have entrusted your dearest interests in the State 
and National Legislatures. Laws that have sheltered 
you from the rapacity of these capital combinations 
are quickly repealed, and other laws are enacted 
by which other rings are formed to prey as 
vampires upon our material and industrial interests. 
Salaries extravagant, without precedent elsewhere, 
are fixed for your public fnnctionaries; while the system 
of prodigality is inaugurated which, if continued, 
must terminate in yourbankruptiy, for. to meet this un- 
wise expenditure of public funds, heavy assessments of 
tax must be made, and in the apportionment of which 
a descrimlnation, as unscrupulous as It is invidious, is 
made against the farmer in the Interest of the money 
power. 

This work of public corruption and labor impover- 
ishment, to which I have alluded In your State here, is 
by no means confined to California; but is wide-spread 
and threatening throughout our whole country. Its 
deadly leaven has been at work in the coimsels of our 
nation, and threatens to-day more than does any other 
agency, the overthrow of our free government. At the 
sight of developments within the few months past at 
Washington, good men grow sick and turn away. 

As unpromising as this picture makes our future to 
appear, we have grounds for hope: the people are the 
source of all power to govern In this land; and thank 
God they are waking np all over the land, in almost 
every hamlet and school house. The farmers, yes, and 
the farmer's wives— God bless them— are in council. 
And for a like purpose you are here convened to-day. 
Y'ou come together at the call of duty; as American cit- 
izens you come; as representatives of the great produc 



necessities of the hour; you are here to bring about a 
more perfect understanding among yourselves, as also 
a more perfect union. 
We are here to form the 

California State Grange of Patrons of Husbandry. 

Y'ou will rememlwr that the eyes of the oppressed 
farmers, all over this State, arc turned to you for relief, 
while your enemies will most diligently scrutinize 
your every act. Conscious, then, of the weight and 
Importance of your duties here, you will, after making 
a common stock of the Individual wisdom and experi- 
ence of each, as the State Grange of California, define 
for the order in this State, a line of future action, which, 
in your judgment, will, at the earliest possible day, bring 
relief to the now suffering plowman of California: one 
that will most surely emancipate labor from the des- 
potism of capital combinations; one that will bring 
about the needed reforms in your State and inter State 
commerce, and drive ^from places of honor and trust 
the corrupt hordes wlio have fattened upon your sub- 
stance. 

With clean hands and pure hearts shonld we come to 
8Uch a work. Therefore let each lay upon the common 
altar of this new order whatever he may have of selfish 
ambition, or of mercenary motive; and, joining hands, 
let us covenant, upon the very threshold of our State 
organization, that the meetings, the counsels and the 
labors of the order in California shall be dedicated to 
the cause of justice and humanity. 

That we pledge each to each other, that we will labor 
faithfully, patiently, earnestly and persistently, to 
purify the moral, social. business and political atmo- 
sphere of our State and Nation, bearing ever in mind 
that if we would triumph in the unequal conflict upon 
which we now enter, we must fear God, obey our laws 
and maintain our honor; not forgetting that a good 
matron, as also a good husbandman, is noted at all 
times and everywhere for her fidelity . 

Representing as I do, in this State, the Worthy Master 
of the National Grange, It Is made my duty (for a time 
at least) to preside over your deliberations, and being a 
stranger In your State and to most of the members pre- 
sent, you will readily comprehend the cmbarassments 
of my position. I shall therefore plead the forbearance 
of you, my sisters and brothers, feeling as I do, assured 
of your hearty co-operation with me, to make this, the 
first session of your State Grange, a blessing to the 
State and country at large, remembering that business 
rather than talk is the work we have in hand. You will 
pardon me for consuming, as I have already done, so 
much of your time, and allow me at once to call your 
attention to the work before us. 

At 4 o'clock the doors were opened to all 
members of the Fourth Degree, and the un- 
written work of the Order was exemplified. 
Evening Session. 

An informal evening session was held at 8 
o'clock, at which most of the Masters and their 
wives, who are Matrons in the Order, together 
with visiting members, were present, and at 
which further instruction was given in the un- 
written work. 



bar of Granges in the Union, 
follows : 



Alabama is 

Arkansas M 

Georgia 31 

iJlinois 632 

Indiana 231 

Iowa 1,760 

Kansas 282 

Kentucky 1 

Ixiuisiana 7 

Masachuseta 1 

Michigan 34 

Minnesota 287 

Mississippi U9 

Missouri 400 

Nebraska 205 



The list is as 



New .Jersey 3 

New York 6 

North Carolina 30 

Ohio 67 

Oregon 12 

Pennsylvania 3 

South"Carolina 128 

Tennesee 47 

Texas 1 

Vermont 23 

Virginia 3 

West Virginia 1 

Wisconsin 670 

Colorado 1 

Dakota 7 



O. address of the Master and Secretary is Oak- I '»K interests of California, and as representatives from 
1 J I your respective Granges yon are here. You are here tD 

^''"'^' I consider the state of the country, and to dlscoss the 



List of Granges in the State. 

Our list of Granges, as given last week was 
copied, in part from other prints, whereby a 
few errors occurred, which are corrected in the 
following : 
BKNNETT VALLF.Y GRANGE, Santa Ro«a. Son.ima Co, : 

Nelson (;.vrb. Master; J. H. Plank, Sec'y. 
BODKGA liRANGE, Bodega, Sonoma Co. : .1. H. IIeoeleb, 

MjiBter. 
CAMBKIA GRANCE, Oambrin, San Luis Obispo Co.: 

RUFUs Kioi>ON, Master; C. 11. Irvins. Sec'y. 
CUIcO GllANGE, Chico, Buite (Jo.: W. M.Thbop, Master; 

J . \\. Scott. St-c'y. 
DIXON (iRA.VOE. Dixon, Solano Co. : J. C. HERBTFiELn, 

Master; Jamf.s A. Ellis. Sec'y. 
ELMIRA GRANOE.Vaca station, Solano Co.: J. A. Clabk. 

Master ; M, D, CooPEB, Sec'y. 
URAYSONGKANiiK, liravsun. Sianlslaus Co.: I. 0. Gar- 
dener. Mnsler; G. H,4:nplanil. Sec'v. 
GLENi'C liRANcJE, Uueiioc, Lake Co.: J. M. HiMiLTON. 

Master; A, A, KircuiK, SecV. 
HEALDSBUR(; (iRANGE. Healdabnrg. Sonoma Co,: T. 

H, Mkrby. Master: L, M. Holt Seoy. 
HOLLISTEK GKANUE, No. 11, Holliater. Monterey Co.: 

J. D EowtER, Master: S. F. Oow.\N. Sec'y. 
.MERCED GRAN(;E. Merced, Merced Co.: H. B. JOLLEY. 

Master. E, R, Elliott, Sec'y, 
MOkO CrrV grange, Mon., San LuiaUbispo Co.: A. J. 

Mathkbs»-ad, Master; U. J. Stanley, Seo'y. 
NAPA CJRANGE, No, 1, Napa City. Napa Co.: W. A. 

KisHEn. Master; .J. «'. Wabd. Sec y, 
OLD CRbEK GRANGE OlitUreek, San Luis Obispo Co. : 

Isaac Elovd. Master: R. M. PBF.STON. Sec'y, 
PESCADEROCiRANGE, Pcseadero. Sun Mateo Co,: B,V, 

Weeks. .M^JSter; H. B. Sprague, St-c'y. 
PETALl MA GRANUE, Pciaiuma. Sonoma Co.: L. W. 

Wai.kER, .Master; D. G. HEALD. Sec'y, 
PILOT lllLLilRANGE, Pilot Hill. EI Dorado Co. : [Offl 

cers not reported, ] 
Point of timber orange, Antloch p. O.. Contra 

Costa Co.: R, G, Dean. Master; J, E. W. Cabet, Sec'v. 
SACRAMENTO ORANGE, No. 12, Sacrament . Sacra- 
mento (,'o, : W. S. Manlove, Master ; Geo, Rich, Sec'y. : 

both Sacramento. 
SALIDAGRANGE, No, 8, Modesto P. O., Stanialaas Co : 

.losF.PH REvnuu.v, Master; Lafayette Dickey, Sec'y. 
SALINAS GRANGE, Salinas, Monterey Co.: N. L. Allen, 

M.t>t<T: Samuel Cassidy, Sec'y. 
SAN LUIS UBI.^PO GRANGE, San Luis Obispo, San Lais 

(lliispo Cci ; Wm. Jackson, Ma.Ht«r; G, V. S.mith, Sec'y. 
SAN .)OSE GRANGE, No, 10, Sau .lose, Santa Clara Co.: 

OLIVKRt:nT-rLK, Master: S. H, Hf.RUINo, Sec'y,. San Jose, 
SA.NTA ROSA (iRANGE, Siinta Ri.sa, SonomaCu,: GfX). 

W. Dwis, .Master : .1, A. OuREEN, Sec'y. 
STANISLAUS (iRANGE, M.>dc8io, Stanislaus Co.: J. D. 

Sl'lCNcFR, Master; ,Jas, McHenry, Sec'y, 
ST, HKLENA GRANGE, St. Helena. Napa Oo : O. B. 

C'BANE, Master: ,J, L, Edwabds, Sec'y. 
SUISU.-V VALLEY GRANGE, Suisun, Solano Co.: R. C. 

Haile, Master: A. T. Hati II. Sec'y. 
SVCAMORK liRANiiE. Grand Island, Colusa Oo.: J.J. 

HICOK. Master; J. C, Wilktns, Sec'y, 
TEMASCAL GRANGE, Oakland P, O, Alameda Co.: 

AlfbeI) T, Dewet. Master ; Chas. W, Dwinfxle, Seo'v. 
TURLOUK GRANGE. Turlock. Stanislaus Co.: J. W. A. 

WuiijKT, Master: John A. Henderson, Sec'y. 
VACAVILLE (iRANGE, Vrtcaville, Solano Co.: T. Haet 

Hyatt, .Master; T, Hakt Hyatt, Jb,, Seoy. 
WEST SAN JOAQUIN GRANGE, Ellis. San Joaquin Co.: 

E. B. Stiles, Master; H, W, Fassett, Sec'y. 
WINDSOR (iRANGE, Windsor, Sonoma Co.: A. B. Nal- 

LEY Masttr: J, Mci'LEt.LAN. Sec'y. 
YOLOGRANGE. VVoo.iland, Yolo Co.: W. M. Jackson, 

Master: D. Schindleb, Sec'y. 
VOUNTVILLE (iRANiiK. VountvlUe, Napa Co,: J. M. 
^MayfielI). Master; T. B, Hoi'rEB, Sec'y. 

The Masters of the above Granges were pres- 
ent, and most 01 them with their Matrons, with 
the exception of the following named Granges: 
Cambria, Moro City, Old Creek, Pilot Hill, 
Point of Timber and San Luis Obispo. 

E. Lindsey represented Windsor Grange by 
proxy from its Master. 

San Jose Grange was represented by G. W. 
Henning, who has been elected Master in place 
of O. Cottle, resigned. 

Number of Granges in the United Sfafes. 

A telegram from the National Grange at 
Washington, reached Deputy Garretson, dur- 
ing the Afternoon Session giving the total nnm- 



To the above may now be added California, 
with 35, making a total of granges 4,943, em- 
braced within 31 difi'erent States. There are 
also 8 granges in Canada, where the order bids 
fair to flourish and become a power for good. 
In this State there are 3 more in Sonoma and 
7 in Los Angeles county, anxiously waiting for 
the presence of an organizing officer. Of this 
number we are advised, and presume there are 
many more waiting in the game manner. The 
number in Oregon awaiting for organization is 
very large and constantly increasing. There 
were 1,105 Granges instituted in the United 
States during the year 1872. 

Fanners Their Own Shippers. 

When we suggested in our 5th of July issue, 
that in a year or two onr farmers or the 
Granges would procure their own ships and 
ship their own wheat, rather than continue to 
submit to outrageous extortion in the matter of 
freight, there were not wanting those who 
could "phoo" at the suggestion, as something 
entirely impracticable; and yet we leam Irom 
a reliable source, that the farmers of San Jos^ 
have procured their own steamer and now ship 
their own finit to San Francisco, and make a 
saving of 25 cents on each box over the cost 
by railroad. 

Now if the fruit men of a single fruit dis- 
trict of a single county can procure their own 
steamer, what prevents them from procuring 
many, if many are needed ? and if they can 
procure steamers, why may not the farmers 
of the whole State, through their Granges or 
otherwise, procure ships for wheat — a commod- 
ity in no respect as perishable as fruit — as well 
as a single district or co uimunity can for fruit ? 
It is just as easy for the Granges of this State, 
to have their own warehouses, store and ship 
their own grain in ship s of thtir own procu»- 
ing, as for the farmer of Illimns and Oregon to 
do it, and they have already done and are still 
doing it to a large extent. 

We again predict, that uuless we can procure 
from those who have hitherto made it a busi- 
ness to export our wheat, a reduced scale of 
freight charges, that the farmers of California, 
through their Granges or otherwise, will do 
their own shipping, in ships of their own pro- 
curing. 

Beet-Sdoab Prospects. We hear from Sac- 
ramento of the continued favorable prospects 
of the sugar-beet crop of the Sacramento 
Beet-Sugar Company. Their large area of 
acres, in the vicinity of their sugarie, with 
some GOO acres at Daviesville, will keep their 
works in operation from August to February, 
or longer by three months than last year, with 
every prospect of a splendid campaign. 



Organization of thb Statb Gbangb. — We 
give in another column full particulars of the 
meeting at Napa, for the organization of the 
State Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, so 
far as they reached us up to the hour of going 
to press. We shall resume and complete the 
report of the meeting, in our next issue. The 
session will probably continue four days, ad- 
journing on Friday, July 18. 

A Day Around Stockton.— We have found 
time, within the 1 tst year and a-half , to get 
outside the city of San Francisco, just far 
enough to see Stockton and its suburbs; this 
was on last Tuesday, and had to borrow money 
enough to get back with. Full account next 
week. 

Silk Makufactube. — The statistics of this 
industry in the United States indicate a most 
surprising and gratifying increase. Ten years 
ago it was in its infancy, and purely an experi- 
ment; now it has attained to vast proportion'^, 
and bids fair to speedily become one of the 
most prominent manufactures of the country. 
The recently published annual report of the 
Silk Manufacturers' Association contains the 
statement that $30,000,000 are invested in this 
industry in the country, and 16,000 operatives 
are employed, whose wages reach $8,000,000, 
and the value of whose production is estimated 
at between $30,000,000 and $40,000,000.— 
Manufacturer and Buiider. 



July 19. 1873.] 



41 



HoF^Y'CJLTlJf^E. 



Tbe Greenhouse. 

There is a rather general cnstom in this city 
of attachiog to the windows of dwellings a 
building or a balcony, or compartment for 
plants and flowers, and nothing that we are ac- 
quainted with appears to lend such an exqui- 
site air of refined elegance, as is imparted in this 
way by the presence of even a few well-grown 
plants in bloom. The impression which this 
creates in persons, both outside and in, is 
most pleasureable. The intention of an addi- 
tion of the kind is evidently to increase the 
embellishments of the dwelling house, both 
externally and internally. For the former 
purpose it is essential, for obvious reasons, 
that it partakes, in general outline at least, of 
the proportions, appearance of style of the 
building, and, to possess a pleasing aspect in 
the interior, should be formed with every re- 
gard to lightness that is consistent with the 
requisite strength. Ample opportunity for 



to gardeners and gardening than may be 
readily conceived. 

Watering should be conducted with much 
judgfQent and dare. Some individual plants 
that have begun a vigorous growth will require 
a liberal supply, while others still in a dormant 
state comparatively should have but little more 
than sufficient to preserve vitality, until they 
are induced by the season to begin, like their 
fellows, the development of their new parts. 
The inactive state which all plants fall into at 
some part of the year, but chiefly in winter, 
may be likened to the sleep of animals, and 
the water which is poured into the soil about 
their roots as their natural food. Therefore, 
to give water in any quantity to a plant in this 
state would be as injurious and as unreason- 
able as to awake a tired and exhausted man to 
eat a full meal of heavy food. The quantity 
supplied should at all times be proportionate 
to the apparent condition of the plant. It is 
true, by the continual application ef stimu- 
lants, plants, like animals, may be kept in an 
active state beyond their natural periods ; but 
equally alike such will ultimately sufi'er from 
the unnatural efforts their systems are thus 
forced to make. 

A pure atmosphere must be preserved about 
plants, a duly regulated supply of air and light. 



Arctic Travel and Adventure. 

The recent disastrous termination of the 
Polaris expedition, resulting in the death of its 
noble leader, Captain Hall, and the virtual 
abandonment of the enterprise, has turned 
public attention to a great extent towards 
those icy seas. Since the events connected 
with the failure of the expedition have become 
public, people who never gave the subject a 
second thought, have begun to read the nu- 
merous works on Arctic exploration, and have 
a better idea of the purposes for which the 
diff'erent expeditions were inaugurated, and 
the objects they sought to accomplish. Opin- 
ions differ as to the practical results to follow, 
even if the most sanguine expectations were 
realized. 

Leaving aside all romance and theoretical 
conclusions as to travel in these regions, the 
hardy American whalers know that there is 
money to be made thereabouts, which is an all- 
sufficient incentive for them to go there . Dur- 



after the wind shifted to west, setting the ice 
on shore and drifting it with great force against 
the ships. Several ships were caught and crush- 
ed at that time. The former experience of the 
masters told them that at this season of the 
year the ice would float off shore, and they ex- 
pected it would then do so. The ships were lying 
in a narrow strip of water with ice on one side 
and land on the other. The northeast gale, 
which it was expected would liberate them, did 
not come, but instead the southeast and south- 
west gales piled the ice and bergs up until the 
vessels were crushed. Several ships were out- 
side, and the crews of the wrecked ones took to 
their boats, abandoning their ships, and boarded 
those of their more fortunate comrades. An 
idea of the situation of these vessels, raised up 
and crushed by the ice, can be seen in the ac- 
companying illustration. Only seven out of the 
forty-one ships were saved at the time, but sev- 
eral have been taken out of the ice since. The 
majority, however, were a total loss. The sailors 
experienced considerable hardships while in the 
open boats, but were safely brought to Honolulu 
by the rescued vessels and thence to this city. 
The immense power of moving ice is well 
illustrated in this instance, nnd no doubt tbe 
experience of that cruise damped the ardor of 
many a whaler and incipient explorer. As 







WHALING FX.EET IN THE ARCTIC REaiONS, 



ventilation should be secured by the opening 
of the front sashes, and the ends may be so 
arranged as for one to be a glass door, and the 
other a glass sash, or whatever may be most 
anitable and convenient. 

There may be wooden stages in it, or there 
may be an ornamental and grad>iated wire 
stand, but they should be so constructed by 
leaving a path or paths so as not to obstruct the 
passage, either in front or rear; and this places 
the plants in a position to be seen to the utmost 
advantage from the rooms, without excluding 
the light from them, as there are many finely 
leavA plants, whose veins and formation are 
rendered exceedingly lovely by being so 
Tiewed — the Begonias for instance. This is 
indeed just such a place as a lady would select in 
which to collect her favorites, and enjoy their 
fragrance and beauty. 

A thoroughly good, practically useful green- 
house is a constant source of pleasure, and 
indeed profit, to the possessor ; but unfortu- 
nately, in very many instances, either from 
erroneous plans, or an extravagant and need- 
less waste of material, it is made as nearly the 
opposite as though such had been the intention 
of those that contrived it. Exorbitant charges 

nd bad construction have done more injury 



All vegetation progresses most rapidly beneath 
a moderately subdued light. To reduce the 
force of the mid-day sun is often highly ben- 
eficial. In spring give air and water moder- 
ately, increasing the quantity as summer 
draws near. Autumn treatment should be near- 
ly like that of spring. Watering should be done 
in the evening during summer, and in the 
morning in winter. 

Sulphur dusted over those parts affected by 
disease or insects is the best corrective for 
mildew ; tobacco smoke will eradicate green- 
flies, or aphides, and a high moist temperature 
is the only remedy of real worth against the 
ravages of the red spider; a sponge, and clean 
water will remove scale and mealy bug.s 



Saffron. — A correspondent, L. L. R., San 
Diego Co. says he finds that saffron grows per- 
fectly well on the mesa, entirely without water, 
and asks information of its value, etc. It was 
formerly extensively employed as a coloring in- 
gredient, but now very little used for that pur- 
pose; it possesses therefore little or no com- 
mercial value* 



ing the whaling season, the peculiar barks 
whoso paint, rig, and boats distinguish their 
calling, may be seen searching the seas on 
both sides of the Continent for their bulky 
prey, and cruising about in every direction. 
The men become inured to hardship and rough 
weather, and seem to prefer the occupation to 
any other. It occasionally happens, however, 
that most disastrous consequences result in 
the voyages to the Arctic, and numbers of ships 
are lost every year. No year, perhaps, will 
compare with that of 1871, in loss of life and 
property. Among the perils recorded may 
be mentioned the loss of the Arctic whaling 
fleet in the ice off Icy Cape. The fleet con- 
sisted of 41 ships, which arrived off the Capo 
on the 6th of August. The wind was blowing 
from the northeast, bringing down largo quan- 
tities of ice, HO it was with difficulty that they 
worked their way to Blossom Shoals, latitude 
70O 20' north and 121 J west._^ They found a 
passage here from half to three-quarters of a 
mile from the shore to the main body of ice, 
through which they passed. As they advanced 
it became wider, and the fleet kept ascending 
as far as Wainwright Inlet. During several 
weeks they had a numbc« of severe storms 
and winds from south to northwest, Soon 



these mon work on a "lay " or .share of profits, 
the whole voynge was a dead loss to thorn as 
well as the owners. Massachusetts was the- 
heaviest sufferer, and most of the vessels bo- 
longed there. The whaling captains on this 
coast became great observers of the movement* 
of currents, ice flows, tides, etc., and have n< 
great stock of valuable inforraotion on such 
subjects. Many of them are very intelligent,, 
observant men, who keep records of many 
peculiar facts which would not appear in au 
ordinary log-book. The Coast Survey is in- 
debted t o them for considerable valuable 
information concerning the coast about Alaski* 
and above . 

Algaboba Beans.— The stock of Algnroba 
beans, which we noticed as ready for dLstribn- 
tion to applicants, free, is entirely exhausted. 
Applications poured in upon us to that degree 
that, though wo in no instance exceeded 25 in 
number to a single applicant, they were all 
gone in a few days. We hope to receive a fur- 
ther invoice before the next year's planting 
season, for general distribution. An article on 
the identity of the Algaroba and Carob tree ia 
received and will be given next week. 



42 



^A^tTw mfwnMM ^m^si 



[July 19, 1873. 




The Patron's Song. 

The Oskosh (Wieoonsin) Times publishes the follow- 
ing song, written by Mrs. M. F. Tucker, of that State 
for which she received the prize of tweiity-flve doUare, 
offered by the National Grange: 

T'is onrs to guard a sacred trust, 

We shape a Heaven-born plan: 

The noble purpose, wise and just, 

To aid our fellow man. 
From Maine to California's slope. 

Resounds the reaper's song: 
"We come to build the nation's hop«. 
To slay the giant Wrong." 

Too long have avarice and greed, 

With coffers running o'er. 
Brought sorrow, and liistress and need 

To labor's humble door. 
Frcm Maine to California's slope, 

Resounds the reaper's song; 
"We come to build the nation's hope. 

To slay the giant Wrong." 

A Royal road to place and power. 

Have r;ink and title been; 
We herald the auspicious hour. 

When honest worth may win. 
From Maine to California's slope. 

Resounds the reaper's song, 
"We come to build the nation s hope, 

To slay the giant Wrong." 

Let every heart and hand unite 

In the benignant plan; 
The noble purpose, just and right. 

To aid our fellow man. 
From Maine to California's slope. 

Resound tie reaper's song; 
"We come to build the nation's hope. 

To slay the giant Wrong." 



Marriage. 



Man and woman , and especially young 
people, do not know that it takes years to 
marry completely two hearts, even of the 
most loving and well assorted. But nature 
allows no sudden change. We slope very 
gradually from the cradle to the summit of 
life. Marriage is gradual, a fraction of us 
at a time. A happy wedlock is a long fall- 
ing in love. I know young persons think 
love belongs only to the brown hair, and 
plump, round, crimson cheek. So it does 
for its begining, just as Mt. Washington 
begins at Boston Bay. But the golden 
marriage is a part of love which the bridal 
day knows nothing of. Youth is the tas- 
sel and a silken flower of love, age is the 
full corn, ripe and solid in the ear. Beau- 
tiful is the morning of love, with its pro- 
phetic crimson, violet, purple and gold, 
with its hopes of days that are to come. 
Beautiful alto is the evening of love, with 
its glad remembran.ce, and its rainbow 
side turned to heaven as well as earth. 
Young people marry their opposites in 
temper and general character, and such a 
marriage is called a good match. They do 
it instinctively. The young man does not 
say, "My black eyes require to be wed 
with blue, and my over-vehemence re- 
quires to be a little modified with some- 
what of dullness and reserve." When 
these opposites come together to be wed, 
they do not know it; each thinks the other 
just like itself. 

Old people never marry their opposites; 
they marry their similars, and from calcu- 
lation . Each of these two arrangements 
is very proper. In their long journey, 
these two young opposites will fall out by 
the way a great many times, and both get 
out of the road ; but each will charm the 
other back again, and by and by they will 
be agreed as to the place they will go to 
and the road they will go by, and become 
reconciled. The man will be nobler and 
larger for being associated with so much 
humanity unlike himself, and she will be 
a nobler woman for having manhood be • 
side her, that seeks to correct her defi- 
ciencies and supply her with what she lacks, 
if the diversity be not too great, and there 
be real piety and love in their hearts to be- 
gin with. The old bridegroom having a 
much shorter journey to make, must asso- 
ciate himself with one like himself. A 
perfect and complete marriage is, perhaps, 
as rare as perfect personal beauty. Men 
and women are married fractionally; now 
a small fraction, then a large fraction. 
Very few are married totally, and they on- 
ly, I think, after some forty or fifty years 
of gradual approach and experiment. 
Such a la.ge and sweet fruit is a complete 
marriage that it needs a very long summer 
to ripen it, and then a long winter to mel- 
low and season it. But a real, happy mar- 
riage of love and judgment between a 
noble man and woman, is one of the things 
so very handsome that if the sun were, as 
the Greek poets fabled, a god, he might 
stop the world in order to feast his eyes 
on such a spectacle. — Theodore Parker. 



•'We Shall Know Each Other There," 

Another of earth's children has been 
called to the flowery land— an innocent 
little child, that, like the early buds of 
spring, was blighted by an untimely frost 
—the frost of death, the chilling influence 
which all of us must one day feel. An- 
other home and many hearts have been 
made empty and desolate: another bright 
link in the family chain has been severed, 
never to be again united on earth. Could 
all those whose spirits are bowed down in 
sorrow and grief for some dear one sud- 
denly taken from among them — could 
they believe the same ones to be with 
them, sorrowing when they sorrow, and 
rejoicing when they rejoice, sharing 
with them all the cares and burdens 
of life, we are sure the path of their 
lives would seem more smooth and bright. 
But because they have thrown off that gar- 
ment, the flesh, by which they knew them, 
and put on another so subtle and etherial 
as to be imperceptible to our gross phy- 
sical senses, they begin to doubt the truth 
of a future state; or, if they are satisfied on 
that point, they fear that if they are per- 
mitted to meet their long-lost loved ones, 
it will not be to recognize them: a suflS- 
cient cause for great grief, we think. 

The idea of another existence in which 
we shall all meet as strangers — father, 
mother, sister and brother all so changed 
that they know not one another, is more 
saddening than the thought of annihilation 
itself. It is true that we all feel a pang of 
sadness and regret when wo say "good-bye" 
to a friend who is about starting off on a 
journey, to be absent only a short time, 
and whom we hope to meet again in the 
form. But how much sadder it is when 
we wish to say "good-bye," but know that 
we can receive no reply from the closed 
lips, and no smile from the once bright 
eye ! Then it is that feelings rise up in 
the soul that mere words can never por- 
tray . It would oftentimes prove a great 
blessing and a still greater comfort, if the 
experience of one could answer for two or 
more. There are persons who both see 
and feel spirit forms; but as only a few 
are possessed of that peculiar temper- 
ament and organization most pliable in 
the hands of spirits, many must live in 
doubt and gloom when severe trials come, 
notwithstanding the proofs and tests re- 
ceived by others. 

The day is fast approaching, however, 
for each one, when the misty curtain, that 
separates the great future from the fleeting 
present, will be lifted, and we will be per- 
mitted to behold the shining shore with 
all its angel throng waiting to welcome 
us when we shall have crossed tlie rapid 
river of Time. "We shall know each oth- 
er there !" — Ex. 



CiiEANiNQ Gilded Ware. — In cleaning 
gilded ware, there is a difference to be ob- 
served between articles gilded by fire or 
by the galvanic process, and articles gilded 
by imitation gold, such as frames, for in- 
stance. For cleaning articles gilded by the 
first-named methods one part of borax is 
dissolved in sixteen parts in water. With 
this solution the article is carefully rubbed 
by means of a soft sponge or brush, then 
rinsed with water, and finally dried with a 
linen rag. If at all convenient, the article 
is warmed previously to being rubbed, by 
which means the brilliancy of it is greatly 
increased. In cleaning gilded frames of 
the last-named order, pure water only must 
be employed, and the rubbing off of the 
impurities must take place by means of a 
slight pressure. Wares of imitation gilt 
are generally covered with a shellac or res- 
in varnish, which wonld be dissolved by 
the application of soap-water, alkaline 
solutions, or spirits of wine. Were the 
varnish off, the exceedingly thin layer of 
gold or silver leaf beneath would also dis- 
appear. In our experience we have seen 
hundreds of once valuable but now worth- 
less frames, they having become thus 
simply by the application of soap-water. 

Value of What is Common. — Through 
the vulgar error of undervaluing what is 
common, we are apt indeed to pass these 
by as but of little worth. But, as in the 
outward creation, so in the soul, the com- 
mon is the most precious. Science and 
art may invent splendid modes of il- 
luminating the apartments of the opulent; 
but these are all poor and worthless com- 
pared with the light which the sun sends 
into our windows, which he pours freely, 
impartially, over hill and valley, which 
kindles daily the eastern and western sky; 
and so the common lights of reason, con- 
science, and love, are of more worth and 
dignity than the rare endowments which 
give celebrity to a few. — Channing, 



Devices of Autama Leaves. 

An exquisite transparency may bo made 
by arranging pressed ferns, grasses, and au- 
tumn leaves on a pane of window-glass, 
laying another pane of the same size over it 
and binding the edge with ribbon, leaving 
the group imprisoned between. Use gum 
tragacanth in putting on the binding. It 
is well to secure a narrow strip of paper un- 
der the ribbon. The binding should be 
gummed all around the edge of the first 
pane, and dried before the leaves, ferns, kc, 
are arranged; then it can be neatly folded 
over the second pane without difficulty. 

To form the loop for hanging the trans- 
parency paste a binding of galloon along 
the edge, leaving a two-inch loop free in 
the center, afterward to be pulled through 
a little slit in the final binding. These 
transparencies may either be hung before 
a window, or if preferred, secured against 
a pane in the sash. 

In halls a beautiful effect is produced in 
placing them against the side-lights of the 
hall-door. Where the side-lights are each 
of only a single pane, it is well worth while 
to place a single transparency against each, 
filling up the entire space, thus affording 
amplescope for a free arrangement of ferns, 
grasses and leaves, while the efl'ect of the 
light passing through the rich autumnal 
colors is very fine. Loaves so arranged will 
preserve their beauty the entire winter. 

An exceedingly pretty standing for a lamp 
can be formed of eight oblong transparen- 
cies (made of glass and autumn leaves, as 
described) tacked together with sewing-silk 
so as to form an eight-sided, hollow col- 
umn. To hide the lamp candlestick, the 
screen should be lined throughout with 
oiled tissue paper, either white or of a del- 
icate rose color. 

A better plan still is to get the effect of 
ground glass by rubbing each strip of glass 
on a flat paving-stone, plentifully covered 
with white sand. This grinding process, 
ot course, must be j)erformed before the 
leaves are inserted, and then only upon 
the inner sides of the glasses. 

Life-Rests. 

Thus writes Lilian A. Falkner, in the 
NeiB York Musical Gazette : " There is no 
music in a 'rest,' but there is the making 
of music in it." In our life-melody the 
music is broken off here and there by 
"rest," and we foolishly think we have 
come to the end of the tune. God sends 
us a time of forced leisure, sickness, dis- 
appointed plans and frustrated efforts, and 
makes a sudden pause in the choral 
hymns of our lives, and we lament that 
our voices must be silent, and our part 
missing in the music which ever goes up 
to the ear of the Creator. 

How does the musician read the ' 'rest?" 
See him beat the time with unvarying 
count, and catch up the next note true and 
and steady, as if no breathing-place had 
come between. 

Not without design does God write the 
music of our lives! Be it ours to learn the 
tune, and not be dismayed at the "rests," 
they are not to be slurred over, not to 
be omitted, not to destroy the melody, not 
to change the key-note. If we look up, 
God himself will beat the time for us. 
With our eyes on Him we shall strike the 
next note full and clear. Then if we say 
satUy to ourselve s, "There is no music in 
a rest," let ns not forget "there is the mak- 
ing of music in it.'' The making of music 
is often a slow and painful process in this 
life. How patiently God works to teach 
us! How long He waits for us to learn 
the lesson ! 

Industrt and Economy. — Everybody 
wants to be well off. The question is fre- 
quently asked:— "How shall a poor young 
couple start aright, so as to rise to com- 
fortable fortune ? The first point is for the 
poor young husband to make a confidant 
of the poor young wife. In that way he 
will secure her co-operation. W^omen are 
naturally economical, notwithstanding the 
general outcry about female extravagance. 
And when a woman's heart is full of wed- 
ded love, there is hardly any sacrifice 
which she will not gladly make for the 
sake of her husband, if he trust her. 
The husband can best determine the way 
and point out the course to fortune; but she 
can best administer the domestic estate 
in such manner as to make the most of the 
husband's earnings. Industry and sagac- 
ity on the part of the husband, combined 
with economy and prudence on the part of 
the wife, will slowly but surely lay the 
foundation of a prosperity which may be 
not only permanent but beneficent. In 
this sense it is an eternal truth which the 
poet utters in the line: "As the husband, 
1 80 the wife is." 



Y®^hq poLKs' GoLUpi(l. 

Animal Adaptation. 

Thronghout the animal creation, the adaptation of the 
color of the creature to its haunts is worthy of admira- 
tion as tending to its preservation. The colors of Insects, 
and multitudes of the lower animals, contribute to their 
concealment. Caterpillars which feed on leaves are gen- 
erally green or have a large proportion of that hue in the 
color of their coats. As long as it remains still, how 
difficult it is to distiugiiish a grasahopiM-r or young lo- 
cust from the herhBge or leaf on which it rests! The but- 
terflies that flit aruuuil among flowers are colori'd like 
them. The small birds whicli frequent hedges have 
backs of a greenish or brownish-green hue, and their 
IxjUies are generally whitish or light colored, so as to 
harmonize with the sky. Thus they Ijecome less visible 
to the hawk or cat that paBsos above or below them. 
The wayfarer across the fields almost treads uixin the 
skylark before he sees it rise warbling to the heaven's 
gate. The goldfinch, or thistleflnch, passes much of its 
time among flowers, and it is vividly colored according- 
ly. The partridge can hanlly be distinguished from the 
fallow or stubble among which it croucliee, and It is an 
accomplishment among sportsmen to have a good eye 
for liudiug a hare sitting. In northern countries, the 
winter dress of hares and ptarmigans is white, to prevent 
detection among the snows of those inclement regionii. 

If we turn to the waters, the same design is evident. 
Frogs even vary their color according to that of the mud 
or sand that forms the bottom of the ponds or streams 
which they frequent — nay, the tree frog takes its 8pe<-iflc 
name from the color, which renders it so difficult to see 
it among the leaves, where it adheres by the cupping- 
glass-like process at the end of its toes. It is the same 
with fish, esiM'cially those which inhabit the fresh 
waters. The backs, with the exception of gold and sil- 
ver fish, are ct»mparatively dark, and some practice is re- 
quired Ix^fore they are satisfactorily made out, as they 
come like shadows and so depart, under the eye of the 
spectator. A little boy once called out to a friend to 
" come and s««, for the bottom of the brook was mov- 
ing along." Tlie friend came and saw that a thick shoal 
of gudgeons, and roach, and dace was passing. It is 
quite difficult to detect "the ravenous luce," ip old 
Izaak calls the pike, with its dark green and mottled 
back and sides, from the similar tinted weeds among 
which that fresh water shark lies on the watch as motion- 
less as they. Even when a tearing old trout, a six or leven- 
poimder, sails, in its wontonness, leisurely up stream, 
with his back fin partly above the surface, on the look 
out for a fly, few, except a well traiuKl fisherman, can 
tell what shadowy form it is that rimples the wbimpling 
water. 

But the bellies of fish are white, or nearly so, imita- 
ting in a degre<' the colors of the sky, to deceive the otter, 
which generally takes its prey from below, swimming 
under the intended victim. Nor is this design less man- 
ifest in the color and appearance of some of the largest 
terrestrial animals; for the same principle seems to be 
kept in view, whether regard be had to the smallest in- 
sects or the quadrupedal giants of the land. 



Fnn and Astronomy. 

Dr. Trail, of Philadelphia, has matls a very unpleas- 
ant discovery. In about seven years Jupiter, Satnm, 
Uranus, and Neptune will approach nearer the earth 
than they have been in eightt^'n hundred years, and the 
result will be a pestilence. When Congress has the man- 
liness to make astnjuomy an indictable ofl^ense, then we 
shall have relief fn>m tbes*' things, but not before. It 
was not a long while since that some one predicted that 
the earth would b.' swamped with a deluge, and you 
couldn't borrow an umbrella or a pair of rubbers from 
any one. The next idiot said a comet would strike and 
demolish the earth in a twinkling. Whereupon many 
excellent people tied their beds and carpets about their 
premises, and put cotton in their cars, and Bat down on 
the cellar bottom in dreadful expectation of the shook. 
Hardly had this alarm passed oiT when another astron- 
omer came round telling peiiple that the Niagara Falls 
would be dry in less than nineteen thousand yearn, and 
nothing would do but that people should hurr}' right out 
there and take a farewell look; and in less than twenty- 
four hours there weren't people enough in Danbury to 
entertain a Japanese hermit. And now liere is Trail with 
four planets and no vaccine matter. All the tobacco- 
chewers art; to be killed by these planets, and young 
ladies who wear stays, and men who bet on the wrong 
horse. If we understood the old si'oundrel correctly, 
the onl people saved are those who drink lemon^e out 
of a dipper and play Copenhagen with their aunts.— 
Danbury Newi. 



Vegetable Flowers. 

Boys and girls who live in the country will find the 
making of vegetable flowers pleasant pastime. To make 
a bouquet of these flowers take some white and yellow 
turnips, beets, carrots and pumpkins, also some parts of 
cabbages. Oather from the woods moss, laurel leaves 
and other evergrec-us. Then, by the exercise of taste, 
ingenuity, and the skillful use of the penknife, really 
beatitifnl bouquets can be compiled of these flowers. 
Take a white turnip, neatly jK-eled, notched, or cut down 
in leaf shajw all around. Fasten it on a stick whittled 
in the proper shape for a stem. Surround it with grt^-n 
leaves, and behold, according to your design, an exquis. 
ite whiti' camellia, or a rose. Red ros<s, camellias, or 
dahlias, can be made in the same mamier from tjeets; 
yellow flowers from carrots or pumpkins; aoss-roge buds 
from turnips and beets, by cutting them into the proper 
shape and placing real moss around them. White or red 
flowers can be made from white or red cabbages. A 
friend of ours, one cold day in winter, had a lovely bas- 
ket of flowers sent to her for a tea-party. There were 
two white japonicas: the chill they received turned them 
brown, and they fell to pieces. She was in despair. A 
cousin staying with her, unknown to her, cut two white 
japonicas out of white turnips, and placed them on the 
real japonica leaves. Her friend did not notice the bas- 
ket until near t'-a time: she was delighted, and exclaim- 
ed at their beauty, and wondered how tier cousin got th«m. 
No one knew until the next day that they were only tur- 
nips.— 0K»«- Op(ic'» Magaant. 

A Qame for Children. 

Among the many new games for children which hare 
recently been introduced. Is the following very pretty 
one, which we clip from the Rural AVie I'orker, and 
called " My Lady's Toilet :" 

The name of an article ol dress is given to each one 
of the company, chairs are placed for all the party but 
one, so as to leave one chair too few. They all seat 
themselves but one, who is called the Lady's Ua^ and 
stands in the center, when the Maid calls for any article 
of dress. The one who has that name instantly rises, 
repeats the word, and seats herself again. For Instance, 
the Maid says, " My Lady's up and wants her dress." 
" Dress," says the one who has that name, rising at the 
time she speaks, and sitting down again as quickly. 
" My Lady's up and wants her bnish." " Brush," aays 
Brush, Jiunplng up and repeating. " Her handkerchief, 
watch and chain," says each one of thnx', rising to- 
gether. " My Lady's up and wants her whole toilet I" 
When this is said, then every one must Jump up and 
change chairs, and, as there is one chair wanting, of 
course it occasions a scramble, and whoever la left 
standing must be Lady's Maid and call to the others, as 
Iwfore. 

" Caji't you love yonr neighbor as yonreelf , Johnny f " 
" Yes, ma; " then adding, reflectively, '• if he don't keep 
a dog that tries to bite little l)oys." 



July 19, 1873.] 



DEWEY & CO. 
American & Foreign Patent Agents, 

OFFICE, 338 MONTGOMERY STREET, S. F. 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats filed 
expeditiously; Patent reissues taken out; 
Assignments made and recorded in 'egal 
form; Copies of Patents and Assignments 
procured; Examinations of Patents made 
here and at Washington; Examinations made 
of Assignments recorded in Washington; 
Examinations ordered and reported by Tele- 
graph; Rejected cases taken up and Patents 
obtained; Interferences Prosecuted ; Opinions 
rendered regarding the validity of Patents 
and Assignments; every legitimate branch of 
Patent Agency Business promptly and 
thoroughly conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various in- 
ventions of this coast, and long practice in 
patent business, enable us to abundantly 
satisfy our patrons; and our success and 
business are constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventors 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals^ 
thereby faciUtating their introduction, sale 
and popularity. 

Foreign Patents. 

in addition to American Patents, we secure, 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
Patents, including Great Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Victoria, Peru, 
Russia, Spain, British India, Saxony, British 
Columbia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland, Den- 
mark, Italy, Portiigal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wurtemberg, New Zealand, New South 
Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
Grenada, Chile, Argentine Repubhc, AND 
EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD 
where Patents are obtainable. 

No models are required in European coun- 
tries, but the drawings and specifications 
should be prepared with thoroughness, by 
able persons who are famihar with the re- 
quirements and changes of foreign patent 
laws — agents who are reliable and perma- 
nently estabUshed. 

Our schedule prices for obtaining foreign pat- 
ents, in all cases, will always be as low, and 
in some instances lower, than those of any 
other responsible agency. 

We am and do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific States from two to six months 
(according to the location of the country 
sooNEB than any other agents. 

Home Counsel. 

Our long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the inventions 
already patented; hence we are frequently 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing them to the same 
thing already covered by a patent. We are 
always free to advise appUcants of any 
knowledge we have of previous appUcations 
which will interfere with their obtaining a 
patent. 

We invite the acquaintance of all parties con- 
nected with inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, beUeving that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business and professional men is 
mutual gain. Parties in doubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents, or pur- 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advice of importance to them from a short 
call at our office. 

Remittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the Government, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened that 
applicants have not only lost their mr>ney, 
but their inventions also, from this cause and 
consequent delay. We hold ourselves re- 
sponsible for all fees entrusted to our agency. 

The principal portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is still being 
done, through our agency. We are famihar 
with, and have full records, of all former 
cases, and can more directly judge of the 
value and patentability of inventions discov- 
ered here than any other agents. 

Situated so remote from the s?at of government, 
delays are even more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of the Pacific Coast than to apphcants in 
the Eastern States. Valuable patents may be 
lost by the extra time consumed in transmit 
ting specifications from Eastern agencies back 
to this coast for the signature of the inventor. 

Confidential. 

e take great pains to preserve secrecy in all 
confidential matters, and applicants for pat- 
ents can rest assured that their communi- 
cations and business transactions will be held 
strictly confidential by us. Circulars free. 

Engravings. 

We have superior artists in our own office, and 
all faciUties for producing fine and satisfac- 
tory illustrations of inventions and machinery, 
for newspaper, book, circular and other 
printed illustrations, and are always ready to 
Bssist patrons in bringing their valuable jis- 
coveries into practical and profitable use. 

DEWEY & CO., 
United States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub- 
lishers Mining and Scientific Press and the 
Pacific Rural Press, 338 Montgomery St., S. 
£. corner of California St., San Francisco. 



Journal of Commerce 

— AND— 

MERCANTILE DIRECTOR. 



Wc desire to draw public attention to|the fact that the 
" Pacific Coast Mercantile Dihectoh " is now Iciiown 
as the San Frnncisco Jonrnal of Commerce and 
Mercantile I>lrector.** 

It ii a new S-page monthly newspaper, of special in- 
formation for wnolesale and retail tradesmen. It also 
contains reading matter of interest and importance to all 
business and professional men on the coast 

OUR TABLE OF CONTENTS 
Comprises Full Prices Current and Monthly Review of 
the Wholesale Markets ; Diagrams of the Fluctuations of 
the Wheat Marljets; Rates of Ocean Freight— corrected 
monthly: Illustrations and Sketches of Prominent Men 
and Buildings ; Editorials on Manufacturing and Industrial 
Progress: Departments containing appropriate reading 
matter and reviews for various branches of trade, including 
"Grocery and Provision ;" "Dry Goods;" "Drugs;" "Build- 
ing;" "Trades and Manufactures," etc., eto. 

Our first issnes consist of 8 pages, embracing FORTi - 
EIGHT Columns of important reading matter forTrades- 
men — mostly original and by first-class writers. Sample 
copies, post piiid. 10 cts. Yearly subscription, in advance, 
$1.50. Subscribers to the Mining and Scientific Pbess or 
the Pacific Rgbal Pbess will be supplied at half price. 

Published by MURRAY, DEWEY & CO., 

At the Publishing Office of the Mining and Scientific Press 
and Pacific Rural Press, San Francisco. 




The Latest and Best in the Country. 

HAS A DOUBLE MOTION, 

Giving FAST or SLOW hpf.ed to the knife or sickle, besides 
all other improvements of first-class machines, a®* Send 
for Illustrated pamphlet, and don't fail to see the ^TNA 
before buying. 

TREADWELL & CO., 
Sole Affents Pacific States San Francisco. 
Old Stand, Market, head of Front Street. S22-im 



WE NOW OFFER TO THE FARMERS 

The Best Horse Fork in Use. 

The Fork is made in the most substantial manner, of 
steel, with hickory beads. They are so constructed 
that the Fork does not drop its load until the Fork man 
is ready to unload his Fork. Many maimed men can 
appreciate the value of this improvement who have 
been injured by the old style Forks. 

For sale by 

BROWN & DOANE. 

209 El Dorado street, Stockton, Cal. 
26v5-2m 



TO GRAIN, COTTON AND WOOL 
GROW E RS. 



The undersigned are prepared to extend every facility 
to Farmers who desire to ship their produce abroad. 

We will advance liberally on any shipments, only 
charging interest at the rate of 5 per cent, per 
annum. Freight at the chartered price paid the ship, 
insurance and other charges at the lowest rates obtain- 
able, thus netting the shipper the full value of his 
crops, while paying at the lowest interest for his 
funds. Any further information desired will be 
promptly furnished. 

J. C. Merrill & Co., 



204 and 206 California St., 



SAN FRANCISCO. 



MAIN & WINCHESTER, 




214 and 216 Battery St., 

SAN FRANCISCO, 

Have the Largest and Best 

Assort-Tiont of 

HARNESS, SADDLES, 
Bridles, 

WHIPS, 

SADDLERY, 

HARDWARE, and 

Collrirs 

Of every description, of their 

own and other manufacture, 

Ever Offered on the Pacific 

Coast. 

2Cv5-3m 



Anglo-Californian Bank. 

LIMITED. 

Successors to J. Selignnan & Co. 

London Office No. 3 Angel Court. 

San Francisco Office No. 412 California street. 

Authorized Capital^ock, $6,000,000, 

Subscribed, *3,000,00n. Paid in, $1 ,.''.00,000. 
Remainder .subject to call. 

DiBECToBR IN London— Hon. Kugh McCulloch, Reuben 
D. Sassoon, William K. SchoHold, f?aac Seligman, Julius 
Lington. 

MANAfiF.nS: 

K. O. SNEATn, IGIVATZ STKINHART, 

San Khancisi^o. 

The Bank is now prepared to open acconntn, receive rte- 

EOHits, m ike collections, buy and sell hxchanKv, and Issue 
letters of Credit available Ihioughout the world, and to 
loan money on proper seoaritles. 2vZ7-eowhp 



Farmers everywhere, write for your paper. 



Polishing and Fluting Iron. 




This new invention takes the place of two articles 
needed in nearly every house. As a POLISHING IRON 
it has no superior. The part used for Fluting is made 
of brass, and highly polished. A Receipt for making 
French Glossing Starch, that gives a superior polish, 
goes with each iron. The Polishing Iron and Fluter, 
being in one, are both heated at the same time. We are 
now prepared to furnish them in quantities to suit. 
Price, $3. 

WIESTER & CO., 
17 New Montgomery street, San Francisco, 
General Agents for Pacific Coast. 



The Pacific Irrigating Pipe and 
Pump Co., 



A. M. JEWELL, 

Superintendent. 

Office and Factory, South Point 

Mills, Berry street, between 

Third and Fourth sts., 

San Francisco. 

We call the attention of Farmers, 
Stockmen and others using wooden 
Pumps and Pipes, to the fact that 
we are now prepared to furnish all 
kinds of House and Farm Pumps, 
also Wooden Pipe of from 1!^ to 5 
inches diameter, at prices much less 
than any others in this market. 

Prices op Pumps .. .from $3.25 to $9. 

Prices of Pipe, from 10 to 50 cents 
per foot. 

B^"Ageuts wanted in every town. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 
23v5-3m 




IMPORTANT TO FARMERS,! 
Line to Liverpool 

DIRECT. 
The A 1 Ships 

TWILIGHT— Gates, Master, 

HELEN MORRIS— Chase, Master, 

BLUE JACKET— Grozier, Master, 

Are now loading and intended to sail with 
dispatch. To be followed by other vessels. 
Freight taken in lots to suit shippers. 

Apply to E. E. MORGAN'S SONS, 

320 California Street, 
San Francisco. 

THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 

Sanitary Hotel and Industrial 

COLLEGE ASSOCIATION. 

Incorporated Under the Laws of the State of 
Califobnia. 

CAPITAL STOCK 1250,000.00 

Divided into 2, .500 shares, of $100 each. 

The subscription books of this Association will be 
open on the 24th of this month (May, 1873), at the pres- 
ent office of the Association, No. 10, Temple Block, Los 
Angeles, California, where copies of the By-Laws and 
Articles of Incorporation can be had. 

President J. R. TOBERMAN. 

Treasurer F. P. F. TEMPLE. 

Secretary GEO. 0. GIBBS. 

Directors— George Stoneman, Thos. A. Garcy, and 
Wm. Moore. 
General Superintendent, F. M. Shaw. 



a. K. onMuixQs. 

1858. 



H. h rai.ston. 
1873. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1888. 
415 and 417 Davis street, cor. of Oregon, San Francisco 

Our bnsiniss being exclusively Commission, wc have 

io interests tbat will conflict with those of the producer . 

4v23-ly 

SEEDS! SEEDS! SEEDS! 

W. R. STRONG, 8 and 10 J at., Sacramento. 

Garden, Flower and Fiki.d Skkds ; Fnirrr, Hhadk, 
Forest and Eveuoreen Trek and Shrcr Seed : Tiieeh 
and Trek bEHDLiNos, Fruit, Timuer and Ornamental, 
supplied at the very lowest rates, from the largest and 
best nurseries here and In the Eastern Slates. 

Yick's Flower SeedH, Bulbs, Chromos and (Catalogues 

on hand and supplied at strictly his nitos. Seeds and 

small seedlings forwarded by "".ail to any part of the 

Ur '.ted States. Catalogues tur.ilshed free on application. 

Iilr5-3in 



Buyers Directory. 



Under this head will be found the names and address of 
some of our most enterprising and reliable buslnesB men. 

Linsley & Collins, Commission and Pro- 
duce Merchants. Particular attention given to the sale 
ot Dairy Produce, Smoked Meats, Lard, Poultry, KkKb, 
etc. .W7 Sansorae st., Ninntic Hiiildinn. San Francisco. 



T. R. Church, 223 Montgomery Street, 

(Russ House Block,) San Francisco. Wholeualc and re- 
tail dealer In Mens', Ytiutlis' and Boys' Fine Ctibti>m- 
made Clothing and Furnishing Goods: also Trunks, 
Valises, Ba(;s. etc. 



Luke G Sresovich & Co., Importers, 

Wholesale Dealers and Commission Merchantsin Foreign 
and Domestic Fruits. 519 Sansotne street, S. F. All 
ordera p romptl y attended to. 

A. Giorgiani, Importer and Dealer in 

Tropical and Dry Fruits; also California Wines. Bay Salt, 
and Lime Juice in ten-gallon kegs. Nos. 419 and 4*21 
Washington street, San Francisco. 



Brittan, Holbrook & Co., Importers of 

stoves and Metals, Tinners' Goods, Tor Is and Machines, 
111 and 113 California, 17 and 19 Davis streets, San Fran- 
cisco, and 178 J street, Sacramento. 



Jacob Schreiber, Dealer in Live Geese 

Feathers, Furniture Springs, Curled Hair, etc. The 
Cheapest House in the northern part of the city. No. 
62(1 Washingt'>n street, San Franciaco. 



Mrs. Curtis' First Premium Models, tor 

sale, wholesale and retail, by Mrs Barringer, 64 Fourth 
street, S. F. Patterns cut. and Teacher of her system of 
Cutting all kinds of Garmt'Pts in the latest styles. 



Henry A. Gullixson, Importer and Dealer 

in Carpets, Oil Cloths, Matting, etc., No. 

687 Market street. San Francisco. 

Lewis & Pander, Dealers in Stoves, 

Ranges, Tinware, and all Kinds of Kitchen Utensils. For 
the best and the cheape.st. go to No. 32 Ueary street, be- 
tween Kearny and Dupont. S._R 

San Francisco Wire Works. 665 Mission 

St., S. F. O. H. Gruenhagen & Co., Manufacturers oi al 
kinds of Wire Work lor (iardens, Cenieteriea, Flower 
Stands, Baskets, Tree Boxes, Arches, Bordering and 
Railing. 

A. Lusk & Co., Wholesale Commission 

Dealers in Oallfornla and Oregon Fruits, Grantees, Lem- 
ons, and all kinds of Canned and Dried Fruits, etc. Pa- 
cific Fruit Market, Clay st.. below Montgomery. S. F. 



Saul & Co., 579 Market Street, San 

Francisco. Manufacturers of Carriages. Wagons and 
Stage Work, of the most improved and practical styles. 



On Sing, Chinese Intelligence Office, 624 

Jackson street, between Kearny and Dupont, Siin Fran- 
cisco. Particular attention paid to orders for alt kinds ot 
Servants. Cooks. Waiters. Laboring; M en, etc. 

Warner & Silsby Manufacture all kinds of 

Bed Springs, including the Obermann Self-Fastening 
Spring, and the Westly Double Spiral, 147 New Mont- 
gomery street. 



Davis & Sutton, Commission Merchants, 

For California Fruits; also for the sale of Butter, Eggs, 
Cheese, Hops, (ireen and Dried Fruits, etc., 75 Warre i 
street. New York. Reft*r tu Anthony Halsey. Cashier, 
Tradesmen's National Hank, N Y. ; KUwanger A Barry, 
Rochester, N. Y, ; »:. W. Reed, Sacramento, Cal.; A. 
liusk & Co., Pacific Fruit Market, San Francisco, Cal. 



Carpets, Oil Cloths, Etc. 

THE CHEAPEST PLACE IN SAN FHANCI8C0 TO BUT 
Carpets, Oil Cloths and Upholstery Qooda, 

18 AT 

SCHLTJETER & VOLBERQ'S, 

14 Third Street Three doors from Market, 

San Francisco. 
6v5-3m 




It educates practically. Its graduates arc qualifled 
tor business and enabled tu till hu'rative sltuationH at 
once. Its coarse of Instniction Is adapted to all classes 
and all professions— to the farmer, mechanic, lawyer 
and iihysician, as well as to the man of btislnesa. It 
is jnst the school for young men or ladies, who wlsk 
to lenrn how to earn their own living and aticcced in 
life. Pupils can enter at any time, as each receives 
separate instruction. ScBsioi s day and fvenieg through, 
out the year For full parliculicis call at the College, 
24 Post street, or address for circulars 

E. P. HEAX,D, 

2v6-tf President Business College, San Francisco. 



AVERILL'S 

Of any desired Shade or Color, 
Mixed ready for application, and Bold by the Kalloo 

It Is Cheaper. Handsomer, more Durable and Elastic 
than tho best of any other Paint. 

Ofllce, comer Fourth and Townsond strcots, San 
Francisco. Sond for umple card and price list. 

16v2a.^nieowbp UEAXiT k JEWELL, Ageota. 

THE 

PEOPLES PRACTICAL POULTRY BOOK. 

A work of 224 pages on tho 

Breeds, Breeding', Bearing and Oeneral 

Management of Poultry. 

By WM. M. LEWIS, Now York, 1871 ; with over One 
Hundred Engravings. Bold by Dewet ft Co., Rural 
Press ofBce 'or $1.7fi, or sent postage paid for $3.00. 



44 



[July 19, 1873. 



(Continued ftoin Pasre 37.) 
SANtA BARBAKA. 

Index, July 3: Tobacco CuLXtTRE.— For many 
years, tobacco has been grown in a small way 
in various parts of California, and when super- 
intended by persons experienced in all the 
processes necessary to the production of a mar- 
ketable article, has always resalted satisfactor- 
ily. Last year a company of gentlemen 
commenced tobacco growing on a large scale in 
Santa Clara County, where they have two plan- 
tations. Under the Superintendence of Mr. 
Briggs the result was all that could be desired . 
This year they planted 441 acres of Havana and 
the coarser varieties, and next year they intend 
to put in one thousand acres. Land for grow- 
ing tobacco successfully must be warm, rich 
and moist, and the corn lands of Santa Barbara 
and other southern coast counties are especially 
adapted to its culture, as they are remarkable 
for all the necessary qualities. 
SONOMA. 

Democrat, July 12: Harvest.— Everywhere 
in this county, during the past week, the har- 
vest has gone briskly on. From every quarter 
the report comes in of an unexpectedly heavy 
yield of whe^t. We will have a large surplus 
to export from this county than the most favor- 
able estimates previous to the commencment of 
harvest. A farmer near this place, who did 
not expect from his field over twenty bushels, 
informs us that he will have from thirty-five to 
forty bushels. Mr. James McReynolds has left 
at this office specimens of his crop, which are 
superior to any we have ever seen even in this 
unrivaled wheat country. 
YTJBA. 

Appeal, July 10: Salmon Spawn.— Commis- 
sioner Stone, who returned from a trip north- 
ward on Monday, succeeded in completing 
arrangements for securing a large quantity of 
salmon spawn, when the season arrives for 
shipment East. The salmon ascends the Sac- 
ramento into Pitt river, and up Pitt into the 
McCloud to the base of Mt. Shasta, where they 
deposite their eggs. Along the bars of this 
river the spawn is found, and the Commissioner 
has made arrangements for gathering it up for 
shipment East. The McCloud river is one of 
the prettiest streams on the coast, receiving its 
supply of water from springs and snows of Mt. 
Shasta. It unites with the Pitt river about six 
miles northeast of the point where the Pitt 
empties into the Sacramento river. Those who 
have ascended it, speak of its rapid currents, 
clear water and deep basins. la the spawn ing 
season, or at about this time of year, it is filled 
with millions of fine salmon. 

Fbuit Market Glutted. — The shipment of 
peaches is falling off, owing to the low figure 
they have reached in the San Francisco market. 
John Briggs, who has been the largest shipper 
so far during the season, sent none forward 
yesterday, and shipments from other orchards 
■were lighter than usual. The present price 
in the San Francisco market just balances ex- 
penses, and the grower of the fruit works for 
nothing and furnishes land and capital. The 
early and late peaches pay very well for ship- 
ment. When they become abundant in the 
middle of the season, they must be dried or 
allowed to rot on the ground. The fruit of 
many of the smaller orchards will be allowed to 
go to decay. 

Grasshoppers. — The Alta suggests as a bar 
to the progress of the myriads of grasshop- 
pers that sometimes lay waste the vegetation 
of large districts of the State, the use of nets 
" with meshes an inch in diameter." Grass- 
hoppers could easily pass through a mesh of 
that size 2 or 3 abreast. And further says: 
" ordinarily they do not rise more than 5 feet 
in the air at one flight. We have seen them 
20 feet in the air and know they often go a 
fourth of a mile at a single flight; and we have 
seen a moving mass or belt of them 8 miles 
wide, and have known them to continue their 
ravages a distance of over 100 miles in a direct 
line. 

The Alta has evidently confounded the west- 
ern grasshopper, Calopienus spretvs, with the 
femur rxibrum or red-legged grasshopper-locust, 
or the large grasshopper which he may have 
chased barefooted along the dusty highways in 
his school-boy days. Certainly he entirely 
mistakes the habits of the grasshopper locust, 
80 destructive to vegetation in all the far west 
States both east and west of the Sierra Kevada 
mountains. 



A Protest. — The Farmers' Club of San Joa- 
quin county met last Saturday, when a me- 
morial to Congress was adopted opposing the 
granting of privileges and subsidies to the San 
•Joaquin and King Biver Canal. The memo- 
rial concludes with the following remonstrance: 
' ' Finally we respectfully but earnestly protest 
against granting any such privileges and subsi- 
dies as are proposed in said bill before your 
honorable body, believing their effect will be 
to fasten upon us a grasping corporae mo- 
nopoly, whose sole object will be to grow rich 
upon our necessities, and leaving us without 
power for self-protection." This expression 
from the people of San Joaquin clearly indi- 
cates the animus of the people all over the 
State in regard to the encroachments of the 
grinding and grasping monopolies. It is but 
the ebulition of the sentiment the people actual- 
ly feel, and indicates in terms which cannot be 
mistaken their determination to maintain their 
rights for self -protection. — Mercury. 




Telegraphic List of U. S. Patents 
sued to Pacific Coast Inventors. 



Is- 



(Fbom OmciAL Ekpobtb fob the Mining and ScrEN- 

TiFio Press, DEWEY & CO., Pitblishebs and 

U. 8. AND Foreign Patent Agents] 

By Special Dispatch, Dated Washington, 
D. O.. July lath, 1873. 

For Week Ending Jcxy 1st, 1873." 

Harvester and Thresher. — James H. Adam- 
son, assignor to Wm. Taylor and M. Stewart 
Taylor, S. F., Cal. 

Type.- William Shaw, Hollister, Cal. 

Engine Governor. — Joshua Hendy, S. F., 
Cal. 

Rotary Blower. — Bichard F. Enox, assignor 
to Palmer, Knox & Co., S. F., Cal. 

Bed Bottom. — Clinton V. B. Eeeder, San Jos^, 
Cal. 

Hydraulic Hoisting Apparatus.— Philip Hin- 
kle, S. F., Cal. 

*Tlie patents are not ready for delivery by the 

Patent Office until some 11 days after the date of issue. 
Note. — Copies of 17. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business for Pacific coast inventors transacted with 
greater security and in much less time than by any other 
agency. 



Forage Crops for Dry Climates. 

Extracted from a paper read before the Oakland Farm- 
ing, H. & I. Clubby C. H. DwntELLE. 

It is not the vegetarian alone who is depend- 
ent on the vegetable kingdom for food, although 
we are not all Nebuchadnezzars, yet we derive 
our nourishment from the grass of the field. 
It may be that it is partly in the form of beef, 
mutton, or other flesh, but its elements were 
first collected from the soil, water and air by 
some form of vegetation. 

As man advances from barbarism to civiliza- 
tion and domestic flocks and herds are substi- 
tuted for the uncertain^jes of the chase, the 
forage crop becomes of the first importance. 
In improved agriculture also, it holds a position 
second to no other. 

The Belgians have a proverb which says: 
"Ko grass, no cattle; no cattle, no manure; no 
manure, no crops!" In this are contained the 
most important principles of agriculture. The 
neglect of these principles has greatly injured 
and in certain cases ruined some of the garden 
spots of the earth. Especially is this true of 
those countries on the Mediterauean, which 
copied after the Egyptians, and raised crop 
after crop of grain, not reflecting that they had 
no Nile to enrich their laud by its annual over- 
flow. 

The nations of northern Europe have general- 
ly been wiser, in adopting a system of rotation 
between grain and forage crops, by means of 
which they not only keep up the strength of 
good land, but also change barren sands into 
fertile fields. Of all the means of improving 
land, none has been found so widely applicable 
as the raising of forage crops, either to be 
plowed in green, or to be fed to animals, and 
the manure returned to the soil. 

The culture of 

Forage plants 
Is of modern origin, and one can easilybelieve 
before its adoption, stock-raising was a very pre- 
carious business in most parts of the world. 
During the early history of New England the 
farmer relied upon the native growth of the 
marshes and swales for his winter supply of 
hay. When that fell short, his cattle must 
brouse in the woods or die, and it often hap- 
pened that he lost the half_or the whole of his 
stock. 

In those countries which'are subject to long 
droughts, the study of forage plants is of 
even greater importance than where the rain 
supply is evenly distributed through the year. 

It is sometimes said that anj' kind of climate 
may be found within the limits of California; 
and there is some truth in the remark. The 
peculiar form and position, and great extent of 
the State, would naturally lead one to look for 
variety in this respect. 

But with all this variety there is one pecul- 
iarity in climate which extends over the whole 
State, as well as much of the Territory adjoin- 
ing; the year is divided into a wet and a dry 
season. 

Notwithstanding the difficulties in the way, 
and the great losses sometimes incurred, graz- 
ing has been profitable as carried on by the 
Spanish rancberos. 

But a system may do for a Mexican State, 
and yet be ill suited to the wants of a thriving 
portion of the United States. Laud has risen 
very much in value, and to be profitable to the 
owner it must produce more than formerly. It 
is then of the first importance to know what 
plants are best suited to the wants of the case. 
Whether they are to be found among those al- 
ready growing in the State and needing only 
to be encouraged to occupy the land, or must 
be brought from other countries having a simi- 
lar climate. 

To Begin With the Native Plants, 

Mr. H. N. Bolander, late State Botanist, 
has made out a list of 140 grasses grow- 
ing in California. Of course a great num- 
ber of these are known only as curiosities, even 
among scientific men. Others are quite local, 
or if wide spread, of small value. Those that 



are of real importance to man at present, are 
very few in number. 

Wild Oats. 

Perhaps among the true grasses {Grainimci>) 
the wild oat {Avenafatwi) should stand first. 
It is a native of the countries about the Medit- 
erranean, Southern Europe and Northarn Africa, 
and it is quite probable that it was brought to 
this continent by the Spanish. It now grows 
everywhere west of the great mountain chain, 
from Patagonia to Oregon. 

Before 1835 it was not known north of San 
Francisco Bay, but about that time the whites 
began to extend their settlements in that direc- 
tion, and the wild oats went with them. 

The growth of wild uats is in some localities 
very luxuriant, and, if not fed ofi', gives an ex- 
cellent crop of hay. As it is an annual plant, 
it soon runs out if fed close or cut before the 
seed ripens. 

Probably there are few plants that give so 
large an amount of good green forage in a given 
time as Indian corn. The stalks can also be 
dried, and stored for future use, with much 
less care and risk than in the moister climate 
of the Atlantic States. 

Sorghum has been used in some of the terri- 
tories west of the Bocky Mountains, while it is 
prefered to Indian Corn as forage. 

The plant is in appearance much like Indian 
corn, and is cultivated in a similar manner. 
It attains a height from six to fifteen feet. 

Grasses Grown In California. 

On the reclaimed swamp-lands of the lower 
Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, almost all 
of the best grasses grown in the Eastern States 
do exceedingly well. Red-top, Timothy and Blue 
grass are among the favorites there. The clo- 
vers and alfalfa flourish also, on that kind of 
soil, but the latter is said to be killed by an 
overflow. 

The plant that is eaten by cattle, with per- 
haps greater eagerness than any other, is not a 
grass, but belongs to the geraninm family. Its 
popular name is Filaree, from the Spanish Al- 
filerilla ; also Pin Grass, Abild Geranium, etc. 
Among botanists it is known as Erodium cieu- 
lariuni, and its geographical range is very great. 
It is a weed in Europe, especially about the 
Mediterranean, and has been found in Aus- 
tralia, Asia, Northern Africa, Siberia, Great 
Britain, and some of the Atlantic States of 
America. It is supposed to have been intro- 
duced accidentally by the Spanish into their 
American colonies. It now extends on the 
Pacific Coast from Chili northward, and also 
grows on the Island of Juan Fernandez. Nut- 
tall found it so far from civilization that he 
said it was " undoubtedly not introduced." 

In California, far from being a weed, it is 
one of the most valuable of forage plants. 
The root is strong and strikes deep, and at its 
sammit sends out many spreading, succulent 
shoots, with plenty of leaves. The size to 
which it grows depends much upon the situa- 
tion. 

On a dry, barren hill it may live and mature 
seed when only two or three inches high ; in 
rich meadows it may often be found reaching 
two feet or more. Unlike many of the other 
forage plants of the region, it seems to increase 
in cultivated districts. As its seeds begin to 
ripen early in the season, enough are dropped 
before it is eaten, or exit, to ensure a growth 
the next year. 

A second species, E. Moschaium, is also 
found in this State, but not abundantly. 

As the Pulse family {Leguminosa;) furnishes 
some of the most important plants to the 
farmers of the Atlantic States and Great Britain 
— the "artificial grasses" of the English, the 
clovers, lucerne, sainfoin, etc. — so also in Cali- 
fornia its representatives are not wanting. 

Burr Clover. 

First in importance among tne members of 
the Pulse family has been burr clover ( JUedi- 
cago dentioilata), a low, spreading annual, 
wiiich, in its geographical range, must corres- 
pond closely with alfilerilla. One great value 
of it as a forage plant lies in its seeds. These 
are quite small, but very numerous, and con- 
tained in a slender pod, which is armed with 
hooks. When ripe, the pod is coiled into a 
sort of burr, which is well known to those New 
England manufacturers who buy wool from 
California, South America, or Australia. 

During the dry season, many of the best 
sheep pastures would appear utterly desolate 
to a New England farmer, and incapable of 
sustaining animals for a day. Upon close ex- 
amination, the ground is found to be almost 
covered with these small burrs, containing a 
store of rich, nutritious seeds. 

Alfalfa, or Chill Clover. 

A South American variety of lucerne (Medi- 
cago sativa), is one of the common forage 
plants of the Spanish American countries. 
It has spread to some extent in California, 
and has been tried as a cultivated crop. 
The opinions of the farmers seem to be quite 
various; some speak very highly of it, as to 
quality and quantity of yield; others think 
it poor stufi', and at best only to be used 
green. Perhaps the most serious objection 
brought against it is, that its large tap-root 
attracts the gophers. Lucerne has also been 
tried and is by some preferred to alfalfa. 

The most favorable location for alfalfa is one 
where the soil is rather loose, and the water 
near the surface. There is a great deal of such 
land in Kern and Tulare counties where the 
water is from five to fifteen feet from the top 
of the ground. Men who are certainly reliable 
on other subjects say that one acre of that 
land well set with alfalfa, will carry twenty 



sheep through the year. Even half of that 

number would satisfy moat of our sheep raisers. 

The Carob Tree. 

The Carob tree {('eratonia Silvpta L.) is an- 
other of the Leguminosae that deserves especial 
attention. Its natural home in the countries 
about the Metiterranean, has just such a cli- 
mate as California. As far back as history 
goes, its pods have been used as fodder for 
horses, cattle and swine. The pods are from 
6 to 10 inches long and about one wide, and 
contain, beside the seeds, a sweet pulp that is 
relished even by man. It is said that ship- 
loads of them are sent from Palestine to Con- 
stantinople, and that they are sometimes found 
in the fniit-shop of London under the name of 
St. John's Bread. Prof. Brewer says they are 
sometimes sold on the wharves of Boston and 
New York. They are sometimes ground and a 
sort of molasses expressed, which is used in 
making sweet-meats. The tree is of good size, 
with evergreen foliage, and will grow in almost 
any soil. The yield of a mature tree is given 
at from half a ton to more than a ton of the 
pods. In the Southern part of Spain the blos- 
soms appear twice each year, in February and 
September, and are both times followed by the 
fruit. 

For planting by the road-side, and on rough 
ground, there are few trees that would be likely 
to prove more profitable, giving shade, forage, 
food for man, and ultimately wood. The Mes- 
quit of Southern California, Arizona and New 
Mexico is a closely allied and valuable tree. 
New Use for the Mulberry. 

There is a case on record of a man in Ohio 
who, during a severe drouth cut down a flour- 
ishing mulberry tree and let his cow browse 
upon the top. The leaves and tender twigs were 
eagerly eaten, and while the supply lasted 
the flow of milk showed that they were well 
suited for forage. In the rich soil of the Cali- 
fornia valleys there is no tree that grows better 
than the different varieties of mulberry, and if 
polled, as they often are, the young shoots 
would probably be eaten by cattle, sheep, and 
goats, if not horses. 

Variety of Resources. 

Intelligent observation and experiment may 
yet add many valuable plants to our list. More 
than once the traveler has found that what was 
slighted, or treated as a weed, in his own coun- 
try was turned to profit in another. 

In conclusion— it seems plain that the inves- 
tigations undertaken in preparing this paper, 
although far from exhausting the subject, show 
a variety of resources open to the California 
farmer that leaves him inexcusable if he fails 
to provide an abundance of feed for his animals 
at all seasons. 

With a mild climate, and a rich soil, there is 
a great temptation to stock land to its full ca- 
pacity during favorable seasons, and neglect to 
make provision for the bad ones. It needs no 
Joseph to prophecy that there will be years 
when parts of California must snfl'er for want 
of rain ; the history of the state teaches that 
plainly enough. It behooves every good farmer 
therefore to abandon the loose, hap-hazard way 
of doing business that has been too prevalent, 
and to strive by a more thorough cultivation, 
and a wise selection of crops to place himself 
beyond the danger of the drought. That this 
is possible has lieen shown already by the ex- 
perience of a few, and those who fail to follow 
their example can have only themselves to 
blame if misfortune overtakes them. 



Inolkwood, the former residence of Mr. P. 

H. Sumner, assistant Secretary of the Farm- 
ers' Union, has been taken by Mr. W. S. Ed- 
wards and wife, and opened as a summer 
boarding place. It is in Napa Valley, in a beau- 
tiful spot near the White Sulphur Springs. 
The scenery and surroundings are peculiarly 
appropriate for those who desire a quiet lo- 
cality, away from the hum and noise of city 
life. A feature that should be mentioned is 
the fact that there is no bar on the place, a 
recommendation to ladies particularly. One 
great objection to going in the country in the 
summer, to many people is, that they are 
perhaps even more "in society" than when at 
home. There is not enough quiet and rest. 
A locality of this/iort, where there are plenty 
of trees, pleasant drives, etc., to which is 
added the charm of home life, in a fine house, 
well furnished, is sure to be appreciated. The 
parties who keep the place have done no ad- 
vertising, so it is as yet little known, but is 
nevertheless pretty well filled already. Ingle- 
wood is about 50 miles from this city, or al>ont 
three hours' ride by steamboat and cars. 



Subscribers, Examine Tour Accounts 
On the printed label pasted upon your paper or in wrap- 
per. If you are not credited, after paying rour subAcriptloo, 
write to 08 at once. It you hold a receipt, and tlie aKent 
fails to report vonr paymeat or the full term of your pay- 
ment, it h Impbrtam for m to Know It without delay. The 
following abbreviations arc used on some of our labels: 
Jny iy Apr ap Jul jl Oct oo 1873 7S 

Feb fb May my Aug «u Nov nv 1874 It 

Mar uir Jan jn Sep ap Dec dc 1B7S li 

Other flcures denote the day of the month paid to. 

Subscribers will alio oblige by notifying us of any mia- 
taket, discrepancies and irregularities of agents or mailing 
cUirks. 

For the very Best Photographs go to BRAD 
LEY k KUI.OFSON'S G.VLLEIIY. with an "Elevator,' 
429 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 26v4~eowbp3m 



Ik many parts of the country butter commands 
higher price when made and worked In the Blancbard 
Churn. The reason is, it it better than when mad* by 
band. • 



July 19, 1873.] 



^irmjj&. ^mm-si 



Wheat Market Quotations Compared. 



18T3. 



May 3 . 

5.. 
" «.. 
" 7.. 
" 8.. 
" 9.. 
" 10.. 
" 12.. 
" 13.. 
" 14.. 
" 15.. 
■■ 16.. 
" 17.. 
" 19.. 
•■ 50.. 
" 21.. 
" 22.. 
" 23.. 
" 24.. 
" 19.. 
•' 27.. 
" 28.. 
■' ».. 
" 30.. 
•' 31 . 
Jhn. 2.. 

3.. 

4.. 

5.. 

6.. 
" 7.. 

9.. 
" 10.. 
" 11.. 
" 12.. 
" 13.. 
•' 14.. 
•• 16. 
" 17.. 
•' 18.. 
'• 19.. 
•' 20. . 
" 21.. 
" 23.. 
" 2t.. 
" 25.. 
■' 26.. 
'• 27.. 



" 30. . 
JdijT 1 

2.... 

3... 

5... 
" 7... 

8... 

9... 
" 10... 
" 11... 
" 12... 
'• 14... 
" 15... 
" 16... 



8. F. 



1 82>i 
182>| 
1 91>i 
191^ 
I 90 
1 00 
1 90 
1 90 
1 90 
1 90 
1 90 
1 92}^ 

1 92;^ 

1 90 
1 90 
1 90 
1 90 

1 9iH 
182>^ 
1 80 
1 80 
180 
183>4 
1 82^ 
182)^ 
1 82^ 
1 82!^ 
1 82 's 
1 80 
I 80 
1 80 
1 80 
1 77>^ 
1 77^ 
1 72>i 

1 eia 

1 67'4 
1 67 !i 
1 67H 
1 6VA 
1 65 
1 6.5 
1 65 
1 85 
1 67H 

1 ma 

I 6-Hi 
1 67H 

1 67)^ 

'i'6'/;_ 

1 67^ 
1 67;^ 

1 ej'4 
1 S'lii 

1 65 
1 6.5 
1 62H 
1 62>i 
1 62!^ 
1 m'4 
1 62>^ 
1 62M 
1 62j^ 



IilTerpaol. 



2 m 

2 97ft 
2 97^ 



II 03 
a 03 
13 03 



2 89(32 91 
2 89@2 93 



92 91 
|2 91 
12 9i 
J12 87 
I2 87 



MAIL BE- 
POBTSt 


Mail 
A Tel 


S. F. 
& Tel. 






1.06H 


2 87@3 00 


11 


97M 






95 


2 85@2 98 


8 


96 
1.01 







1.01 


2 91@3 03 
■■2'95@3"6,V 


12 
'"12" 


1V65" 
1.05 
1.01'-^ 
1 03^ 


'2'99@3ii' 




1.06 
1.05 
1 05 






1 08 


3 01@3 13 


17 


1.10;^ 

1 io;l 






1 13 


2 99(0)3 11 


12 


1.13 
1.13 






1.10;^ 

1.14^6 
I.14(^ 


3 01@3 13 


11 






2 97@3 12 
■■2'95@3'i6" 


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l.i4;i 
1.14;^ 

1.21 
1.20 
1 20 


■■2'9i®309" 




1 20 
1.22'< 

.22;^ 

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.26;^ 
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2 89@3 05 


3 






1 23;! 






1 2iM 






1.23,'^ 
1 26 






1.26 






1.26 
1 26 






1.25>S 






l.25>i 






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l.2i<4 



*— The quotations given by telegraph to the Associated 
Press are mainly those of what are called by the agent of 
the Associateil Press Average California Wheat. In a 
few instances Club are given. 

+— These are quotations of California wheat in Liverpool, 
taken from the " Mark Lane Express." 

II — These differences are those between the mean price of 
California wheat in Liverpool as announced by telegraph. 
to the Associated Press and as published in the "Mark Lane 
Express,'' Id all cases the "Mark Lane Express" shows 
higher prices than the telegraph. 



S. p. PHi^f^KET ^EpOf^J. 



At whoesale when not otherwise Indicated. 



Weekly Market Review. 

[By our own Reporter.] 

DOBLESTIC PRODUCE. 

San Francisco, July 16, 1873. 
But little Wheat is now being exported inasmuch as 
farmers |are not in a hurry to get rid of their 
wheat at the prices now offered. They are wise in this 
as there is now abujidance of tonnage to move nearly 
two-thirds of the crop either on the way hero 
or here already; the quantity of Wheat which 
they can carry, equaling 5,700,000 centals ; and 
before they are loaded there will be as many more ont 
the way, so that there is no need of being in a hurry. 
The tonnage market is bound to come down, and just in 
the same proportion that it does, just exactly will 
Wheat go up. Wheat, this year, ought to command at 
least 25 cents more than it did last year, and this to the 
farmer means a good deal. 

We find In a late number of the New York World, a, 
clear and full statement of the causes that operated to 
produce the changes that the American, nay the world 
Wool market, has undergone during fhe last couple of 
years. From this it appears that by an oversight of 
Congress, Wool in the skin was admitted at a very low 
tariff, and that the leading wool importers took advan- 
tage to deluge the country with cheap foreign wools. Wool 
in the United States went down so low as to render it 
unprofitable to send to market. Consequently sheep 
were killed for other purposes, and American Wool, if 
we except that from the Pacific Coast, became scarce in 
New York, Boston and Philadelphia markets. Mean- 
while, the mistake in the tariff was discovered and rec- 
tified, and what remained of American Wool ran up to an 
unusually high figure. People imagined that this 
would be lasting, and the market again became stocked; 
hence the subsequent depression. The market there- 
fore cannot be expected to undergo any remarkable 
change during next year. 

Receipts. 
Receipts of Bay Produce for the past week have been 
less in amount by a good deal than during the one pre- 
ceeding. Receipts |of Flour have fallen off one-third; 
those of Wheat nearly one-half; those of Barley have 
increased a little; those of Oats have decreas- 
ed one-half[; of Potatoes, one-fifth; those of 
Wool have nearly doubled; those of Wine have fallen off 
one-third. We summarize receipts of Bay Produce to 
date as Flour 9,134 quarter sacks; Wheat 87,682 centals; 
Barley 10,974 centals ; Oats 241 centals ; Potatoes 
10,602 centals ; Corn 1 ,B50 centals ; Hides 
1,317; Wool, 902 bales; Wine, 28,245 gallons; Onions, 
675 centals; Hay, 1,362 tons; Straw, 95 tons; Bran, 811 
centals; Middlings, 135 centals; Mustard, 10 centals; 
Cotton; 29 bales. 

Receipts of Wheat at Oakland Wharf have aggregated 
30,241 centals, and those of Barley, 1 ,800. 

Receipts of Coast Produce for the week have aggre- 
gated 103 centals of Wheat; 3,311 do of Barley; 136 do of 
Oats; 2,835 do of Corn; 667 do of Potatoes; 123 boxes 
and 9 sacks of Beans; 35 centals of Peas; 58 do of Mus- 



tard Seed; 5 pipes, 1 keg, and 7 barrels of Wine; 1 bar- 
rel of Brandy; 357 Hides, and 417 bales, 5 half bales 
and 6 sacks of Wool. 

From Oregon, Portland, we have received 1,468 cases, 
150 barrels, 435 half barrels, 57 quarter barrels, 22 tier- 
ces and 2 sacks of Salmon; 4,134 quarter sacks and 1,220 
half sacks of Flour; 1,005 bales and 5 half bales of Wool ; 
178 Hides; 2,026 centals of Oats; and 385 do of Bran. 
Barley. 
Barley keeps still coming in in large quantities, and 
prices are weak. We note sales of 1,000 sacks of bright 
coast, etc., at $1.10; 2,850 do new feed, at $1.12 X; 500 
do coast feed, at $1.15; 600 do brewing, at $1.22 Ji, (30 
days;) 600 do choice brewing, at $1.27}^; and 2,600 do 
of prime brewing, $1.30. 

Batter. 
Butter still comes In freely and the market is heavy. 
Two car loads of Western Butter have arrived during 
the week. It is of a good quality. 
Cheese. 
The market is well stocked with California. Several 
car loads of Eastern have arrived during the week and 
sell readily. 

Flour. 
The market remains the same as last week. Three 
thousand barrels left to-day for China; and Vallejo is 
going to export 2,000 barrels by the schooner " Legal 
Tender." Exports for the week include 330 barrels, 
1.170 half-sacks and 21,150 quarter-sacks. 
Hay. 
Receipts this week have been in excess of those of 
last. We note sales of 2 cargoes of fair Wheat at $14; 
and 25 tons of flue at $12.50. 

Hops. 
We can add nothing to what we said last week, about 
our latest advices from New York. There is no change 
in the local market. In fact there is nothing doing. 
Oats. 
Oats are stiil weak. We continue to import largely 
from Oregon. We note sales of 400 sacks of California 
at $1.80; 6,200 of Oregon at $1.90, part for export; and 
600 do Oregon at $1.82 )t3 to SI .92)4. 
r'otatoes. 
Receipts have fallen short of those of last week, 
amounting to only 11,268 sacks; Prices remain nearly 
the same. We note sales of 250 sacks of Cuffee Cove at 
$1.62)4. 

Wheat. 
Wheat in Liverpool has risen, according to telegrams 
received by the Merchants' Exchange and the associated 
Press, being now $2.85 to $2.89, four cents higher than 
last week. Freights again exhibit a downward ten- 
dency, the last for Liverpool being made at £4.10 or 
$21.87, or $2.43 less than abouta week ago. Notwith- 
standing, the prices do not seem to improve and the 
farmers'keep back their Wheat. We note sales of 1,400 
sacks of Inferior at $1.62!<S: 9,600 do of Shipping at 
$1.65; 8,300 do Milling and Distilling at $1.70, 2,400 do 
Distilling at $1.72 H; and 400 do Choice at $1.75. 

Exports include the " Malleville " to Liverpool, with 
29,516 centals; the " Atalanta " to Sydney, with 22,400 
do; the " Alcatraz"' to Liverpool, with 26,378 do; and 
the "Vallejo" to Liverpool, with 24,210 do, making a 
total of 4 cargoes of 102,504 centals, worth $176,802. 
Wool. 
There is not much to note in the local market. A late 
New York circular says the receipts of new clip have 
been more liberal, arrivals of five car loads being 
noted. The demand from manufacturers has been 
fair and prices have ruled steady. We learn 
that manufacturers have been buying to some 
extent of growers directly, and that firmer prices have 
been caused thereby in the interior. The goods market 
is dull. We do not learn that the trade takes any more 
hopeful a view of the situation than heretofore. Sales 
have aggregated for the week 236,000 lbs. 

OEITERAX, MERCHANDISE. 

The market remains without much change. Sheath- 
ting and Tin Plate have fallen; Coffee remains nearly 
the same. The import for the season from Central 
America is nearly ever. Bags have advanced from J^c. 
to H.C. 

Impor ts have included 2 cargoes from Hongkong, one 
from Mexico, and one from New York. Exports include 7 
cargoes, of which 3 were to Liverpool, 2 to China, 1 to 
Sydney, and 1 to Melbourne. The value of the cargoes 
was equal to $346,643. 



San Francisco Retail Market Rates. 

Wednesday Noon, Ju.y IS, 1S73 
VKUITS. TEOETABLES, ETC. 

The market is flooded with Peaches, selling all the 
way from 25 cents per bushel to $1.60; a great many of 
inferior quality. Gooseberries are out of the maiket. 
Nectarines are in newly. All other fruits and v. geta- 
bles are in large supply. 
Apples, pr lb.... .'> @ 8 

Pears, perlb 5 @ fi 

Apricots, Q) 12i^[^ 15 



Peaches, lb 5 

PlneApples.each ,50 ©1 00 

Crab Apples — @ 8 

Grapes — (m 8 

Bananas, ^doz.. 75 S — 

CanteleuDS 15 @ 50 

Watermelons... 25 @ ,50 

Klacfeberries 15 m 20 

Cal. Walnuts, lb . — @ 20 

Green Almonds. — @ 12'- 

Oranberries, ^ g — @1 00 

Strawberries, lb 10 @ 15 

Raspberries. lb.. Ti'.-a'^ 15 

Gooseberries*. . . — @ — 

Currants — @ 10 

do Black — @ ,50 

Cherries, H &,.. 20 g 30 

Nectarines 12'2® — 



25 



Oranges,%i doz.. 
Limes, per doz .. 
Figs, dried <'al. * 

Fit's, fresh 

Figs, Smyrna, lb 
Asparagus, lb.* — 
Artichokes, doz. 37; 

Beets, ^doz 20 

Potatoes, New 1* lb 3 
Potatoes, Bweet,* 3 
Broccoli, ^ pc. 10 
Oaulillower, + .. 10 



il 00 



Cabbage,^ doz.. 
OysteiPiant.bch 
Carrots,^ doz... 
Celery, %( doz... 
Cucumbers, dz. . 
Tomatoes, •|(ft.. 

Green Peas 

String Beans.... 
Egg Flaiit, lb.... 
Cress, ^ doz Dun 
Dried Herbs, doz 

Garlic Tf( lb 

Green Corn, doz. 
Lettuce, ^ doz. , 
Mushrooms,^ R) 
Horseradishjjw lb 
Okra, dried, # D) 

do fresh, ffl lb. 
Pumpkins. ^ Eb . 
Parsnips, doz — 

Parsley 

Pickles,^ gal... 
Radishes, doz.. 
Summer Squash 

Marrowfat, do. 

Hubbard, do.. 
Dry Lima, shl... 
Spmage, v bskt. 
Salsify, ^ bunch 
Turnips,* doz.. 20 

Rhubarb 6 

Green Chilliee. . 8 



75 @1 00 

15 (m — 

75 @1 00 

75 (3,1 on 

25 @ 50 



25 

20 
50 

50 

37;<;^ 
2 
211 
20 

,50 
20 

4 

2 

2 

25 



6 



12>i 

:2>i 



POIjI,TKTf. e^JtlE, FISH, MEATS, ETC 

Chickens and Ducks are rather scarce this week. So 
also are Turkeys. Geese are plentiful. Rabbits and 
Hares are both scarce. Fish are very plentiful just 
now, a full supply of nearly all kinds being in the 
market. The demand is, however, small. 
75 



62'.iS 
30 S 



12)i 



16 



n 50 



M 00 

U 20 

I SO 
)1 00 

J 25 

) 3 

i 15 

» 15 

i 20 
i 20 
t 10 

i - 
i 15 




Flounder, ^ lb... 
Salmon,* lb... 

Smoked, new,* 

Pickled, f( lb.. 

Salmon bellies 
Rock Cod, ^ lb . . 
Cod Fish, dry, lb 
Perch, 3 water. lb 

Fresh water, lb 
Lake Big. Trout* 
Smelts. large 1*0) 
Herring, Sm'kd. 
Tomood,.* B).... 
Terrapin, * doz.3 00 
Mackerel, p' k, ea 1 2^ 

Fresh, do lb . . . 30 
SeaBass, %* lb... — 

Halibut 60 

Sturgeon, $ lb . . 4 
Oysters, 1*100...1 00 

Chesp. p doz.. 75 

Turbot 

Grabs * doz... 

Soft Shell 

Shrimps 

Sardmes 8 @ io 

.-ioles 25 (aj 3U 

Young Trout — — i{i — 
Young Salmon.. — ® — 
Salmon Trout... 2 50 
MISCEI.,LAlVEOU8. 
Corrected weekly by B. Sbarboko A Bbc, Grocers, 
Washington street, San Francisco. 



Chickens, apiece 
Turkeys, %» lb.. 

Mal<tCanvBk,pr. — 1 

Tame, do 2 OO ( 

Teal, IS doz.... — ( 

Geese, wild, pair. — ( 

Tame, f, pair.. 3 00 ( 

Snipe, % doz — — ; 

Pigeons, dom. do3 00 [ 

Wild, do — ( 

Hares, each ... 3Tii 

Rabbits, tame. ,50 i 

Wild,do,¥dz.2 00 ( 

Beef, tend. %> lb. 20 ( 

Corned, * lb.. 6 ' 

Smoked,^ B) . 
Pork, rib, etc., lb 

Chops, do, ^Ib lo 

Veal, |( lb 15 

Cutlet, do 15 

Mutton— cbops.* — 

LegMutt.m, * lb 10 

Lamb, # lb 12> 

Tongues, beef, .. 75 

Tongues, pig, lb 10 
Bacon, Cal., * lb 
Hams, Cal, * fti. 
Hams, Cross' s c 

Choice D'ffield 

Whittaker's.. 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



15 




\0'4(i 



611— 



@ 



20 ® 
18 @ 



50 @ 

00 a 

37 (^S 
10 ^ 



^2 00 



BAGS. 

Eng, stand. Wh't 14?4® 
Detrick's Much'e 
Sewed. 22 x 36, 

Oilroy E 

do, 22x36, do W 

do. 22i)0. do... 

Flour Sacks >^8.. 

" J4s. 

Stand. Gunnies.. 

" Wool Sacks. 

" Barley do... 

Hessian 1,5-in.gds 

do 60 

Burlaps, vard -..-v.^ . 

CANNED OOODS. 
Asst'dPie Fruits 
in 2!^ lb cans. 3 00 
do Table do. . 4 — 
Jams & Jellies 4 — 
Pickles Hjtl.. — ^ 
COAI.,— rlobblnj 
Australian.*tonl3 — 
Ooosei Bel. Bay. 8 50 

Seattle 13 00 

Oumberl'd, cks. .25 00 ® — 

do bulk... @2,5- 

Lehigh 20 00 (a) — 

Liverpool 11 00 @12— 

West Hartley... .14 00 @16- 

Sootch 12 00 @ll— 

Scranton ..'.0 00 

Vancouver's lsl..l2 00 
Charcoal. *sk... 75 
COFFEE. 
Sandwich Island 19'^j@ — 
t'osta Rica per lb 19'\>@ 20 

Guatemala 19''^@ 20 

Java — @ 23 

Manilla '.9 @ — 

Ground in cs. . . 27J^@ — 

Chicory 10 @ — 

FISH. 
Pac.Dry Cod, new 9 ® - 

cases 10 @ — 

Eastern Cod 10 @ — 

Salmon inbbl8..8 00 @ — 
do H bbl84 50 fql5 00 

do 2MIb cans — 
do 2tb cans.. — 
do lib 'cans .2 00 
Pick. Cod. bbls.. — ® — 
do a bbls. — @ — 
Bos on Smoked.. — @ — 
Herr'g, box — 40 @ — 
Mack'l.Nn.l,i^blB - m 00 
Extra.... 13 00 

*' in kits — 

" mess — 

NAIES. 
Assorted size tb. SJj 

01 ES. 
Pacific Glue Co. 
NeatF'tNo. 1. — 

Pure 1 25 

Castor Oil, N0.I..I 45 
do do N0.2 .1 35 

Cocoa Nut irtiO 

Olive Plagniol..5 00 

do Possel 4 75 

Palm 

do Bagicalupi. — 

Linseed 1 00 

China nut in cs.. 77, 
Sperm, crude.. ,.1 25 
do bleached.. 1 90 
Coast Whales 
Polar, refined. 

Lard ^ 

("oal, refined Pet 37'«@ JO 

Oleiiphine 3734® W 

Devoe's Bril't... 43 @ 45 

Long Island 37H@ 40 

Eureka iT/iSu 40 

Downer Kerose'e 50 @ 5234 



®3 25 
©2 25 



@2 .50 
@3 50 

@9 - 



Gas Light Oil . ... 37,Sf«) 
PAINTS. 

Atlan. W. Lead. U>ii 
Whitening 

Chalk 

Paris White 2Js' 

Ochre — 

Venetian Red... 2^ji 

Red Lead 10 u 

Litharge 9,"^® 11 

RICE. 
China No. I, ^ lb 6',i(& 
do 2, do. !,%& 

Japan 04(0) 

Leain Cleared.. . B ^iji 

Patna 7 @ 

Hawaiian 8 fS 

Carolina 103i(S) 

SALT. 

Cal. Bay .per ton. 5 01) 

Carmen Island.. 14 00 

Liverpool fine.. .25 00 

do coarselO 00 

SOAP. 

Castile KB) fti^i 

Local brands 5iil 

SPICFJ*. 
Allspice, per tt).. 15^1 

Cloves 35 

Ciissia 30 

Nutmeg. 1 15 

Wliole Pepper... — 

round Allspice 25 

do Ca.ssia . . 35 

do Cloves.. 30 

do Mustard 25 

do Ginger.. 25 

do Pepper.. 2T41 

do Mace....l 25 1 

SrOAR, ETC. 

Oal. Cube per lb. 11 @ 

Circle A crushed 11 @ 

Dry granulated 10*(® 

Extra do 10'|@ 

(lolden 9H@ 

Hawaiian 20 @ 

Cal. Syrup in bis. .52>^@ 
do in S4 bis. .56 @ 
do in ket's.. 60 ra 
TEA. 
Oolong,Canton,lb 19 (g 
do Amoy... 2,S @ 
do Formosa 40 w 
iiperi.il. Canton 25 
do Pmgsuey 46 
do Moynne . 60 
Gunpo'der.Catit. 30 
do Pinnsuey 60 
do Moyune. 65 
Y'ng Hy.. Canton 28 
do Pingsuey 



6^ 



24)4 



27ii 

m 

30 
.1 40 



22>4 



Butter, Cal. pr B) . 25 
Cheese. Cal.. fl).. 15 
Lard. Cal., lb.... 1234^ 
Flour, ex.tam. bl5 60 

Corn Meal, lb 2'4 

Sugar, wh.crsh'd 11 ^ 

do It.brown.B) 10 
Ootfee,Sbarboro's 

family gr'nd, lb 
ColTee, green, tti.. 18 
Tea, fine blk, 50, 65, 75 
Tea,fin8t Jap,,5,5,75, 90 
Candles, Admant'eU 

Soap. Oal , ft) 

Oan'dOy9ter3,dz.2 50 



■ Per 1 



tPer dozen. 



Syrun.S F.Gol'n. 

Dried Apples 

Dr'dGer.Prunes 
Di'd Figs, Oal... 
Dr'd Peaches.... 
Oils, Kerosene .. 

Eggs 

do Eastern 

Wines. Old Port 3 50 

do Fr. Claret.. 1 00 

do Cal ,dz.bot 3 00 

WTiisky,0.B,gal.3 ,50 

Fr. Brandy 4 00 

Rice, ft) 10 

Yeast Powders, dz.l 
T Per gallon. 





do Movune.. 65 
Japan, >4 cnests, 

bulk 30 

Japan, lacquered 

bx8,4/iand5 lbs 45 

Japan do. 3 lb bxs 45 

do pl'nbx,4)4lb 35 

do S-fcl 1^ paper 30 

TOB 



ACCO— JobbluK. 

Bright Navys .... 52;4@ 60 
Dark do .... 50 @ .5,5 
Dwaif Twist.... 60 @ 65 
12 inch do .... 60 @ 67) 
fjight Pressed... 65 @ 75 
Hard do . . 60 @ 70 
('onn. Wiap'r.... 40 @ 60 
Penn. Wrapper.. 35 @ 45 
Ohio do .. 30 @ 40 
Vrigi'aSmok'g . 60 @ 95 
Fine ct che'g,gr..8 .50 @9 25 
Fine exit chew- 
ing, buc'ts.^ lb. .75 @ 90 
Banner fine cut..9 i5 @ — 
Eureka Cala 8 50 la — 



FRUIT MARKET. 



The market is full of all kinds of fruit, and prices 
are consequently weak. 



FKIJIT MAKK.F,T. 

Taha'i.Or. f,\WlO (aSO — 

Cal. do @ 

Limes, I^IM.... 15 -@J0 — 
Cal. Lemons, 1000.60 —@- — 

McttSina do ....SO —@ 

Bananas, K bnch 3 ~m 

Pineapples, ^ dz ® 7 ,50 

Apple.s,cat'g, bx. 75 @l 00 

Early Pears 50 Ml 00 

Cherries 15 (ai — 

Strawberries.... 3 00 @4 00 

tJooseberrics m — 

Raspberries — @ 10 

Currants 4 @ 6 

Apricots 3 ^ 5 

Pears. Eating ... 75 (rtl 00 

do, Bartlett...2 50 @3 00 
Pomegran'B.V dz — @2 00 

Grapes 3 @ 5 

DRIF.n FKVIT. 
Apples. %( lb 8 W 9 




Pears, ^ lb 6 

Peaches, " " 
^pricot.s- 
Pliim 
Pitted, do 
Raisins, « 
Black Kig.», « B) 

White, do .. 

VEG ET AB E ES^ 

Cabbage, f( dz 75 ®— 

Garlic,^ lb 5 (a— 

Green Peas — @3 

Green Corn W doz. 15 @30 
Marrowfat Squash 

per ton ; .50@— 
Artichoke8. 'P lb.... l;4@ 2'.<; 
Siring Beans.^B) ... 3 @ 8 ' 

Lima Beans — @— 

Peppers dry — ®25 

Okra 35 ©40 

Okra, Green — (»,25 

Cucumbers, dz I2>4(gl6 



LUMBER MARKET. 



OF 



PUGET SOITNB PENE 

— Retail Price. 



CARGO PRICES 
REIIWOUD. 

Rough, 1* M $20 00 

Rough refuse, * M 16 00 

Rough clear, ^J* M 32 50 

Rough clear refuse, .M.. 22 .50 „, . ■;■ ... ..„.,■,■„ *. .,, „,, 

Rustic* M MOO »"o?'^'%-^<''l'">'"y M..i5 00 

Rustic, refuse. * M 24 00 



Surfaced,* .M 32 .50 

Surfaced refuse,* M... 22 ,V1 

Flooring, *M 30 00 

Flooring refuse, fl M . . 20 00 
Beailed llooring, Iff M... 32 ,50 
Beaded lloor, refuj.e, M. 22 .VI 

Half-inch .Siding, M 22 .50 

Half-Inch siding, ref.M. 16 00 
Half-Inch, Kurfao»d,M. 25 00 
Half-inch Surf, ret., M . 18 00 
Half inch Batti'ns, M... 22 .5<l 
Pickets, rough,* M.... 14 00 
Pickets, rough, p'ntd. .. 16 00 
Pickets, fancy, p'ntd.... 22 60 
Shingles, *M 3 0« 



Rough, *M $18 00 

Flooring and Step, * M 30 W) 
Flooring, narrow, * .M.. 32 .50 



3 00 



Leather Market Report. 

I Reported for the Press by Dolliver 4 Bro.J 

San Fbancisco, July 16, 1873. 
Trade continues very qiiiet. Manufacturers only 
buying what they are compelled to. California and 
Eastern stocks are a shade lower under the continued 
pressure in the money market. French stock continues 
firm at old prices. 

City Tanned Leather, * lb 26@29 

Santa Cruz Leather, * B) 26@29 

Country Leather, * fti •. 25®28 

Stockton Leather, * B) 26®29 

Jodot,8Kil., per doz t.50 00@ 54 00 

Jodot, 11 toi9Kil.,perdoz 66 00@ 85 00 

Jodot, second choice, 11 to 16 Kil. * doz ,55 00® 70 00 

Oornellian, 12 to 16 Ko .57 OOg 67 00 

Coi-nellian Females, 12 to 13 60 00@ 64 00 

Cornelian Females. 14 to 16 Kil 66 1:0(3 72 00 

BcaumcrviUe, 15 Kil 60 00® 

Simon, 18 Kil.,* doz 60 00® 62 00 

Simon, 20 Kil.* doz 6.5 00@ 67 OU 

Simon. 24 Kil. * doz '2 Wm 74 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 35 00® 40 00 

French Kips, * B) 1 nO® 130 

California Kip, * doz 50 00to60 00 

French Sheep, all colors, * doz « OOM 15 00 

EasternOaltforBacks, * ft) 1 OflfS 126 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, * doz 9 00@ 13 00 

Sheep Roanslor Linings,* doz 5 50® 10 ,50 

OalilorniaRussett Sheep Linings 1 7,5(a> 4,5(1 

Best Jodot-Calf Boot Legs. * pair 5 003 6 25 

Good French Calf Boot Legs, * pair 4 OJ® 4 75 

French Calf Boot Legs,* pair 4 00® 

Harness Leather, * tb 30(9 37H 

Fair Bridle Leather,* doz 48 00® 72 Ofl 

Skirting Leather, * lb 34® 37>< 

Welt Leather,* doz 30 OO® 50 00 

Bufl Leather, * foot 20a 23 

Wax Side Leather. * foot 17(S( 19 

Kastorn Wax Le«tb«r m 



l.alhs, * M 
Furring. * lineal ft, 

Rongb refuse. *M 10 u' 

RKnWOOn-Retull. 

Rough Pickets,* M.... 18 00 
Rough Pickets, i)'d, M.. 20 UO 

Kancy Pickets,* M 30 00 

Siding. «* M 26 Ou 

Tongued and Grooved, 

surfaced, *M .15 00 

Undo refuse, * M 27 50 

lialf-lneh Kurlaoed,M.. 37 50 

Rustic* M 37 .50 

Battens. * lineal foot... 1 

Hhingles * M 3 00 



San Francisco Metal Market. 

Wednesday, July 16, 1873. 

Iron.- ^, „ , 

Scotch Pig Iron,* ton $.55 00 M 

White Pig, * ton ■ ■ • • ,55 00 @ 

Refined liar, bad asBortraent, * B) w — 06 

Refined Bar, good assortment, *tt> @ — OS'-j 

Boiler, No. I to 4... — 05>i(ffl — 06 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 — 06}4(a — 07 

Sheet, No. 10 to 13 — 07,'4@ 

Sheet. No. 14 to 20 —08 S — 08'4 

Sheet, No. 24 to 27 — 08 @ — 09 

Horse Shoes, per keg 9 00 © 

Nail Rod 11 ® 

Norway Iron 9 

Rolled Iron 6'4 

Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, eto. 6!4(^ 9>i 

OorPF.R.— 

Braziers ~ J5 8 ~ ''^ 

Copper Tin'd — 50 @ 

O.NIel's Pat — 65 @ 

Sheathing,* B) ® — 2.5li:. 

Sheathing. Yellow « — 25^4 

Sheathing, Old Yellow @ — 12 

Composition Nails — 25 

Composition Bolts — 25 

Tin Plates.— 

Plat«8, Charcoal, IX* box 14 00 © 14 50 

PlatoB, IfJOharooal 13 00 13.50 

Rooting Plal«B 13 OO 13 ,50 

BancaTin, Slabs,* ft) — 40 — 42>t 

Steel.— English Cast, * ft) — 20 — V. 

Drill 20 

FlatBar 22 

Plough PoinU 16 —17 

Russia (for mould boards) 17 18 

Z,NO «>4 10 

Zinc Sheet — « —10 

NAIL8—AB.sort«d sizes — 5X@ — 9 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

Wednesday m., July 16, 1873. 




25 (S 27 
23 ' 



BEANS. 

Beans, sm'l wU. lb 6!.2(«i 7 

do, butter ^ ^ ~ 

do, large, do,.. ^ @ T, 

do, bayo "^'^^ '*'■' 

UO, pink ■''-^ '"^^^ 

do, pea 6S@ 7 

BROOM CORN. 

Per ton S60r«l,50 

DAIRY PRODUCE. 
Biitter.Cal. frsh.B)- 
do. ordin'y roll 25 

do, choice 

do, new tirkin. 
do. pickled — 
do, Western ... 
Cheese. Cal new 
do. Eastern .. 
Eggs, I'al. fresh 

do. Oregon 

do. Eastern — 

FEED. 
Bran per ton.. . . 20 — ®21 5 < 

Middlings :10 -;4 

Hay 11 -•3)15 - 

Straw 12 60 a) 

Oil cake meal... 30 —@- 

Corn Meal 39 -i3 

FEOUR. 
Alviso Mills, bbl .4 25 (0)5 .50 

Oalilbrnia 4 25 85 50 

Ciiy .Mills 4 60 «5 .50 

Commei Mills.. 4 ,50 @5 ,50 

Uolden Gate 4 m 85 .50 

Uolden Age 4.50 «5 .50 

National Mills.. 4 50 @,5 50 
SantaClataMills 4 oil ^5 50 
Genesie Mills... 4 .50 a5 .50 

Oregon 4 ,50 g|5 ,50 

Vallejo Star 4 50 Bb ffi 

Venus, Oakland. .4 ,5;) ^> ,50 
Stiickton City...4 ,50 @5 .50 
Lombard. Sao. . .4 .50 (aUt .50 

FRESH MEAT. 

Beef, fr quality., ft) 7 (cS 8 

do, second do.. 5 @ 7 

do. third do.... 3h% 5 

Veal 6 (3) 7 

Mutton 6'..>(« 6 

Pork, undressed. 6' t'ffl 6' 

do, dr.'ssed ... 8'i'* 9 

GRAIN, ET<;. 

Wh't(3iil, c'st.cl.l 6C m 65 

do, shipning..! 70 ®1 75 

di., milting 1 70 fill "5 

Bailey, DarkC'stl 10 @- - 

do. Llgbt 1 15 ffll 

do. Brewing... U\ :10 

OatH. Ctast — (2)176 

do, Light 1 «J/s# 

do Oregon ITS (0(185 

do, new — @1 70 



Corn. While 1 25 

do, Yellow I 25 

Buckwheat 1 2,5 

Rye 2 00 

HOPS. 
ljalirornia,l«71,B) — 
do 1872,,. ,50 
Ea--tern. I872,B).. 60 



SI 27'S 
SI 2J)t 



KVi 



MISCELEANEOtJS. 

Beeswax. per lb.. 32 @ 35 
'loncv, choice... lu m 22/i 
Los Ang. Honey l2Ji@ 17'^ 

iVcw Onions \ (§ V/\ 

Flaxseed 3 (^ — 

'anary do 4 

Mustard do, wile l>iS 

do. brown 2 

Alfalia 35 

Ky. Blue Grass.. 50 

"imothy 35 

Italian Rye 18 

Perennial do 35 

NUTS. 

Peanuts per lb... 3 (g) 5 

Ohile Walnuts.. 14 @ 15 

Pecan nuts — @ 18 

Ilickorv do ~ @ — 

Brazil do 15 @ 16 

Ooc'anuts.*10!0..125 00M — 
Alm'dsh'rdshc — w) 12^ 

do, 8»ft 23 m 25 

POTATOES. 

Sweet, per lb — @ — 

New — ^1 — 

do H. M. Bay..l 25 (oil fO 

dn MiSBi.in I 00 fail -25 

POUETRY * GAME. 
Live Turkey.^ ft). 21 (a» 25 
Hens, perdz... 8 00 (a8 .50 

Roosters — 

Spr'g ihickor.s. .5 00 

Br.ulers, ,4 00 

Ducks, tame, doz — 
(iee-^e. per pair. — 
larc. per doz... 3 00 
Snipe, Eng., doz — 

Rabbits.... 5 00 

Venison, per lb. . — 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, per lb ll>i^ 
lOa^tern do 

do sugared 

(.'al. Hams 

Fastern old 

do new 

Oal. Smoked Hocf 

WOOE, 

Spring, shortjib. 

do chi>ice Nort 

Burrv 12 

Hides, diy 17 

do wet salted 8 
Tallow 6 




Oiir A-jcents. 

Onn Fbiends can do much In aid of onr paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by asslHting 
Agents In their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
iuflueuco and encouraging favors. We Intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

L. P. McCabtv— General Agent. 

A. O. Knox, City Soliciting and Oollecting Agent. 

r. O. Saoket— Northern California. 

Frank Chapin— Oregon and Washington Territory. 



Every Mechanic should read and familiar- 
ize himself with "Brown's .'507 Mechanical 
Movements," illustnited, published and sold 
by Dewey & Co., Mining and Scientific PreBS 
office, S. F. Bound in cloth. Price, (very 
low) post paid, $1, coin, or its equivalent in 
currency. Inventors, lingineprs, Students, 
and Apprentices will find it exceedingly useful 
and especially handy for reference. 



46 



[July 19, 1873. 



Fo? the Harvest of 1873. 

'■\Original'^'^^iI\e:liable 




facjficCoiUtb 

The ".fflTNA" 18 the latest and best Mowor or Solf- 
Rako Reaper in the country. 

It possesses not only all the advantages of every other 
Improved machine, but has that which no other has — a 
Patent double motion, by which (simply on moving 
a lever at the hand of the driver, either a fast or slow 
speed uiay be given the knives "r sicklesin amoment, 
and without in the least di6tu.rr.ing the ordinary gait of 
the team. 
TreadweU & Co.'s list of Harvesting Ma 

chines 
embraces the Standard Improved Machines of the coun- 
try, fresh from the manufactory this year. 

^e: T IV A. 

Mowers and Self-Rake Reapers, 

Haines' Headers, Ithaca Horse Rakes, 

Hoadley"s Engines, Pitts Horse Powers, 

Russell Separators, Whitewater Wagons, 

Kirby and McCormick Mowers and Reap- 
ers, Russell Horse Powers, Cultivators, 
Header Trucks, Hay Presses, Barley Forks, 
Hay Cutters, Victor Hay Forks, Hand Rakes, 
Scythes, Snaths, and every description of Im- 
proved 

Agricultural Implements, 

And a fresh stock of 
H A. Tt. I> MV A. It JS . 

t^Our headers are built this season, and have all the 
improvements for 1873, with also the Doane Patent 
Adjustable Reel- Our Russell Separators have the 
Laufenbers: Patent End-Shake Shoe when de- 
sired. It^Please send for circulars and prices. 



TREADWELL & CO., 



At the 
Old 3tand, 



Corner Market and Fremont Streets, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 
>T5-3in 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 

American Chief Gang Plow. 



Took the Premium over all at the great Flowing 
Match in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow Is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is re- 
quired In the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adjusted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongne will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
In the world. Send for circular to 



14v3-Sm 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 
Stockton, Oal. 



THE BAIN WAGONS. 




NlU«VJULUU'L 

These Wagons are now recognized as 

The Best Farm and Freight Wagons 

IN THIS MARKET, 
being made particularly for this climate. 
We are now receiving a full stock of 
Farm Wagons, 

Freight Wagons, .and 

Header Wagons. 

SEND FOR A LIST OF PRICES TO 

BAKER & HAMILTON, 
UvS-Sm Sacnuuento and San Fraucisoo. 



THE WHITEWATER WAGON. 

PRICES.— Thimble Skein, 3 inch, $100; 3^ inch, $105; 3 J^ inch. $110; 3H inch, $115; 4 inch, $125 
—including, in each case, wagon gearing complete, with whiffletrees, neck yoke and stay chains. Beds, Brakes 
Seats etc , $40 to $50, complete, according to style. Iron A^e, $130 to $185, according to size. 

We mvite the attention of ouyersto the superior workmanship and finish of these justly celebrated WaRons. They 
are known throughout the West.'and have long taken the lead of all others: and ever since first introduced to the Cali- 
fornia farmer, have given the most complete satisfaction. The timber is of the choicest selection, necoud trrowth, and 
the iron used the best that can 




be obtained. The manufactur- 
ers say: "A thorough syst'Om 
of inspection is strictly ad- 
hered to, so that we are pre- 
pared to warrant each part to 
ue perfect; if defective, it will 
be replaced without charge. 
We claim by uctnal te»t a 

SAVING OF FIFTEEN PER CENT. 

in DRAFT over any other 
VTa^nn offered for sale. 

This ease of draft has been ac- 
complished after years oi close 
study, and on strictly scientific 
principles, and is a wcoret 
kno\«-n only to ourHelves. 
Knowing that a Wagon, to bo 

and Seats in any style to suit customers and the trade. Our California Rack Bed is f-. . . 

The side pieces are made of 2x8 oak; the bed is U feet long, and the spuing seat 4 feet from the box— giving ample room 
tn load wood, sacks, etc . without interfering with the driver. Our California Roller Brake can be used with or without 
a box. These beds, as well as the " Whitewater" ruuning-goar. are peculiarly adapted to California use. The brakes 
have hardwood bar«, and the seats hardwood ^itandards ; the beds are nicely proportioned, well framed and 
bolted together, painted inside and outside, neatly striped and ornamented, and well varnished. The wheels of the 
" Whitewater" are extra heavy, with slope-shouldered or wedge-shaped spokes, in Xar^e hubs and deep felloes, wide and 
heavy tires rivited on through every joint. The wheels are all soaked in hot boiled oil. twice during working, and 
again before being painted, so as to prevent any possible shrinkage of the wood in our long and hot dry seasons. They 
are warranted lo stand the Climate of California, being madt; especially for this market. The axles to our 
Thimble Skein Wagons are made Urge and strong, and of thoroughly Keiutoucd hlck«iryt and the skeins nut on by a 
machine, so thateach one is perfectly true and never works loose The Iron work, of " The Whitewater" is HHf pounds 
heavier than on any other farm wagon made. Our Iron Axle Wagons are made expressly for freighting and heavy work. 
and we guarantee a betlor made and stronger wafion for the price than any ever before offered in this market. If yjiu 
wantji wagon.and wantaGOODON'E, at a lowprlce. give the "Whitewater" a trial. TKKABWELI^ A CO, 



popular in California, must be 
a fcood one, and desiring to 
bring out for our trade not 
only the best Farm Wagon in 
the country, but one also that 
could be sold at a popular price, 
we finally selected ' The 
Whitewater" as the wagon 
before all others for the Cali- 
fornia trade. The manufac- 
turers of these Wagons are 
among the oldest and largest 
in the United States (Win- 
chester A Partridge, of White- 
water, Wis.), and their Wagons 
may he found in all parts of 
the country. We are prepared 
to furnish Wagon beds, Brakes 
superior to any in the market 



Man ■Francisco, General Agfnts for the Pacific StJites. 



Uvfttf 



JACKSON, MICHIGAN, FARM AND TEAM WAGONS 

Have been proved for Fifteen Years in California as 

The Best Wagons to Stand this Hot and Dry Climate. 




The Wheels have Tire Riv- 
ets—Felloes run through 
Hot Boiled Oil-No 
Shrinkage Possible. 



EXTRA BEARING IRONS 
and BRACES, with OTHER 
IMPROVEMENTS. 



S=^L.C'J«T1S, 



TRADE -WAGON. 



We have also to arrive : 
EXTRA WHEELS, to make a Header 

Wagon of a Farm Wagon. 
Also, HEADER WAGONS complete. 



Also, Light aud Heavy One-Horse Carts. Also, a Light Express one or two-seat Wagon— called the OHIO 
TKADE WAGON— suitable for one or two horses, for a Pleasure Wagon or other light use. We invite a close 
inspectiou .of this Wagon in the state in which it comes from the Manufactory (cspainted) , Bhowiug it to be 

The Best Made Wagon of the Kind ever Imported. 

We guarantee all our Wagons for Two Years. Anything proving imperfect in th»t time will be made good. 
WE HOLD CERTIFICATES FROM THOSE WHO 
HAVE USED THE 

JACKSON MICHIGAN WAGONS 

For tlie rast Fifteen Yeares. 



ALL UNITE IN TESTIFYING THAT THEY ARE THE BEST WAGONS TO STAND 

This dry climate of any that have been used in California. 

All Sizes, from One-Horse to Six-Horse Wagons, are in Stock, Wholesale or 
Retail, cor. California and Davis sts., San Francisco. 

J. t>. AltTMUR ^fc SON. 





FIRST PREMIUM AWARDED at the State Fair of 
187l; also First Premium at Mechauics' Fair, San l>an- 
ciaco, 1871; and Silver Medal and First Premium lor 
best Farm Wagon, and First Premium for the best im- 
proved Thimble Skein at State Fair, 1871. Also State 
Fair GOLD MEDAL for 1871. 



ap22-3m 



E. SOULE, 

San Quentin, Cal. 



CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DANIEX, & CO., 

Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 

MANTEL PIECES, ETC., 

4'/l Pine street, between Montgomery aud i 

Kearny, Sam Fbanoisoo. 

21v2-ly 



Farmers, everywhere, write tor your paper. 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 

SACRAMENTO AND SAN FRANCISCO, 

Importers of 

Agricultural Implements, 

Harvesting Machinery, etc. 

Offer the latest Improved and most reliable machines 
to be found in market, viz : 

CHAMPION MOWERS, CHAMPION REAPERS— Hand 
Rakeor Self Rake; WOOD'S MOWERS, BURT'S MOW- 
ERS and Hand Rake Reapers. 

Haines' Qenuine Headers, Bain's Header 
Wag-ons, Bain's Farm Wagons. 

The celebrated PITTS IMPROVED THRASHERS and 
Horse Powers. 

Portable Steam Thrashing Engines. 

Hand and Horse Power Hay Presses. 

Lock Levers; Hollingsworth and Whitcomb's Wheeled 
Hay Rakes. 

Wood's Revolving Horse Rakes. 

Hand Rakes, Scj-thes, Snaths, Forks, Shovels, Baling 
and Fencing Wire, Rope, Nails, Belting, Machine Oils, 
etc. A full stock of SHELF HARDWARE. 

EXTRA PARTS for repairing Harvesting Machinery. 

Orders by Mail or Express will receive prompt at- 
tention. Send for Circular. Address 

BAKER & HAUIIiTON, 
I5TS-3m Sacramento or San Francisco. 






THE EAGLE HAY PRESS. 




The above is a correct representation of this re i ark- 
able EAOIiE HAY PRESS, the Invention of J. 
A. Mctiillivral, of Illinois, to whom Letters Patent were 
issued Jan. 10th, 18C5, and July 24th, 1806. 

Several years were devoted by the patentee to the per- 
fection of This powerful press, and its imprecedented 
sale id the East induces tlie proprietors to introduce it 
into California aud the Pacific States. 

All who have seen or used these presses pronounce 
them superior to anything used heretofore. The power 
is applied by means of two levers, and it will be seen 
the power increases in ratio to the resistance, as the 
levers approach a horizontal position the power can 
scarcely be estimated. It is not ouly a powerful press, 
but has the advantage of beiug cheap, and also simple, 
therefore not liable to get out of order. 

Three men with one horse can bale from TEN TO 
FIFTEIN TONS PER DAY, each bale weighing 250 to 
300 pounds. It obviates all nfcessity of beating the 
hav before pressing. Ou accuxiut of its great power It 
is well adapted for pressitg HYDES, RAGS, WOOL OR 
COTTON. When a bale is pressed aud fastened the fol- 
lower runs down of its own weight, and the bales can 
be taken out on either side. On April 18th, 1871, this 
Press was tested at the State Agricultural Hall, Sacra- 
mento, and stood the test of a bale of wool, 550 pounds. 
Refirence, Maj.Rob't Beck. 

We have adiled to this Press this season an improve- 
ment (patented) which does the stamping, disi^ensing 
with men to tread down the hay in the Press, facilitat- 
ing the operation, and saving much hard work. The 
additional cost being but $25, paying for itself in labor 
saved in a week . 

These Presses are now manufactured in San Francisco 
by the 

Kimball Car and Carriage Manufact'g Co., 

Who are the Proprietors on the Pacific Coast, and will 

endeavor to have a supply constantly 

on hand. 

I2v6-2am.fm-2t« 



JS.-ElT^l^lSiTt & CO., 

43, 45, 47 J STREET, TREADWELL BUILDINO, 
SACRAMENTO. 



CLAPP'S 



AOENTS rOB 

BRASS-BEARING 



WAGONS. 




And also a superior Iron Axle Wagon. 

MKBRITT & EELLOGQ'S SELF-FROPELLINa 

THRESHING ENGINES. 

<Joliu Deer IMColiue I*loi^. 

Also COLLINS' PLOW (Smith's Patent). 

THE GORHAM BROADCAST SEEDER AND OULTI- 
VATOR. 

EXGEUSIOK M01VEK AJiD KEAPKB. 

The "EXCELSIOR" MACHINE took the first pre- 
mium at our State Fair. 

We are Sole Agents for " Excelsior" BRASS-BEAR- 
INQ WAGON, Merrittfc Kellogg's TRACTION ENGINE, 

KT' Please call and examine. 17vl-ly 



C. CBBOO. a. O. BOWIAY. 

CREGO & BOWLEY, 

OARRIAGES''and WAaONS, 

No. 9 Merchant's Exchang-e, 

CALIFORNIA STREET SAN FRANCISCO. 

Keep constantly on hand top and open Buggies, lop 
and open Rockaways, Jump-seat Buggies, Track and 
Road Sulkies, Skeleton Wagons, Basket Phaetons of 
the very latest styles and finest workmanship. 

We would call particular attention to oxir fine stock 
of light Road and Trotting Wagons, made to order by 
the following celebrated makers: 

Charles 8. Cofi'rey, Camden, New Jersey; 

HelCeld k Jackson, Hahway, New Jersey; 

Gregg i Bow, Wilmington, Delaware; 
And other first-class makers, which we are prepared to 
sell on the most reasonable terms. 

Also, a large assortment of single and double Har- 
ness, of the most celebrated makers: 

C Graham. New York; J. R. Hill, Concord; Pittkin 
& Thomas, Philadelphia. 

Also, a full assortment of Dress and Light Blankets, 
Fur and Lai> Robes. Whips, Halters, Surcingles, etc., at 
wholesale and retail. 

CREGO k BOWLEY, 
No. 9 Merchants' Exchange, California street, 

24v5-3m San Francisco. 



July 19, 1873.] 



MIERINO R^INTCH, Niles Station, 

Alameda County, California. office, 315 California street, san Francisco. 

SEVERANCE & PEET, Importers and Breeders of Thoroughbred Spanish Merino Sheep. 



The Merino Ranch 

Recently purchased 
by UB, is situated in 
the San Jose Valley, 
near the junction of 
the San Jos^ &C.P. 
R. R., and only five 
minutes walk from 
Niles Station ; is ac- 
cessible from all 
points, being only 
twenty-three miles 
from San Francisco. 
Our flock, which 
will be kept upon 
this ranch, was re- 
cently imported from 
Addison County, 
Vermont, and was 
selected with great 
care from the very 
finest flocks in the 
State, and is com- 
prised of a selection 
from the flocks of E. 
& G. Hammond; S. 
S. Rockwell, Cher- 
bino & Williamson, 
N. A. Saston, F. H. 
& H. F. Dean and 
C. & R. Lane, in- 
cluding two lots of 
lambs, some of 
which are repre- 
sented in the accom- 
panying cut, that 
took first premium 
last fall at the Ad- 




dison County Fair. 
In every case our 
sheep were picked 
with a view of get- 
ting the best, and it 
is our purpose to 
maintain a flock 
and breed a class of 
sheep that will do 
credit to the State 
as well as ourselves, 
and offer the trade 
fiheep with a style 
and brilliancy of 
fleece that will rap- 
idly improve the 
standard of wool 
grown at large, as 
well as enhance the 
profits of those thus 
engaged. 

At present our 
flock consists of 300 
breeding ewes, aged 
from one to four 
years ; 250 ewe 
lambs, coming year 
old this spring. Al- 
so 100 buck lambs, 
which wo shall offer 
for sale. They will 
be thoroughly accli- 
mated and in fine 
condition for use the 
coming season; will 
be sold at reasonable 
rates, considering 
quality, which is 



unsurpassed by an equal number in any State in the Union All those interested in Thoroughbred Stock are cordially invited to call and examine our stock, whether they wish to purchase or not. 





Pure Blooded French Merino Rams and 
Ewes, 

For sale by EOBEET BLAOOW, of CentrevlUe, Alameda 
Oounty, Oal., near Nlles Station, on the Western and 
Southern Pacific Railroad. 

These Sheep are guaranteed of pure descent, frona the 
French Imperial Flock at Eambouillet. 

Also a few well-bred young Bulls of the Durham 
blood. 12v5-3m 



THOS. BUTTERFIELD & SON, 

Breeders and Impoiters of the 
CotBwold, Ijinoolii, Leicester, Texel and 
^^^« South Down 

3CSm -ALSO- 

rrHE AlVGORA. GOii^T. 

Now offer for sale the Pure Bred and High Grades. 
We have a good lot of Bucks of crosses between the 
Ootswold and South Down, between the Lincoln and 
Leicester, and the Lincoln and Merino. 

THOS. BUTTERFIELD & SON, 

19v«>tf Hollister, Monterey Oounty, Oal. 



WATT & MCLENNAN, 

WOOL COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

62« Sftnsome street, comer Jackson, SAN FRANOISCO. 



Receive Consignments of Wool, Sheep 
Skins, Hides, etc. Liberal advances made to 
consignors. Keep on hand the best quality of 
Wool Sacks, Twines, and other supplies. 
10v8-3m 



Pure Berkshire Pigs For Sale 

BY 

R. S. THOMPSON, Napa, California, 

Importer and Breeder of Improved 
Berkshire Swine. 

23v.^-2m 



40 Thoroughbred Angora Ooats for Sale! 

Imported by a native of Angora, direct from Asia Minor. 
For specimens see the flock of Thomas k Shirland, 
Sacramento, Oal. Address A. ECTY0HIDE8, Spout 
Spring, Appomattox Oounty, Va. 10v4-ly 




We have 145 Pure Breed Angoras and 2,000 grades of 
12 years' breeding to seleci from. Those wanting Bucks 
will find it to their interest to send for pamphlet on 
Breeding, and to examine our stock of Angora Goats 
and Ootswold Sheep. 

LANDBUm & BODGERS. 

20v5tf Watsonville, Santa Cruz Oounty, Cal. 



SBSMIITH Jk, OVER.HISEK, 



gUOOESSOBS TO J. D. Pattekson, 



Breeders of First-Class Thoroughbred 



SPANISH MERINO 



FRENCH MERINO SHEEP. 



OUR PRICES WILL BE LESS THAN THE SAME 

QUALITY can be purchased of any other 

RELIABLE BREEDERS in Oal- 

ifornia and the Eastern 

States. 



Rams will be sent to San Fi-ancisco, and sold by 
Ohristy & Wise; also at Wm. L. Overhiser's, near 
Stockton; and at Patterson's ranch, near Grayson, San 
Joaquin river. 

C. C. SMITH, 

Grayson, Stanislaus Coimty. 



23v5-tf 



WM. I.. OVEBHISEB, 

Stockton. 



FOR SALE. 

Two Thorougrhbred Durham Bulls. 
Also, a lot of fine POLAND OHINA PIGS. 



Address 
23v5-2m 



CANNON & STAPLES, 
8i isun, Solano County, Cal. 



PuBGHASEBS please say advertised in Pap'.ao Rural Press. 



.C^ILMOI\E 

IMPOTre^^j BREEDER 




SULTAN SECONU. 

See description in Pacific Rural Press January 4, 1873. 

Address N. GILMOBE, 

eow. El Dorado, El Dorado Oounty, Oal. 



A BOOK 

For Every Farmer and Owner of 
Domestic Animals. 

A MANUAL OF HOMCEOPATHIC VETERI- 
NARY PRACTICE. 



The Latest and Best Work on the Diseases 
of Animals ever Published. 

PBICE $5.00. 



Sets of Medicines especially put up for the Book, as 
well as all Homoeopathic Medicines , and Books for sale 
at the HOMOSOPATHIG PHARMACY of 

BOEBICKE & TAFEL, 

231 Sutter Street SAN FRANCISCO. 

jyl2-lm 

PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS, 

SAN FRANCISCO, 
Manufacturers of 

Linseed unci Castor Oils, 

OIL CAKES AND MEAL. 

Highest price paid for Flax Seed and Castor Beans de 
livered at our works. 
Office, 3 and 5 Front street. 
Works, King street, bet. Second and Third. fel5-eow 



FARMING LANDS FOR SALE 

IN STANISLAUS AND MERCED COUNTIES, 
Either in Inrge or small tracts. 

Apply to W. T. S. BYEB. 

No. 408 California street, 
17v6-tf San Francisco, Cal. 



THE STEARNS RANCHOS. 

ALFBED BOBINSON, Trustee. 

642 Market Street SAN FRANCISCO. 

90,000 Acres of Land for Sale, 

In lots to suit, suital:)le for the culture of Or- 
anges, Lemons, Limes, Figs, Almonds, Walnuts, 
Apples, Peaches, Pearv, Alfalfa, Corn, Bye, 
Barle-, Flax, Ramie, Cotton, etc. And, also, 
many thousand acres of 

NATURAL EVERGREEN PASTURES, 
Suitable for Dairying. 
Good water is abundant, at an average depth of six 
feet from the surface. On almost every acre of this 
land, FLOWING ARTESIAN WELLS can be obtained, 
and the more elevated portions can be irrigated by the 
water of the Santa Ana River. 

Most of these lands are naturally moist, requiring 
only good cultivation to produce crops. 

Tebms— One-fourth cash, balance in one, two and 
hree years, with ten per cent, interest. 
I will take pleasure in showing these lauds to parties 
eking land, who are invited to come and see this ex- 
nsive tract before purchasing elsewhere. 

WM. E. OLDEN, Agent. 
Anaheim, Los Angeles county, May 24, 1873. 
26v5tf 



Land for Sale in Solano County. 

One tract of 190 acres, all under fence, liv ig . atcr, 
with 30,000 ten-year-old Grape Vines, mostly f reign; 
10,000 Muscat of Alexandria variety; 1 ,000 Fruit Trees, 
including all the best varieties, from the Apple to the 
Orange — all in the most flourishing condition, in a pure, 
salubrious climate, free from frosts suificient to injure 
any fruit, from the hardier to the semi-tropical. 

Must be SEEN to be appreciated. 

THREE MILES WEST OF VACAVIL . 

Belig'ious, Educational and Social Facilities 
Easily Attainable. 

Also one tract of IGO acres; and one of 60 acres. 

Also one tract that can be sold in small quantitiog 
from $3,000 upward. 

Also one tract on Putah Creek of IfiS acres, with 3,000 
bearing Fruit Trees of the finest and choicest varieties, 
and the EARLIEST IN THE S PATE. 

Purchasers looking for improved homes in California 
would do well to visit this favored fniit- growing section . 



Apply to 
20v6-3m 



H. T. BABKEB, 

At M. Blum's Store, 

Vacaville. 



LANDS, FARMS, ETC. 

Parties wanting to sell would do well to send UB a 
description of their property. 

BET" WE MAKE NO CHARGE unless we EFFECT 
SALES. 

Wo have 500 Farms and over 600,000 Acres of and 
for Sale. 

Address BRANDON k BIBBINS, 
Pacific Land Exchange, 
6vS-ly eamy street. Ban Francisco. 



TOBACCO GROWERS! ^Scf'^a^^g^r"' 

Saves Tobacco, Labor, Time and Annoyance. No 
Tobacco Grower will do without, having once tried it. 
Pays for itself flist year. Send for circular for par- 
ticulars. E. KEMPSHALL k CO., 

23v5-3m New Britain, Gomn. 



woi^ for uhIq thrlr frpare ranraoftts or all tlio tltuo than atAny tiling 
•iBo, rartlcularifre*. Acl<lro*aQ.btInaoBACf>.,rorllftii(l,M»li»«. 



48 



[July 19, 1873. 



Directory. 

[PBEPABED 8PECIAli.T FOB THE PACIFIC KUBAL PBEMH. ) 

NATIONAL CHlANGE.-"Washiiieton, D. C. 

Jfa»(t..-DUDLEY W. ADAMS. Waukon, Iowa. 
iSK-relari/.-O. H. KELLEV, Georgetown, D. C. 

STATE GRANGES. 

GEOBOIA.-Masler, Col.T. J. Smith. Oconee; Sec'y, E 

''liluiSs'.-'K'ier.AIon^o Colder, Rock Falls; Sec'y, O. 

*^lNDi""'^-\Ct«r, John Weir, Terre Haute; Sec'y. .T. 

•'low.^-iSasti.r-A. B. Smedley, Cresco: Sec'y, Gen. Wm. 

"rA^NsI-Ma^ii" ?'.°ir Dnmbauld. Jacksonville; Sec'y, 
Ceo. W. Spurgeon. Jacksonville. «,.«„„•„ i 

MiciiiG.^N.-Master, S F. Brown, bchooloraH ; becy, J. 
T Cobb, Schoolcraft. to . ««..•,. 

Minnesota.- Master, Geo. I. Parsons, Winona; tsec y, 

^Mississippi!- Master. Gen. A. J. Vaughn, Early Grove; 
Sec'y. W. L. Williams, Rienzi. ....ah 

MissorRi.- Master, T.R Allen, Allenton; Secy, A. M. 
( 'offey. Knob Noster, Johnston Co. .. o ■ 

XEBRASKA.-Master. Wm. B. Porter. Plattsmouth ; hoc y, 
Wiu. McCraig. Elmwood. . . ,> «. u. 

OHio.-Mastcr, S. H.Ellis, Springboro: Sec y, D. M. &te«- 

"s i!vBOLiNA.-Master, Thomas Taylor, Columbia; Sec'y, 
Col. D. Wyatt Aikin, Ookesbury. o • ■.- i 

VEn.MONT.-Master, E. P. Colton, Irashurg; Secy, b. b. 
Hovey, St. Johnsbury. , „, 

Wisconsin. - Master. Col. John CJochrane, Waupun , 
Sec'y, J. Brainard. Oshkosh. 

ARTICLES FOR GRANGES, ETC 

Blank By-Laws for snborilmate Granges will be furnish- 
ed at this office for two cents per cop.v, post paid. Printed 
blanks and forms. Masters' jewels and other articles re- 
<iuircd by Granules furni.shed by this ofllee at cost prices. 
Furtherinformation freely furnished on application. 
The Objects of the Patrons of Husbandry 
Briefly Stated. 

(ieneral Deputy N. W. Garretson, who is now visiting thi 
<:oaHt perfecting the organii-.ations of the order in Calif or 
nia. Oregon and Washington Territory, states the objects o 
the order to be brielly as follows; 

1. The enn blement of labor and the fraternising of the 
producing classes. , ^,. j j ., 

2. Bringing more nearly together the producer and the 
consumer. „, ,. ^ , , ^ t j « 

3. Mutual instruction. The lightening of labor by diffus- 
ing a better knowledge of its aims. 

4. Social culture. 

5. Mutual relief in sickness and adversity. 

6. Prevention of litigation. 

7. Prevention of cruelty to animals. 

8. The overthrow of the credit system. 

9. Building up and fostering home industry. 

10. Mutual iirotection to husbandmen against sharper 
and miiidlemen. 



Farmers Everywhere, Organize 



For the information of those visbing to organize 
Granges, we publish the foUowinji extracts from the 
Consitution of the National Grange : 

1. Any person interested in agricultural pursuits, of 
the age of 16 years (feiinlo) aud 18 (males), duly pro- 
posed, elected, and by complying with the by -Laws of 
the Order, is entitled to membership and the benefit of 
degrees. 

1!. Application for a dispensation to organize a Grange 
must be made by not less than nine men aud four wo- 
men, nor more than twenty men and ten women, 
through a Deputy to the Secretary of the National 
Grange; said application to be accompanied by a fee of 
115. Charter members are those only whose names are 
upon the application, aud who havo paid a fee of $3 
upon signing. The $15 is paid out of the fund created by 
the payment of fees. 

;i. As soon as fifteen subordinate granges shall have 
been organized in this State, a State Grange will be or- 
ganized, and the dispensations will be replaced by char 
tcrs, without further fee. 

4. Religious or political questions will not be toler- 
ated as subjects of discussion in the work of the Order, 
and no religious or political tests for membership shall 
be applied. 

5. The minimum fee formcmbershipin a subordinate 
Orange shall be, for men, $5 ; for women, ii for the 
fourdegrees; except charter members, who shall pay — 
men, $3; women, 50 cents. The minimum monthly 
dues shall be froiu each member 10 ce -ts. 

.). The officers are as follows: Gentlemen— Master, 
Overseer, Lecturer, Steward, Assistant Steward, Chap- 
lain, Treasurer, Sci?retary, and Gatc-Keeper. Ladies — 
C«res, Pomona, Flora, ancl Lady Assistant Steward. 
■« ncre is also a Standing Executive Committee of three 
which has tiliarge of the business of the Grange. 

How to Organize. 

The first step necessary in the organization of a 
Grange is to secure the names of not less than nine 
males and five females, not more than 2t) males aud 10 
feiualeK who will become charter members. Call them 
together and procure their signatures to a blank (which 
may be procured of Deputy W. H. Baxter, of Napa 
City) asking for a dispensation to organize, and collect- 
ing of each signer the charter fee. Nominate the offi- 
cers named in the constitution of the National Grange, 
as above enumerated. Notify the Deputy that such 
steps have been taken and that they are ready for 
organization . 

Blank copies of Constitiitioos for organizing farming 
clubs will be sent free on application to this office. 



To the Patrons of Husbandry. 

AVe earnestly solicit that your Secretaries furnish us 
as early and full reports of your discussions, as may be 
desirable to send broadcast among patrons and farmers 
throughout the State. In our columiies will be found 
an official list of the National and State Granges. -\Ibo 
a list of California Granges, with P. O. address, and 
the names of Masters and Secretaries. Also reports of 
all new Granges, and the progress of the work at home 
and abroad, will be continued more fully than in any 
other journal on this Coast. We shall continue, as 
heretofore to give reports of Orange and Club meetings 
of farmers throughout the State. 

Our market reports, a department of essential interest 
to every farmer, will be replete, correct and up to the 
latest hour possible. Our Home Circle, Domestic Econ- 
omy, Agricultural Notes, and various other depart- 
ments, will not be lacking in interest for want of able 
and careful preparation, while the embellishments of 
fine engravings in our future issues will surpass those 
of the past. 

DEWEY it CO., Publi;hors. 



ASBESTOS ROOFING. 
Over 15,000,000 Square Feet in Use. 

THE ASBESTOS ROOFING IS A SUBSTANTIAL AND RELIABLE MATERIAL, 
Which can be Safely Used in Place of Tin, Slate, etc., 

ON STEEP OR FLAT ROOFS, IN AIL CLIMATES. 

It c«an bo Clie»i.pl>^ Tmusportod nu<l ICutsiil^" A-ppllcd. 

THE PACIFIC COAST TRADE SUPPLIED BY 

FERINE & EDWARDS, 

No. 638 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 
3vgbp(te 



^ 



^^^: 



£aoh Issue OONTAim 

Sixteen well filled pages. 

Original and Choice Engravings. 

EMitorials on Home Industries. 

On various kinds of Stock-rearing. 

On Horticulture and Gardening. 

Correspondence from Fiirming Districts. 

Answers and hints to Correspondents abont 
Local Farming. 

Good Health and Useful Inform tion. 

Reports of Farming Clubs. 

Mechanical aDd Scientific progress. 

Agricultural Notes from all quarters. 

Domestic Produce Markets. 

Home Circle. 

Domestic Economy. 

Mechanical Hints and Domestic Beceipini. 

Home !vnd Farm Matters. 

Affording, in all, more of real instructive and 
profitable matter for general readers than 
any other weekly on this side of the Conti- 
nent. 
Subscription, in advance, f 4 a year. Single 

copies 10 cts. Four single copies, of late dates, 

sent postpaid for 25 cts. 

DE^WEY »c Co., 

Publishers, Patent Agents and Engravers, No. 338 
Montgomery street, S. £. comer California, S. F. 



Kind "Worda. 

GiiJioT, July 7, 1873. -Messrs. Dewet & Co.: Tour 
favor of the Sth cam* to hand yesterda.v. You will re- 
ceive the $20 to-morrow or next morning, and please 
send the papers to me at this place. Thankful for your 
promptness in this case, should I have any success in 
this I shall probably trouble you again with something 
in your line. Respectfully, R. B. Benham . 

Austin, June 30, 1873.— MesBTB. Uewet * Co.: Your 
favor of the 27th inst. is at hand. You and your a^nts 
have my sincere thanks for the manner you have con- 
ducted my case. Inclosed you will find a check for 
twenty dollars— will forward you one hundred dollars 
on Saturday next (extra fees) ; and I must say I am well 
satisfied with your charges. Will write you to-morrow 
or next day about other matters. 

Yours truly, Thos. IIoOlew. 



THE PATENT 

Novelty Mill and Grain Separator 




^^^E? A CO'© 
^^ Scientific Press 



at©a$ Ag©a©F« 




OUB U. S. AND FOEEION PATENT AOENCT preSCntl 

many and important advantages as a Home Agency over 
all others by reasons of long establishment, great expe- 
rience, thorough system, and intimate acquaintance 
with the subjects of inventions in our own community. 
All worthy inventions patented through our Agency will 
have the benefit of an illustration or a description in the 
McJiNO AND Scientific Press. We transact every 
branch of Patent ousiness, and obtain Patents in all 
civilized counlriet. The large majority of V. S. and 
Foreign Patents granted to inventors on the Pacific 
Coast have been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the best and most rtliabU advice as to the patenta- 
bility of new inventions. Advice ahd Cibculars fbeb. 

DEWEY & CO., 

Pabllahers, Pateut A.Kenta. and Enici nvera. 

No. 338 Montgomery St., San Fraucisoo, 0»1, 



Is one of the greatest improvements of the age for 
cleaning and separating grain, while it combines all the 
essential qualities of a First-class Fanning Mill. Italso 
far excels anything that has been invented for the sepa- 
ration of grain. It has been thoroughly tested on all 
the different kinds of Mixed Grain. It takes out Mus- 
tard, Grass Seeds, Barley and Oats, and makes two dis- 
tinct qualities of wheat if desired. 

For further information apply to 

R. STONE, 

3v6-3m-eowbp -422 Battery street, San Francisco. 



PACIFIC STEAM BAG FACTORY. 

E. DETRICK & CO., 

Importers and Dealers 



BAGS AND BAGGING MATERIALS. 

123 Clay street, near Uavis SAN FKANCISCO. 



Grain, Flour, Wool, Ore, Bean, Specie and Salt BAGS. 
Twines, Needles, etc. Tents, Hose, Awnings, Ceilings, 
Grain and Wagon Covers, Baloons, etc. 3v6 3m 



THOMLAH &; SsJHIRLA-CNO, 

lmport«'r8 and Breedors of 

Cashmere or Angora Goats, 



PURE BLOOD AND ALL GRADES, 

For Sale in Lots to Suit Purchas<ns . 

Including a Choice Lot imported by A. EUTYCHIDE8, 
a native of Angora. For particulars apply to 

S. P. THOMAS, Sacramento, Cal. 

— OK— 

E. D. SHIBLAND, Auburn, Cal. 



THOROXJGmBItED 

Spanish Merino Sheep for Sale. 

The undersigned offers for sale 70 Kams one year old, 
at prices ranging from Thirty to Sixty Dollars each. 

Also, 100 Ewes, in lots to suit buyers, at from Thirty 
to Fifty Dollars per head. 

The Sheep can be seen on my ranch in Solano County. 

For particulars enquire of MOODY & FAKISH, 210 
Davis street, San Francisco, or of 

jl8-lm I. B. HOYT, Suisun, Cal. 



PtTBaiiASEBS pleaBe my advertised in Knral Prera. 



SEASONABLE SEEDS 

At Reduced Prices. 



The following Tarietieg, all of the NEW CROP, are 
offered at less than usual market rates : 



BEETS. 

Mangel Wurtwl, 
White Sugar, 
Yellow Globe. 



CABROT8. 

Long Orange, 
White Belgium, 
Long Red. 
All Imported Seeds. 



Grass and Clover Seeds. 



Timothy, 
Bed Top, 
Kentucky Blue Grass, 



English Rye Grass, 
White Clover, 
Rod Clover. 



ALFALFA, Etc 

Orders are respectfelly solicited, and will meet with 
prompt and faithful attention. 

GEO. F. WILVEWXEK, 

No. 817 WasMnston Street, 

«V2-Iyl6p SAN FRANCISCO. 



Choice Bred Fowls, and Eggs 
for Hatching. 

I will spare a few EGGS from my Imported Stock of 
Poultry, consisting of 

LIGHT AND DARK BRAHMA8, 
BUFF AND PAKTUIDGE COCHINS, 
SPANGLED GOLDEN AND SILVER POLISH, 
SPANGLED GOLDEN AND SILVER HAMBCRGS, 
PtRE WHITE-FACED BLACK SPANISH, 
SILKIES, BLACK, RED GAME. 
AYLEbBCRY AND ROLEN DUCK. 

— also— 

Chester County White Pigs, China Pigs. 

M. FALLON. 

Seventh and Oak streets, OAKLAND. 



MTT IN TE !«'.•« 

IMPROVED GRAIN SEPARATOR. 




If you want clean grain, we invite you to call and 
examine HUNTER'S IMPROVED GRAIN SEPARATOR 
before buying any other machinery. The improved 
machine is the most compact, simple and perfect Gruin 
Cleaner now in use. It separates the Chess, Mustard, 
Barley, Oats, etc., from Wheat, and does its work rap- 
idly. We keep constantly on band the different sizes, 
and arc prepared to show by actnal test that it is the 

Best Machine now before the Public. 

It has never failed t" toke the First Premium atevery 
State and Coimty Fair where it has been exhibited at 
the East or on this Coast, for which we have the Diplo- 
mas and Medals to show. Send for Circular. 

WIESTEB & CO., 
No. 17 New Montgomery street, San Francisco. 



XHK TSTEW WEED 

Family Favorite 
SE\VING MACHINES, 

As is well known, ar« the best 
in the world. It is the only 
one ever invented that works 
on .\LL GOODS and never 
gives trouble. Simple— Du- 
rable — Quiet. A child can run 
it It will last a lifetime — and 
will l>e kept in order free of 
charge. 

Since taking the Highest 
Premium at the Exposition 
of Paris, the C<»mpany have 
sold of their new FAMILY 
FAVORITE, over 

ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY THOUSAND ! 

Call on or address the WEED OFFICE, 

152 New Montookebx Stbbet, 

3v(;-Sm SAN FRANCISCO. 




A Good Binder fo^ $1.50. 

Subscribers for this Journal can obtain our Paten 
Elastic Newspaper File Holder and Binder for $1.60— 
containing gilt Mtle of the paper on the cover It pre- 
serves the papers completely and in such shape that 
they may be quickly fastened and retained In book form 
ait the end of the volume, and the binder (which is very 
durable) used continuously for snlwequent volumes. 
Post paid, 25 cts. extra. It ran be used for Harper'i 
Weekly and other papers of similar size. If not entirely 
pleased, purchasers may return them within SO days. 
Just the thing for libraries and reading rooms, and all 
who wish to file the Pum. lambp 




Volume VL] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 26, 1873. 



[Number 4. 



Lake Tahoe. 

This cbarminglake, so well known to tourists 
as one of the beauties of California, is the sub- 
ject of our engraving this week. Paintings 
and word descriptions, fail to convey a full 
idea of the true lovelipess of the lake and its 
sarroundings, and an engraving can only give 
the outlines of a scene which must be visited 
to be fully appreciated. 

The lake is situated at an altitude of 6,218 
feet above the level of the sea, in the midst of 
the Sierras, and is 35 miles long and 15 miles 
broad. In some places it is more than 1,500 
feet deep, and the idea once prevailed that it 
was bottomless, with reference to all ordinary 
means of taking its soundings. The water is 
peculiarly clear, cold and transparent, and for 
half a mile from shore, objects 
at the bottom are seen as dis- 
tinctly as if only a few feet 
away. 

The scenery around the lake, 
like most of it in the Sierras, 
is magnificent and grand. The 
higher mountains in the vicini- 
ty are covered with eternal 
snows, and the hills near by, 
to the north and east, are 
densely thicketed with forests 
of fir, balsams, pines and 
■ oaks; while along the southern 
shore are beautiful meadows 
of grasses and clovers, fur- 
nishing ample forage for exten- 
sive dairies of cows during the 
summer season. 

A steamer and several boats 
have been placed on the lake, 
but the sudden gusts of wind 
which sweep down the gorges 
from the hills, are dangerous 
for nautical recreation. The 
waters abound with trout of 
several varieties, and many of 
them of large size, which not 
not unfrequently find their 
way to the San Francisco 
markets in their season. We 
would advise all our readers who have the time 
and means, to make a visit to this enchanting 
locality, and see the beauties of the scenery. 
Facilities for camping out, as well as good 
hotels, abound along its shores. 

Alfalfa with Wheat. — We want the experi- 
ence of some one, or more, in the matter of 
sowing alfalfa with wheat under the following 
conditions: We wish to sow wheat onreclaimed 
tule land, say in October or November, and 
then pasture or feed off any excess of growth 
of the wheat, in February or March, with sheep. 

Query : Will such feeding, by tramping the 
ground or otherwise, prove injurious to the 
growth of the alfalfa? Is there any better time 
for sowing alfalfa with wheat on tule, ash-lands 
— or lands prepared by burning — than to sow 
it when the wheat is sown? We would like to 
hear from some of our tule land culturists on 
this subject. - 



Small Peaclies. 

San Francisco has already a surfeit of 
peaches and the fear is that it will prevail for 
the whole season; but such peaches! Why the 
bleak hills of New England would blush to own 
them as their product. Miserable, diminutive, 
spotted things, and as sour as they look to be. 
Now to a considerable extent, this inferiority of 
the present crop might have been prevented. 
In early spring the trees presented a full and 
perfect bloom, but ere long the April frosts cut 
short the hopes of the fruit growers. 

In a few fruit bearing sections, the peach 
trees escaped injury, and set full of fruit and, 
as is usually the case in California, more fruit 
to the tree than can be grown to full size and 
perfection. The largest fruits of the same 



Jtlape as a Forage Plant. 

In our last issue we introduced a 
favorable notice of rape as a honey plant. We 
would here speak of it from good authority as 
a forage plant, and particularly desirable for 
our reclaimed tule lands, as the plant delights 
in rich alluvial soils, and seems more at home 
in the newly reclaimed bogs and fens of Eng- 
land than any of the turnip family, to which 
it is closely allied. 

It is cultivated in the same manner as tur- 
nips; often attains a height of three or even 
four feet, so that when sheep are turned in, 
they are completely hidden beneath the leaves, 
and seem to eat the stalks more greedily if pos- 
sible than the leaves. Rape is grown exten- 
sively both for the leaves as forage, and for 




LAKE TAHOE. 



A Plant STiMtTLANT. — The sulphate of am- 
monia is an excellent manurial liquid to apply 
(once a week) to flowering plants, giving to 
the foliage a dark green, luxuriant and healthy 
appearance. It is economical, clean and easily 
applied. Prepare it in the evening before us- 
ing, by dissolving one ounce of sulphate of 
ammonia in two gallons of water. 

Thbee dairy farms on the Santa Ynez river, 
fifty miles from Santa Barbara, produce about 
6,000 pounds of cheese monthly. 



varieties sell the best, so that resort is fre- 
quently had to thinning the same upon the 
tree, and this practice is always productive of 
increased size and quality in that which is left 
to ripen; but this year, because so many had 
lost nearly their entire crop, others, more for- 
tunate, allowed every peach upon their trees to 
hang for ripening. 

The consequence is, that with an unusually 
dry season thus far, these overcrowded trees — 
in the number of their specimens — are pro- 
ducing a greatly inferior fruit, not worth half 
per bushel what it would have been if thinning 
had been judiciously practiced. The legiti- 
mate result is, the trouble and expense of 
picking and marketing inferior fruit of very 
little value. However, if the lesson of the 
season be not wholly lost, we shall find larger 
and better peaches upon our markets in follow- 
ing years. 

Eape Cdltube. — We would direct the atten- 
tion of farmers having suitable soils — alluvium 
or reclaimed tule lands— to an article in our 
columns this week on " Rape as a Forage 
Plant," as worthy of their consideration; the 
more lengthy article of two in our columns, is 
the one particularly referred to. 

Grain m Solano.— We , learn from Mr. 
Cooper, Vacaville, July 13, that the grain crop 
of that section of the State is turning out 
much better than was expected ; wheat from 10 
to 30 bushels and barley from 30 to 50 bushels. 



the production of oil. The oil which is ex- 
tracted from the seeds, is sometimes known as 
Colza-oil, and is extensively used in lubri- 
cating machinery, and formerly for burning in 
lamps. 

As a farm crop on suitable soils, it is worthy 
of a fair trial, as producing a remunerative 
crop, valuable for forage, for oil, and the nec- 
tar of its flowers as food for bees, and its pro- 
duction scarcely interfering with any other 
crop; whilst it completely smothers all weeds, 
and leaves the land in excellent condition for 
any other crop. 



Tobacco Culture in Gilkot. — The tobacco 
raisers of Gilroy have succeeded beyond their 
most sanguine expectations, in what has been 
looked upon only as an experiment. The crop 
is very large, and unusuaUy fine in quality. 
One company alone have 300 acres in cultiva- 
tion; the tobacco is some five weeks old, and is 
now being cut. Tobacco raised this year is, in 
some cases, fully cured and ready for maniifac- 
ture. Next year we may expect to see this in- 
terest greatly enlarged, not only in this section, 
but throughout the State. It has been satisfac- 
torily proved that our climate and soil are per- 
fectly adapted to raising tobacco of the very 
finest quality; and no doubt California will, in a 
few years, export "the weed" largely. 



Popular Science. 

Whatever book, magazine or newspaper we 
road ; whatever lecture we listen to ; with whom- 
soever we converse even, we are confronted 
with this inevitable phrase. What is its exact 
meaning? Does it mean science for the people, 
or is it intended to convey the idea that it is 
science made generally interesting — or are both 
meanings to be included in the term? We 
strongly suspect that in many cases the name 
only serves as a cloak to cover what might be 
described as appreciation of the hackneyed 
experiments performed by the typical lecturer 
on scientific topics. This personage, in unveil- 
ing the hidden things of science, certainly lays 
claim to the title of entertaining expounder, and 
deserves it, in view of his strenuous efforts in 
securing it; though frequently 
his frantic endeavors to com- 
mand attention fall so far short 
of the dignity of his theme, 
that the effect is truly laugh- 
able. Can it be that a love for 
science consists in, and is 
limited by, a curiosity to see 
whether those two colorless 
liquids really will produce a 
blue one, as the Professor has 
so confidently stated, and an 
anxiety as to when his next 
startling explosion will take 
place? It certainly is a fact 
that this affectation of "popu- 
lar ' ' science serves to attract 
many, to whom its hard, rigidly 
mathematical laws might have 
proved repulsive, and it is im- 
possible that it should fail to 
impart many interesting, and 
ofttimes usef ul,bits of informa- 
tion. And then in the "popu- 
lar" science books, too, we 
are treated to the same sugar- 
coated prescriptions; and, to 
complete the simile, the doses 
are also homeopathically in- 
finitesimal. 
What is really needed, is the 
dissemination of scientific knowledge respecting 
the numberless issues of every-day life, the per- 
petually recurring question of relation between 
greatest effect and least labor, and the all-import- 
ant matter of utilizing waste products— which, 
after all, is where we gain most in comparison 
with the inaccurate and wasteful processes em- 
ployed by our fathers. Science brought down 
to the wants of common existence, the science 
which is applicable in what are termed small 
things, the science which is intelligible to the 
masses, is what should be, properly, the definition 
of " popular " science. It is encouraging to 
note that this desideratum is being more and 
more felt, day by day, and the knowledge that 
heretofore has been locked, so to speak, in the 
arcana of the initiated only, and regarded as 
the sacred mysteries peculiar to a privileged 
class, is becoming ever more wide-spread as 
the means of acquisition are multiplied. 

Still, wo protest against the calm serenity 
with which complacent admirers (from afar) 
proclaim their devotion, and against so palpa- 
ble a misuse of terms as that to which we have 
alluded. 

Cobbespondencb.— Our readers will observe 
that the Rural Press is not behind any agri- 
cultural journal in the United States, in the 
amount of its varied and interesting corres- 
pondence. Still we would invite the friends 
of the Rural, who have not yet favored our 
readers with the result of their experience and 
practices, to contribute to our columns. A gen- 
eral correspondence is an interesting and in- 
structive feature of any agricultural journal. 



1 



50 



[July 26, 1873. 



]5|0RRESP0NDENCE. 



Notes from Butte County. 

Editors Pkess: — Nearly all are aware 
there is quite a difiference between the tempera- 
ture of San Francisco and the upper Sacramen- 
to, but none are more thoroughly impressed 
with the idea, than one from the cool smd 
showers of Frisco, to a locality, where the 
thermometer is ranging from 85- to 1023 in the 
shade. However one can endure that with 
pleasure if we can avoid that of 1150 and 120^, 
which sometimes occurs here. 

Chico is a busy little town for the interior, 
and bids fair to continue so, as it is surrounded 
by a large territory of the best grain growing in 
the State, never failing to produce a fair yield. 
The town is being built up rapidly since the 
fire which occured a short time since, and which 
destroyed quite a portion of it. A large ware- 
house is being built near the railroad depot, by 
J. M. Woodman and G. C. Perkins, with the 
capacity for storing a large amount of grain. 

The grain throughout this section will be a 
fair yield, less than an average per acre, but it 
is thought that the county will turn ofif about 
the same as last season. The farmers are ex- 
pecting to receive an advance of present prices, 
and many will hold their grain for sometime 
unless it is received. A greater portion of the 
grain is cut, and quite an amount threshed. 
All summer fallow is yielding well, from 25 to 
40 bushels per acre; while the winter plowed is 
generally quite light; several fields of fallow 
have turned out iO bushels of wheat per acre. 

At Gen. J. Bidwell's ranch, a large number 
of hands were employed at harvesting in all its 
parts, from the headers, to the storing and 
manufacturing into flour. He has about 3,000 
acres in grain, and estimates the probable yield 
at 75,000 bushels. A field of the white Touzelle 
— a variety from the south of France — made a 
fine growth; but the heads were very short and 
light. While riding over the extensive farm 
with Mr Bidwell, we had an opportunity of 
seeing much of interest and worthy of mention; 
among which was a beautiful orchard of 1,000 
almond trees of the Languedoe variety; also 
his vineyard of 100,000 vines, containing nearly 
fifty different varieties, mostly of the raisin 
grape, however, two or three years old, and are 
bearing fruit freely. He estimates about a 
three-fourth crop; being injured by the frost, 
which is the case to some extent in several 
places here, though generally fruit is looking 
well. 

We saw in Mr. P. Phillips' orchard, near 
Cana, on Pine creek, a twig of seven inches in 
length, on which were growing twenty-five, fine 
damson plumbs, and another less than eighteen 
inches in length growing fifty large ones; also 
wine, of which he manufactures but little, 
which was equal to any port wine found in 
market ; he thinks the quality of the grape pro- 
duces such wine, rather than any difference in 
the process of making. 

At the ranch of Mr. Wm. Vanwort near 
Nord, we were shown a fine sample of white 
wheat, which he calls The Pride of Butte. He 
procured one-half gill of this in '69, from which 
he raised thirteen lbs., and the present season 
has 4,500 bushels, with which he proposes to 
furnish farmers in various parts for seed. It 
has a strong straw, with very long heavy heads, 
yielding far beyond the ordinary varieties. 

The farmers club held their meeting on the 
12th inst. and adjourned sine die, as nearly all 
the members were also members of the Grange 
and will concentrate their power there. The 
Chico Grange meeting was also held the 12th ; 
members report a flourishing Grange of 120 
members, and is increasing rapidly. 

The Upper Sacramento Agricultural Society 
met on the 12th, also at Chico. On motion it 
was decided to open the next annual fair of the 
Society on the Monday succeeding the close of 
the State Fair, and continue through the week; 
Gen. Bidwell declined acting and D. M. Kea- 
vis was nominated and elected as President of 
the Society. 

Some very fine stock is being raised in this 
county. We saw at the Fair ground some five 
horses which are already being trained for the 
fall races. 

Parties are engaged in an enterprise here 
with regard to bringing lumber from the moun- 
tains, similar to that of Mr. C. F. Ellsworth at 
Bed Bluff, which was built a short time since. 
They are certain of success, and though it may 
be of great injury to some, and will probably 
not bring lumber to the people below, for any 
less money, yet it bids fjiir for a source of great 
revenue to those engaged, as they can deliver 
it at a cost of $1 per thousand feet over this 
route, whereas they are now paying $13 per 
M for moving it by teams from this same part. 

The means used for moving the lumber are 
very simple indeed, being run in a V flume, 
which is built of 2-1 by 1% inch lumber, with a 
grade of 4 inches to the rod, running about 
100 inches of water. The flume begins near 
the head of Chico Creek, 35 miles from Chico 
and will land the lumber within 1]/^ miles of 
the railroad. Nine miles of the flume are 
already built; one mile per day is about the 
rate of buildi«g; an average of 100,000 feet per 
day of lumber can be run down and much 
more of square timber. Also freight of various 
kinds can bo carried down. A box 16 feet in 
length will carry 1,000 fcs. at the rate of eight 



miles an hour. Persons at the upper points 
have only to climb into the box and take a 
short railroad ride by wood and water. 

A company called the Butte Flume & Lum- 
ber Company are at the head of the enterprise, 
they have two miles near the head of the flume 
which cut about 50,000 per day of mostly su- 
gar pine ; with these means at hand lumber 
ought to be furnished at much reduced rates; 
the cost of the flume will probably be about 
$90,000. F. G. Sackbt. 

Chico, July 14, 1873. 

Alfalfa. 

Editoes Press:— For the information of 
those interested in the culture of alfalfa, permit 
me to state, that I have just been shown a 
small field of this clover, belonging to Mr. F. 
Sanderson, of this County, which is indeed 
most remarkable, having in about six weeks 
attained a height of over two and a half feet, 
and would yield if cut now upwards of 3 tons 
of excellent hay to the acre. The land was 
well plowed and sown to barley, harrowed and 
then seeded with alfalfa without further har- 
rowing. The barley was cut for hay about the 
first of June, when shortly after the alfalfa 
began to appear; and is at present writing as I 
have stated above. 

The soil is alluvial and naturally moist. Mr. 
Sanderson cuts the clover and feeds it green, 
keeping 4 large cows in excellent condition. 
The clover springs rapidly up again where It 
has been cut, so that by the time he has gone 
over his little field (3% acres) the first will 
again be ready for the scythe, thus furnishing 
a good supply of most excellent feed through- 
out the year. 

Mr. S. is of the opinion that, judging 
from the present experiment, every acre 
ought to maintain one cow in good condition 
without other feed. I have frequently noticed, 
however, that cows, which have been long upon 
green feed, when offered good wheat or barley 
hay, will eat it with avidity, a change beinf» 
undoubtedly beneficial to prevent scouring and 
assist bovine digestion . Much care should be ex- 
ercised when purchasing alfalfa seed, as I have 
heard many complaints from parties who have 
sown large fields without success, on account 
of bad seed. It is always best to take a few 
seed and try them before buying extensively. 
The vitality of all kinds of seeds may be de- 
termined readily by tying a few in a cotton 
cloth, putting them in warm water and letting 
them stand for a couple of days, then bury 
them in warm sand and examine them every 
three or four days. 

If the conditions of the soil and weather are 
favorable, sow 20 pounds of Alfalfa seed to the 
acre, if not exactly, sow 25 or 30 pounds. Just 
after the first rains is the best time. One-half 
of an inch covering is sufficient. 

Aemilids Kamp. 

San Jos^, July 16th, 1873. 

The above, plain practical talk upon a sub- 
ject of great interest at the present time, is the 
kind that meets with attention and apprecia- 
tion from farmers. 



Crops in Tulare. 

Editors BubaIi Press: — In an issue of recent 
date, your paper contained an article about the 
crops in Tulare county, in which it was stated 
that the yield would be fully up to that of last 
year. Now just let me -correct that statement : 

Instead of the heavy harvest spoken of, it is 
extremely doubtful, if there is enough raised to 
supply the home demand; at any rate there 
will be none for export. Threshing has eom- 
meuced and the result is not above five bushels 
per acre on plain or uuirrigated land. There 
are a few good crops, on places blessed with 
facilities for irrigation. On the plains there 
are several thousand acres too poor to cut at 
all. I will cite one case particularly, that of 
Mr. Wm. Merton, on Lewis Creek; last j-ear 
he threshed seventeen thousand bushels, Ihis 
year, from the same place, only three thousand. 
Tulare is capable of raising a heavy crop of 
grain when there is a sufficient rainfall, but 
this season it was insufficient. 

I wish to make this correction, that parties 
desiring to come to this section, may not come 
deceived. 

Please send me what you can spare of the 
Algaroba beans. R. S. Campbell. 

Visalia, July 10, 1873. 



Dry Creek, Stanislaus County. 

Editors RuttAL Press: — The wheat crop is 
nearly gathered in this locality, and some has 
been threshed. The quality is good; but the 
yield will not reach one half of last year's 
crop: I speak of my own vicinity only. There 
has been much controversy among the news- 
papers, touching the amount of wheatproduced 
in the State. Now I propose the following 
method of solving that question, thus: let every 
one who owns or runs a threshing machine, 
report the number of bushels threshed by him, 
to the local farmers' club; then let the secre- 
tary of the club transmit the game in writing 
to the Pacific Rural Press. W. T. Evans. 

This plan would doubtless enable us to ar- 
rive at a very near approximate to the actual 
yield; but the difficulty will be, to interest the 
threshers sufficiently to secure full reports. 



Poultry in the Foothills. 

Editors Press: — As you have opened your 
columns to the discussion of the poultry ques- 
tion, I take the liberty of sending you a few 
periods descriptive of my experience in that 
direction. 

In the spring of 1871, 1 commenced with two 
and a half dozen of carefully selected Ameri- 
can or barn-yard fowls. During the laying 
season, from April 1st to July Ist, the product 
of eggs averaged between one and two dozen 
daily. After the latter date, the hens left fhe 
poultry-house for the garden, vineyard and 
chaparral. That closed up the account of 
profit; for the blue-jay destroyed their nests, 
and the skunk and fox killed those that did not 
return at night to roost in the poultry-house. 

In January, 1872, I commenced the season 
with twelve dozen fowls; of which there were 
three dozen Dominies, one dozen Cochins, two 
dozen ^lack Spanish, and six dozen American 
or barn-yard; about half of them being pullets, 
and none over two years old. The hens began 
to lay in April in the poultry-house, and did 
very well for nearly two months. From Janu- 
ary 1st to July Ist, the cost of their grnin 
amounted to a small sum over $50; and dur- 
ing that time I sold $30 worth of eggs, at three 
dozen for one dollar, delivered at the ranch. 
I was out of pocket $20, besides the cost of the 
poultry. During the six month, from June 1st 
to December 1st, 1872, I did not get a dollar's 
worth of eggs from any variety of fowls, ex- 
cepting the Dominies and Cochins. The others 
layed their eggs in the garden, vineyard and 
chaparral ; and the omnipresent thief of 
natural history, the blue-jay, gathered up the 
profits at the note of the cackle. For the last 
half of the year, the poultry consumed a good 
crop of two acres of buckwheat, destroyed one 
acre of grapes and peaches, and had commenc- 
ed on an acre of sunflowers most voraciously. 
The question, "Will poultry pay?" presented 
itself financially. In December, I sold every 
feather of the bird called the domestic fowl, 
excepting the Dominies and Cochins, at the rate 
of $9 per dozen, and closed up the account of 
the barn-yard variety, perfectlj' satisfied with 
that investment. I would not have another 
dozen of the fan-tailed species on my ranch at 
any price. 

In January, 1873, I commenced the poultry 
season wdth two dozen Dominic hens, one dozen 
Cochins and two light Brahma cocks, of which 
one was from Bailey's poultry-yards of Oak- 
land, and the other from Rice's, of Newcastle, 
Placer county. My fowls began to lay in Jan- 
uary, and they have more than paid for their 
keeping in eggs for the house and for market. 
I have also raised twelve dozen chickens, all 
half Brahmas. Each of my cocks weighs be- 
tween nine and ten pounds, and I have not 
lost a chicken from any poultry disease. An 
ordinary fence, four feet in height, is sufficient 
to protect the garden and fruit, and I begin to 
reaUze that there is really some profit in poul- 
try-raising. The Dominic lays a large egg 
which is white and clear, and the Cochin is a 
good sitter and an exemplary mother. The 
Brahma is decidedly a domestic fowl, rarely 
wandering from the poultry-yard, and espec- 
ially adapted to add to the comforts of a home 
in the foothills. T. S. Myrick. 

Auburn, Placer Co., July 8, 1873. 

We would like to hear from the breeders of 
fowls, the result of their experience in different 
localities in the State and States adjoining. 

Westminster Colony. 

Editors Press: — Your welcome visitor has 
just been received, over whose columns I take 
great delight, from this fact, that it imparts 
information the most valuable, to every indi- 
vidual who has a spark of interest in life. 

Gentlemen, I would be glad to have an oppor- 
tunity to try a few of the Algaroba beans. 

If you feel disposed to make mention of this 
item, it is at your option. I have just obtained 
artesian water, at the depth of 158 feet, in 
what is known as the Westminster Colony; by 
calculation it discharges not less than 80 gal- 
lons per minute. One other well in the 
colony discharges not less than 100 gallons in 
one minute. There are 30 flowing wells in this 
colony. 

Crops in this neighborhood are excellent, 
where they have had water to irrigate; poor 
where water is wanting. 

I hope your paper may still widen its circu- 
lation. F. W. GnsoN. 

July, 5th, 1873. 

We are obliged to announce, that the entire 
lot of Algaroba seed has been distributed. 



Lone Hill Vineyard. 

Editors Rural Press:— In a late number of 
the Rural Press, (the favorite agricultural 
paper in this county,) was a notice that a few of 
the Carob beans would be sent to any one wish- 
ing to try them. I would like to obtain a few. 

My vineyard is better than the average of 
this county, this year. I expect about three- 
quarters of a full crop; while the county at 
large will produce about one-quarter of a full 
crop. D. M. Harwood. 

San Josd, July 10, 1873. 

We hope to obtain another supply of Algaro- 
ba beans, when your Application will be duly 
regarded. 



Cost of Living. 

Eds. Pbess: — I believe no one has as yet 
responded to the invitation, in "Farm House 
Chats," to tell how much it costs them to live. 
Perhaps very few keep account of evorv item, 
or else like myself, they have very little time 
to write about it. I am the wife of a me- 
chanic, and have for a few years kept careful 
account of what it costs us to live, putting 
down everything from newspapers and mag- 
azines, to salt and shoestrings. But the year 
I report we had a family of eight persons, 
three of them men from the shop boarding 
with us; and the sum total of all expenditure 
was $648. 

I think that will compare favorably with the 
report given by Mary Mountain, considering 
that we bought our groceries at our village 
stores, and so had to pay the extra price of 
middlemen. We also paid for the water ust d 
in house and garden, a bill of about $36 per 
year, and as large a sum for wood; these items, 
I think they escape at Springvale farm. But 
like your conespondent, I had no dressmaker's 
bills to pay, neither had wo doctor's bills, hav- 
ing learned to live without drugs; though be- 
fore we learned that, my book shows me quite 
a large bill for medicines. Let me look; yes, 
$65 for medicines in the year 1866; but for 
the past five years no medicines at all. 

Now would it not be a good thing if all new 
settlers would learn to do without drugs, es- 
pecially as they are often at a great distance 
from a physician? The Science of Health, and 
Dio Lewis' new paper, To-Day, would be a 
help in that direction; and also they show how 
to live economically. Be sure, however, not 
to slight our Rural, that helps about so many 
things. 

But perhaps you will think I cook after the 
strict rules of the Science of Health. No, not 
for the "men folks." I indulge them in "pies 
and things," I hope, to their hearts' content 
(or their stomachs'.) I know they would long 
for the "flesh pots" of the hotels if they did 
not have their regular allowance of doughnuts, 
cakes, and other pastry. I even make mince 
pies for them sometimes, although that was 
not what I got the wine syrup for, mentioned 
in "Wayside Chats." So if it wiU not be out 
of place I will explain the mystery. 

I had read in the Advocate that Sacramental 
wine should be unfermented, and that new 
wine could be preserved by boiling down a 
large to a small quantity. And when the pro- 
prietor of Red Mountain vineyard told us how 
that particular cask was prepared, I thought it 
could not be used for a better purpose, and so 
asked for a little. 

Local Item. 

About half past one o'clock, on the morning 
of the 13th inst., there was an alarm of fire 
here at Knights Ferry. About half of "China- 
town" was burned, destroying probably twenty 
of their houses. They have a superstition 
which forbids thoir trying to extinguish fire, 
so they would give no help themselves. It 
was nearly an hour before the danger io the 
whole town was past. Chinamen have been 
miniug about among the ruins for their melted 
money, of which they have found considera- 
ble. L. J. Dakin. 

Knights Ferry, July 14th, 1873. 

The Algaroba. 

Editors Press: — Are you not in error in 
confounding the Algaroba and Carob in the 
article published in the Press of the 5th 
instant. The Algaroba, the seeds of which 
Messrs. Bennett & Page have, is the name 
applied to several species of Prosopis, mostly 
natives of South America, but found growing 
from Chili to western Mexico. P. didcis and 
P. horrida are natives of Peru and cover ex- 
tensive plains in that country. The tree 
attains a height of 20 to 30 feet, and has con- 
torted branches full of prickly spines. Th: 
wood is very hard and durable, and the pods 
are used for feeding stock. 

The Carob, Ceratonia sUiqiiaia a tree of about 
the same size as the Algaroba, with shining, 
green winged leaves with yellow flowers of a 
fetid odcur. The pods are six to eight inches 
long and one inch in breadth, containing many 
seeds of a reddish-brown color, which are im- 
bedded in a sweet mucilage or pulp, and are 
extensively used for feeding stock. The tree 
is a native of most of the countries bordering 
on the Mediterranean, being abundant in 
Spain, Italy, Egypt and Syria, It is very pro- 
ductive, frequently yielding 800 to 900 pounds 
of pods, the branches bending down nnder the 
weight of the crop. 

The Agricultural Department at one time 
had a supply of seed, and may be able now to 
furnish it. The algaroba is used for the same 
purposes as the carob, and will be useful here, 
and is probably well adapted to the climate of 
this State, as it grows as far south as Valpar- 
aiso, in lat. 33-, but is less productive than the 
ciirob. 

Messrs. Bennett & Page deserve credit for 
introducing this useful plant, by freely furnish- 
ing the seed to those who wish to cultivate it. 

o. p. B. 

Our correspondent is doubtless correct in re- 
gard to his distinction between the algaroba and 
the carob tree; although in Zell's New Ency- 
clopedia we find them considered as identical 
representatives of two continents. They are 
but different varieties of one of the species of 
which there are some 6,500 in number, of the 
natural order, Fabaceae. 



July 26, 1873.] 



51 




Ancient Construction. 

Mass was the predominant feature of ancient 
constructions, and clay, earth, bricks and 
stones, the principal materials. The intro- 
dnctiou of the arch or vault was one of the 
earlest substitutions of the hollow for the solid. 
If a solid, massive, square pillar have the middle 
portion cut out and an arch turned over the 
top, there is so much of the original mass re- 
moved, and a new style of construction, so to 
call it, introduced. It has been generally ad- 
mitted that the invention of the arch is due to 
the Romans, yet there can be very little doubt 
but that the Assyrians were thoroughly ac- 
quainted with it, although clay in some shape 
or another constituted almost their sole construc- 
tive material. This formed the nucleus of the 
enormous artificial mounds which that people 
were fond of raising on which to erect their 
palaces, citadels, and other commanding build- 
ings. Instead of excavating foundations upon 
which to build, an artificial foundation was 
raised and the superstructure placed thereon. 

Modern works are now conducted on a scale 
so gigantic that we are pretty well accustomed 
to immense shifts of earth; but mechanical ap- 
pliances are at our command which were un- 
known to our predecessors, who used neither 
wagons nor barrows, but hand labour only in 
its simplest form. In the erection of the artifi- 
cial mounds to which we have alluded, the 
Assyrians were not in the habit of using the 
clay at random, but mixed and prepared it with 
great care, so that it showed a uniform section 
everywhere when cut. It was completely free 
from stones and all foreign bodies, and closely 
resembled in its consistency the best modern 
puddle. This material is now in numerous in- 
stances giving way to concrete, which promises 
fair to be to us what the clay and bricks were to 
the ancients. In work of a character similar to 
the Thames Embankment the quantity of con- 
crete used in foundations and backing is some- 
thing enormous. 

Explorations at Nineveh have shown that 
except for paving purposes stone rarely en- 
tered into the construction of the walls and 
buildings. They consisted of clay only, which 
had evidently been moulded in the shape of 
bricks, and put together without the aid of 
mortar or cement of any kind. In the few ex- 
amples in which stone was found to be employed 
the joints were made in the same manner, that 
is, by simple juxtaposition. Mortar and ce- 
ment appear to have been rarely or never em- 
ployed. The sfze of the stones was consider- 
able, so that mere weight would, to some extent, 
render superfluous the employment of any 
adhesive substance at the joints. But this was 
not the case with the bricks, which were nearly 
of a square form, 1ft. 4in. on the sides by 2in. 
in thickness. 

The question which remains unsettled is, in 
what degree of consistency were these bricks 
at the time they were put together? Were 
they sufficiently plastic to adhere together, or 
were they wetted before being used, so as to 
soften tbe surfaces merely which were in con- 
tact? Upon this supposition there would be an 
appreciable difference between the appearance 
of the body of the bricks and that of the joints, 
which does not exist. There is, nevertheless, 
a slight difference in colour at these points, 
which looks like lines. 

The Assyrians have two varieties of baked 
bricks: the one was regularly shaped, with par- 
allel faces, and the other of a trapezoidal form. 
These latter were intended for arches or vaults, 
and the inclination of the sides varied with the 
position which the particular brick was inten- 
ded to occupy in tho curve. 

The dimensions and proportions of the As- 
syrian bricks differ from those of modern man- 
ufacture. Those employed in paving were of 
two sizes. One class was 1ft. -lin. by 1ft. 4in. 
by 2J^in. in thickness, and the other 13in. by 
13in. by 4%in. thick. A peculiar feature in these 
old bricks is that they are with few exceptions 
covered with inscriptions in the cuneiform 
character. Two remarkable features in the 
construction of ancient cities were, first, that 
either the diagonals or the direction of the sides 
pointed exactly towards the cardinal points, 
and, secondly, the enormous thickness of the 
walls of the principal buildings. It is probable 
that astronomical reasons dictated the former 
of these, and climatic exigencies the latter. In 
the case of Nineveh there can be little doubt of 
this, as the Assyrians were noted for their skill 
in astronomy, and their partiality for the sci- 
ence. The thickness of the internal walls is 
scarcely ever less tUan 10 ft., and that of some 
of the external varies from 16ft. to 25ft. Some 
consideration must be given to the fact, with 
regard to the thickness of the walls, that the 
mode of building them with bricks merely dried 
in the sun required this dimension to be dis- 
proportionately great. 

In the building of their domes and vaults the 
Assyrians employed a more brittle description 
of brick than in their walls and pavements, and 
the joints were made by grouting them with 
semi-fluid clay. The voussoir shape of these 
bricks proves that the theory of the arch must 
have been known at the time, and some con- 
siderable progress made in the preparation of 
artificial btones. There is no evidence of tim- 



ber being employed as a material of construc- 
tion by the people under notice. It was used 
only in small quantities, and for the purposes 
of ornament. It seems that iron was altogether 
unknown as a constructve material. Copper 
was turned to account for the pivots or hinges 
of doors, and lead was also rendered service- 
ble. Enamelled bricks were common, and 
stucco was largely employed, as with ua, for the 
double purpose of protecting the brickwork 
from the effects of the air, and hiding the 
roughness of the surface. 

There is one ceremony which appears to 
have existed at the time of the Assyrians, which 
is common to modern times as well. It is that 
of laying the first, or foundation stone of a 
building. A recent French explorer, M. P. 
Place, discovered in a layer of fine sand under- 
neath one of the monoliths of the gates of 
Nineveh a variety of different objects in marble, 
agate and cornelian, which were cut and en- 
graved, and were, moreover, all pierced with a 
hole, as if they had originally formed part of 
a bracelet or necklace deposited at the laying 
of the stone, as coins are deposited with us. 
While well versed in the practice of "earth- 
work, brickwork, and even masonry, the As- 
syrians were totally ignorant of the art of con- 
struction considered in the light of an assem- 
blage of pieces of timber or iron. They could 
heap up materials so as to cause the structure 
so composed to resist any outward force by its 
sheer weight or inertia, but they knew nothing 
whatever of the distribution of pressures, or 
how to proportion a structure so that it should 
be equally strong in all parts. Both the labour 
and the material were too abundant to call for 
economy in either one or the other. — Engineer. 

Coal in San Francisco. 

The receipts of coal at San Francisco for the 
six months ending June 30th, have been quite 
large, showing a gain over the same period 
last year. The bulk of our foreign coal is 
usually from Australia, but the movement of 
tonnage sometimes affects the source of supply, 
as will be seen by the following comparison for 
six months: 

1872. 1873. 

Avistralian, tous 48,057 18.6G4 

Chili 3,G82 4IX) 

English 5,831 27,032 

Vancouver 14.740 17,169 

Total Foreign 72,310 63.265 

EiStern, tous 6,043 12,306 

California 75,004 68,400 

Coast 20,410 43,354 

Total Domestic 101,457 124,0r,0 

AddForeign 72,310 03,265 

Grand Total 173,767 187,325 

There has been a gain of over 20,000 tons from 
the Pacific Coast mines. The Seattle mine has 
more than doubled its product. The gain from 
the Coos Bay mines is nearly 5,000 tons. The 
Bellingham Bay mine was not in operation 
during the first half of 1872, and hence the 
11,000 tons received from there this year is 
clear gain. The Rocky Mountain mines have 
sent|u8 a Hmited quantity, though nearly 100 per 
cent, more than last year. The production of 
the Mount Diablo mines in this State shows a 
great decrease. The supply from England has 
been increased over 20,000 tons, while there 
has been a decrease of nearly 30,000 tons from 
Australia. — Bulletin. 



A Novel Railkoad Stove. — A fire proof- 
stove for use in passenger cars especially, was 
subjected to a severe test in Boston, recently. 
The stove is made of wrought and malleable 
iron. It is circular in form, composed of three 
upright cylinders and two cold air boxes at the 
bottom. The fuel is placed in the inner cylin- 
der. The cold air rushing through the cold 
air boxes drives hot air outward and upward 
through the cylinders, the rounded form giving 
a very powerful radiation. The heat escapes 
through a register in the back. The whole is 
firmly bound together by strong iron bolts. 
The doors are fastened by patent locks. At 
the trial, the stove, after the fire in it was well 
under way, was thrown from the staging upon 
which it was placed, to tho ground, a distance 
of six feet. It was then rolled about, and 
tumbled over and over, but not a .spark of the 
fire was spilled upon the shavings which were 
scattered around. When the stove-door was 
opened, the fire was burning briskly. The in- 
genious apparattis was invented and manufac- 
tured in Wilmington, Delaware, and it is be- 
lieved its general introduction would prevent 
the supplemental fires which so generally fol- 
low railroad accidents whore stoves are used in 
the cars, and which frequently cause almost as 
great a loss of life as tho original break down. 



Station Announcer. — In every car on the 
Connecticut River railroad there is a box over- 
head at one end in which is contained the name 
of the next station, which it is tho duty of the 
brakemen to change as they leave tho stations. 
It also states whore they connect with other 
roads. As tho change is made, a boll strikes 
twice, which attracts the attention of tho pas- 
sengers, so that the box always exhibits tho 
name of tho next station, and so on. Thus 
p.'iHsengors always kuow the name of tho stop- 
ping-place, and also if it connects with any 
other railroad. 



To DisTiNODiHH Iron fbom Stkbl. — An En- 
glish engineer says that a good method to de- 
termine between steel and iron is to burn fil- 
ings of the samples in a flame, as steel would 
scintilate, while iron would burn quietly. 



Sympathetic Vibrations in Machinery. 

The vibrations I propose to demonstrate are 
those which are pitched so low as not to come 
within the limits of human ears, but which are 
felt rather than heard. I wish to show how 
these may be seen as well as felt. 

All structures, large or small, simple or com- 
plex, have a definite rate of vibration, depend- 
ing on their materials, size and shape, and as 
fixed as the fundamental note of a musical 
chord. They may also vibrate in parts, as the 
chord does, and thus be capable of various in- 
creasing rates of vibration, which constitute 
their harmonics. If one body vibrates, all 
others in the neighborhood will respond, if the 
rate of vibration in the first agrees with their 
own principal or secondary rates of vibration, 
even when no more substantial bond than the 
air unites this body with its neighbors. In 
this way mechanical disturbances, harmless in 
their origin, assume a troublesome and per- 
haps a dangerous character, when they enter 
bodies which are only too ready to move at the 
required rate, sometimes even beyond the 
sphere of their stability. 

At one time considerable annoyance was ex- 
perienced in a cotton mill because the walls 
and floors of the building were so violently 
shaken by the machinery ; so much so, that, on 
certain days a pail of water would be nearly 
emptied of its contents, while, on other days, 
all was quiet. Upon investigation it appeared 
that the building shook in response to the ma- 
chinery only when it moved at a particular 
rate, coinciding with one of the harmonics of 
the structure; and the simple remedy was to 
make the machinery move at a little greater or 
a little less speed, so as to put it out of tune 
with the building. 

We can easily believe that, in many cases, 
these violent vibrations will loosen the cement 
and derange the parts of a building, so that it 
may afterwards fall under the pressure of a 
weight which otherwise it was fully able to 
bear, and at u time, possibly, when the machin- 
ery is not in motion. Large trees are up- 
rooted in gales of wind, because the wind 
comes in gusts; and if these gusts happen 
to be timed in accordance with the na- 
tural swing of the tree, the effect is ir- 
resistible. The slow vibrations which pro- 
ceed from the largest pipes of a great organ, 
and which are almost without the range of mus- 
ical sounds, are able to shake the walls and 
floors of the building so as to be felt, if not 
heard. 

We have here, also, the reason of the rule 
observed by regiments on the march, when 
they cross a bridge, viz., to stop the baud, and 
break step. This is lest the measured cadence 
of a condensed mass of men should urge the 
bridge to vibrate beyond its cohesive force. A 
neglect of this rule has frequently led to acci- 
dents. The Broughton Bridge, Manchester, 
gave way beneath the measured tread of sixty 
men only, who were marching across it. 

A few days ago a similar disaster befell a bat- 
talion of French infantry while crossing the 
suspension bridge of Anglers. Reiterated 
warnings were given t o the troops to break 
into sections, but the rain falling heavily, the 
orders were disregarded; the bridge fell, and 
280 men were killed. 

When Galileo set a pendulum in strong 
vibration by blowing on it whenever it was 
moving away from his mouth, he gave a good 
illustration of the way in which small but 
regularly repeated disturbances grow into con- 
sequence. Professor Tyndall tells us that the 
Swiss muleteers tie up the bells of their mules, 
lest the tinkle shonLl start an avalanche. The 
breaking of a drinking glass by the human 
voice, when its fundamental note is sounded, 
is a feat instanced by Chladin, who mentions 
it as an experiment frequently repeated by an 
innkeeper for the entertainment of his guests, 
much to his own profit. 

Robert Stephenson has remarked that there 
is not so much danger to a bridge when it is 
crowded with men or cattle, or if cavalry are 
passing over it, as when men go over it in 
marching order. 

A chain bridge crosses the river Dordongo 
on tho road to Bourdeaux. One of the Stcph- 
ensons passed over it in 1815, and was so much 
struck with its defects, although it had been 
but recently erected, that ho reported them to 
the authorities. A few years afterwards it gave 
way when troops were marching over it. 

The bark of a dog is able to call forth the 
response from certain strings of the piano; and 
a curious passage has been pointed out in the 
"Talmud," which discusses tho indemnity to 
bo paid when a vessel is broken by tho voice of 
a domestic animal. If we enter tho domain of 
music, there is no end to the illustrations which 
might be given of these sympathetic vibrations. 

In tho case of vibrations which are simply 
mechanical, without being audible, at any 
rate in a musical sense, tho following ocular 
demonstration may be given: A train of 
wheels, set in motion by a strong spring 
wound up in a drum, causes a horizontal spin- 
dle to revolve with great velocity. Two 
pieces of apparatus like this are placed about 
ten or twelve feet apart. On the ends of the 
spindles, which face each other, are buttons 
about an inch in diameter. The two ends of a 
piece of white tape are fastened to the rims of 
these buttons. When tho spindles, with the 
attached buttons, revolve, tb ^ two ends of the 
tape revolve, and in such directions as to pre- 



vent the tape from twisting,unless the velocities 
are very different. Even if the two trains of 
wheels move with unequal velocities, when in- 
dependent of each other; their motions tend to 
uniformity when the two spindles are connected 
by the tape. Now, by moving slightly the 
apparatus at one end of the room, the tape 
may be tightened or loosened. If the tape is 
tightened, its rate of vibration is increased, 
and, at tho same time, the velocity of the spin- 
dles is diminished on account of the greater 
resistance. If this tape is slackened, its rate 
of vibration is less, and the velocity of the 
spindles is greater. By this change we can 
readily bring the fundamental vibration of the 
tape into unison with the machinery, and then 
the tape responds by a vibration of great am- 
plitude, visible to all beholders. If we begin 
gradually to loosen the tape, it soon ceases to 
respond, on account of the two-fold effect al- 
ready described, until the time comes when 
the velocity of the machinery accords with the 
first harmonic of the tape, when the latter di- 
vides beautifully into two vibrating segments, 
with a node at the middle as the tension slowly 
diminishes, the different harmonics are success- 
sively developed, until at length the tape is 
broken up into a number of segments, only an 
inch or two in length, presenting the appear- 
ance of a beautiful wave line. — Iron. 



Progress of Astronomy In the United 
States. 

Mr. Richard A. Proctor, the distinguished 
British astronomer, bears the following testi- 
mony to the progress and results of astromon- 
ical science in this country : 

"The American arrangements for extending 
government aid to astronomy seem to me to 
afford a model which might be copied with ad- 
vantage on this side of the Atlantic. We see 
their physical observatories attached to other 
government establishments, to universities, 
and so on. Their professors of astronomy are 
not only real working astronomers, but skillful 
mathematicians (for the most part university 
men) and men of admirable zeal in the cause 
of science. I have been struck with the 
abundance, I had almost said the superabund- 
ance, of labor which has been bestowed on 
work, the record of which has recently reached 
me from America. Thus, in the mathemat- 
ical investigations of the coming transits of 
Venus, a problem of difficulty has but to be 
suggested, to be at once attacked and solved to 
the utmost limits of exactness. The pictures 
of solar phenomena, spots, faculre and promi- 
nences, are the most striking and beautiful I 
have yet seen. Their lunar pictures are 
remarkable for artistic beauty, as well as scien- 
tific value, and, altogether, their work, as I 
have said, is a model of our astronomers." 

Does the Sun Influence a Fire ? — There is 
a common opinion, that the direct action of 
the rays of the sun diminishes the combustion 
of a common fire. This notion has often been 
ridiculed as erroneous; and, with a view to put 
it to the test of experiment. Dr. M'Keever as- 
certained the actual rate of combustion of well- 
known bodies, in different circumstances. It 
appears from these trials, that the quantity of 
wax-taper consumed in broad sunshine, in the 
open air, is less than consumed in a darkened 
room, in the same time, in the proportion of 
ten to eleven. When the experiment was made 
with a common mould candle, an inch in length 
was consumed in fifty-nine minutes, in strong 
sunshine, temperature eighty degrees; in fifty- 
six minutes, in a darkened room, temperature 
sixty-eight degrees. Other trials were made to 
ascertain the effects of the different colored 
rays of the prismatic spectrum on combustion, 
and it was found to proceed most slowly in the 
verge of the violet ray. The times of consum- 
ing the same length of taper in the different 
portions of the spectrum were, in the red ray, 
eight minutes; green ray, eight minutes twenty 
seconds; violet ray, eight minutes thirty -nine 
seconds; verge of violet raj', eight minutes fifty- 
seven seconds; the common opinion is there- 
fore correct; but the difference is not so con- 
siderable as might be expected. 



Non-Chemical Analtsis. — That butter is 
not a single fat, but a mixture of fats, is perfect- 
ly well known to chemists, as may bo seen on 
looking into almost any chemical baud-book. 
Apparently, however, there are those who pro- 
fess to be chemists, who are not aware of tho 
fact, as may be instanced by tho following 
report of a certain chemist, who was called to 
testify in court as to tho quality of a lot of 
butter, the value of which was in dispute:— 
"The butter contains a quantity of stearin and 
palmatin. It is therefore largely adulterated 
by the admixture of fat containing those sub- 
stances, etc." The case in which this curious 
specimen of chemistry was exhibited was car- 
ried to a higher court, and is exciting some 
degree of interest. A public writer has already 
remarked that if the absence of stearin and pal- 
matin had been established in tho sample, 
demonstration would in reality have been given 
that the sample contained no butter at all ; and 
under cross-examination the witness appears 
to have modified his report to a slight extent. 
Ho seemed to say that— though for aufjht ho 
knew to the contrary, stearin and palmatin may 
exist in genuine butler— they do not exist in 
the free state in butter.— i'a;. , 



52 




LJuly 26, 1873. 



pi^R^Ef^S Ifi GoJflCIL. 



San Jose Fanners' Glnb. 

Clnb met Jnly 19, President Casey presiding. 

The following question was adopted for dis- 
cussion next Saturday : 

Resolved, That the price of all farm products 
can and should be made uniform, each in its 
class. 

Mr. Holloway wanted to know if our diplo- 
matic system is not demoralizing and burden- 
some, and if it could not be dispensed with. 

Mr. Bergland— Yes, it is; I know for my 
part that is the case. 

Mr. HobsoH wanted to know how much 
wheat should be sowed to an acre. 

Mr. McLellan said he sowed nearly twice as 
much on black abode land as on high land. 
On the former, he sowed from 80 to 100 
pounds; and on the latter, from 40 to 60. 

Mr. Hobson wanted to know also if wheat 
could be sown too early. 

Mr. McLellan said that on black abode it 
could be, so early that it would fall down and 
rust. 

Mr. Hobson wanted to know which would 
yield the most in this valley, wheat or oats. 

Mr. McLellan said he had raised one hun- 
dred bushels of oats to the acre; he preferred 
the common oat to the Norway oat. 

The time allotted to miscellaneous remarks 
was filled by Mr. Bergland with an argument 
against cheap labor. He referred to the cheap 
labor of the serfs in Russia, and of the African 
slaves in America, and said that Russia got 
enough of her serfs, and freed them and gave 
them her portion of the soil; that America got 
enough of her African slavery and emancipated 
her slaves. He referred to these facts as a 
warning against Chinese cheap labor. 

The question for discussion was, " Resolved 
that the farmers of this valley should use the 
same economy in the management of their 
affairs as a well regulated nation does in the 
management of its Government." 

Mr. Bergland said economy is the secret of 
all true, substantial wealth. Economy is 
second nature to some persons, with others it 
exists only by a great effort, if at all. He said 
our nation imported $60,000,000 more than it 
exported; this was like a family earning $15 a 
week and spending $20 — it will soon lead to 
poverty. It was a self-evident fact that every 
nation should export as much as it imported; 
and the same fact is true in regard to the 
agricultural community. The farmers should 
export farm produce, instead of importing it. 

They should raise all that is necessary for 
home consumption, instead of sending abroad 
for it. This is economy ; the reverse is extrava- 
gance. 

Mr. Holloway said that it was self-evident 
that every Government to be successful must 
have a balance in its favor, and the same is 
true ot the individual. But he did not know 
of a single well regulated government in this 
respect, that is, a government by the people. 
An aggregated nation may have more and bet- 
ter powers of recuperation than individuals; 
hence it is the more necessary for individuals 
to practice economy. The true principle for 
both nations and farmers is never to buy any- 
thing more than they Lave a surplus of their 
own products to pay for. 

Mr. Erkson said that Mr. Holloway took a 
very lugubrious view of governments; that he 
didn't seem willing to accord them any credit 
for what they had done or what they were do- 
ing. He referred to the times ot Henry VIII 
of England and Phillip II of Spain, when the 
bread was taken out of the mouths of children 
without even the semblance of law or right. 
He pointed to the difference between taxation 
then and now, even in monarchical countries, 
and this gradual improvement in the condition 
of the people has brought along with it a more 
economical administration of affairs. The 
speaker said he saw a great many parallels be- 
tween what well regulated governments were 
doing and what we as individuals might do. 

Mr. Hobson thought farmers should endeavor 
to make at home what they need, and if they 
have to send abio id f n any article, to be sure and 
export as much as they have to pay for articles 
thus imported. He deprecated the spirit of 
extravagance which he said is pervading the 
agricultural community. He referred to the 
land between here and Gilroy which is being 
farmed in the woods. He thought it would be 
good economy for the Murphys and the Widow 
Dunn to cut off part of the timber. They 
could get as much from the interest of the 
money for which they would sell the wood, 
while it would greatly increase the value and 
amount of the production of the land. He 
pointed out several of the extravagant habits 
of our farmers. He said that every farmer 
should save and accumulate something against 
a day ot misfortune. He thought there was as 
little economy used in this country as in any on 
the globe. We have not yet got over the ef- 
fects of the flush times of the mining days, 
and we still buy and use many things that we 
could not only do without, but which are an 
absolute damage to us. 

Mr. Erkson asked leave to read an extract 
from on article on the " Co-operative Union " 
of England. Leave granted, and article read. 
Club adjourned. — Mercury. 



San Joaquin Fanners' Clnb. 

Club met July 19. President T. E. Ketchum 
presiding. The agreed upon subject for dis- 
cussion was then taken up, viz: "Dry plough- 
ing.'' Mr. Smythe stated that he had practiced 
dry ploughing more or less for the past ten 
years, but that it had never paid him until the 
present one. This year his grain, which was 
put in dry, proved to be the best he had raised 
— better, in fact, than the summer fallowed. 
On the whole, he could not recommend the 
putting in of grain before the first rains. He 
said further, that he plowed four inches deep, 
and if there were much foul seed on the ground 
the succeeding crop would be foul accordingly. 

The President stated that dry plowing had 
always been successful in his experience. He 
had raised a much larger crop by that method 
than any other. If the ground was plowed 
deep, the foul seed would be covered to such a 
depth that it would not germinate. Another 
statement made by the gentlaman was that the 
Spanish thistles could be killed out by sowing 
barley. 

Mr. John Grattan thought that if plenty of 
seed were sown, it would have a tendency to 
choke out all weeds, no matter what time of 
year the land was plowed. He said that wheat 
was generally covered too deep; consequently a 
great portion of it rotted in the ground. It 
was his custom to plow from four to five inches 
deep, and sometimes as deep as six or seven 
inches. One advantage of plowing deep was 
that the ground could be plowed with a small 
team at any time of the year afterwards. 

Mr. Phelps coincided with the views express- 
ed by Mr. Grattan in regard to deep plowing, 
and said he had sown wheat on the 10th of 
April last, which had not received the benefit 
of a drop of rain, but which was now ready to 
harvest, being fully matured; this was the re- 
sult of deep plowing and good tilth. He was 
in favor of both deep and dry plowing. 

Mr. Phelps introduced to the Club Mr. 
Adamson, the inventor of the "Australian Har- 
vester," who, in reply to remarks that the 
machine wasted grain, stated that he could go 
down to the very ground with it and take every- 
thing. In Australia, he ^aid, they were obliged 
to go down very low with it, as ten or twelve 
bushels was a good average crop. Sometimes 
they got thirty, but last year only five. 

By direction of the President, the Secretary 
presented Mr. Adamson with a testimonial 
signed by a number of gentlemen who witness- 
ed the workings of the machine on the farm of 
Mr. Fairchild, on Tuesday. Mr. Adamson re- 
plied by thanking the Club for the testimonial, 
and said he should be happy to reciprocate the 
favor when he returned to Australia by sending 
seeds or anything that would be of benefit to 
the farmers of San Joaquin. 

On motion, the Club adjourned. 



The Extension of the Signal Service to 
the West Indies. 

The public will be glad to learn that the 
long-projected extension of the AVeather Bu- 
reau to the West Indies is about to be practi- 
cally realized. It is in the waters of the West 
Indian Archipelago that are annually formed 
those terrible tornadoes which desolate our 
Gulf and Atlantic sea-board and have always 
been the terror of navigation. The Signal Of- 
fice, stretching out its lines of meteorological 
sentinels, as is now proposed, will occupy sta- 
tions at Havanna, Santiago de Cuba, Kingston 
(Jamaica), Porto Rico, St. Thomas, Antigua, 
Guadeloupe and St. Vincent, in the Windward 
Islands, and thence by the lateral cable from 
St. Vincent to Barbados it will plant its ex- 
treme outpost at this latter Island. Barbados 
lies in the best possible position to furnish the 
earliest premonitions of the hurricane which 
is on its way to ravage the sea-coasts of the 
United States. At most of the West Indian 
islands the terrible roar of these revolving 
storms can bo heard often while yet the gale is 
a whole day distant. But at Barbados, al- 
though this island was the scene of the his- 
toric storm of 1780— known as "The Great 
Hurricane"— it is so near the cradle of the cy- 
clones that they have seldom acquired violence 
enough to be audible as they approach its 
southeastern shore. While in the Carribbean 
sea these fearful meteors have an enormous 
speed of rotation, but the speed of translation 
which they attain is happily but very small, 
and never more than twenty miles an hour, 
and seldom half as much as that. There is, 
therefore, generally a period of several days 
intervening between the passage of the cyclone 
over the Windward Islands and its arrival on 
the Gulf or the South Atlantic coast, in which 
the Signal Oflace can give ample warning, both 
by mail and telegraph.— ^fw York Herald. 

Two Months Betteb.— Eds. Press: I see by 
the last number of the Pbess, of a statement 
being made by a subscriber at Colusa in regard 
to common poultry. He seems to think that 
they are better than fancy fowls, and would 
like to know where fine fowls can show a 
better record than his common ones at six 
months. 

I have pullets from a cross between the Bra- 
niah and common fowl which lay at four 
months. I think that something remarkable, 
and shows a better record than his. 

Feed. N. Shelden. 

Railroad Flat, Calaveras Co., July 15, 1873. 



Fruit Growing and Fruit Drying. 



San Lorenzo is a cosy little hamlet, in Eden 
township, eighteen miles south of Oakland, on 
the line of the Central Pacific Railroad. It is 
the center of as rich a section of country as 
can be found on the face of the globe. The 
soil is rich alluvium, fifteen feet deep, and one 
of the finest fruit producing sections in this 
great fruit-producing State. The town&hip was 
tightly named, for it is indeed the 
Garden of Eden. 

This rich Alameda valley, is twenty- eight 
miles in length, and averaging some ten miles 
in width, all in this county, making some 280 
square miles of the richest farming land in the 
world, all within the limits of this county. 
For fruit it is unsurpassed by any other section 
of the globe. We had not lime to visit but 
one of the many garden farms — that one was 
the fine farm, or rather garden, of our ex-As- 
semblyman 

Hon. E. T. Crane. 

We found on his beautiful place about 30 
different kinds of fruit — from the currant, 
raspberry and blackberry, to the orange and 
lemon. Among the species there are 20 differ- 
ent varieties of pears, as many more of apples, 
several varieties of figs, a dozen or more of 
cherries, many varieties of nuts, including the 
English walnut, and the different varieties of 
almond. We saw lemons in different stAges of 
ripening which were raised by Mr. Crane from 
the seed. His cherry trees have averaged 
about 200 pounds to the tree, for which he has 
received from 15 to 20 cents per pound. This 
is only one of the many choice places to be 
found in this "Garden of Eden," but will an- 
swer as a sample to save more extended de- 
scriptions, and introduced to show the neces- 
sity of the institution which we are about to 
describe, the 

Great Fruit Drying Factory. 

This is a building 40x80 feet in size, four 
stories with the basement, and erected by the 
"San Lorenzo Fruit Growers' Association." 
It is a well-built frame building, with skylights, 
and painted. In the basement are the furnaces 
and storage room. At present only five fur- 
naces are used, though five more will be put in 
as soon as the demand shall warrant it. The 
Alden process of pneumatic evaporation is used, 
under the su{)erintendency of Frank Pyle, who 
brought the furnaces and ajjparatus from the 
East, and now superintends the work of dry- 
ing. One half ton of coal is required for each 
furnace per week, and would be five tons for the 
ten furnaces per week, and which will dry from 
40 to 50 tons of fruit per week. Each fur- 
nace has 

An Evaporator 
Which carries fifty fruit screens or trays, turn- 
ing out 200 lbs. of fruit per hour. These evap- 
orators extend from the basement to the roof 
of the upper story. The fruit after be- 
ing washed and prepared, is put on 
large wire screens; these are put on 
screens of net work, and the frame put into the 
evaporator on the first floor above the basement. 
After remaining a few minutes, a bell is rung 
and a man in the upper story turns a crank, 
which with cog machinery works two endless 
chains, with arms, which lift the screen, tak- 
ing it upon the elevator, and giving place for a 
fresh screen, which goes through the same 
process, until fifty are in the evaporator, one 
above the other — and when the fiftieth is put 
in, the first is ready to take out. Thus there 
is a system of perpetual motion going on, one 
frame being put in and one taken out every 
six minutes. The great advantage in this pro- 
cess of drying is this: The fruit is not only 

dried. 

But Ripened, 

Thereby increasing the saccharine matter as 
well as saving it. This process also converts 
the starch into sugar, which cannot be done by 
any other process of drying, the fruit gaining 
nearly 23 per cent, in sugar. In fact, the fruit 
is dried in a damp atmosphere, with a full cur- 
rent of air, the fruit retaining its color, fresh- 
ness and flavor. It is well known that fruit 
will not mature, ripen and sweeten-up in a 
strictly dry atmosphere, nor in cold, wet 
weather. It requires both heat and moisture. 
In this process the fruit follows the law of na- 
ture is this respect. It does not become a dried 
fruit, as nothing can be dried in vapor without 
pressure; but really a pre-ripened and pre- 
served fruit. The advantage of this process 
will be more directly apparent in 
Raisin Making. 
As this process adds 25 per cent, of sugar to 
the fruit, we can easily estimate the result it 
will bring about in making California the great 
raisin-producing country of the world. A 
crape evaporator will carry thirty frames, 
adapted to hanging the fruit in bunches, say 
100 pounds to the frame. Eight hours will 
suffice for the process, if properly managed. 
But allowing only one complete change in 
twelve hours, would give 36,000 pounds of 
grapes evaporated per week— or running night 
and day, 72,000 pounds for each evaporator, 
yielding 30,000 pounds of raisins at a very 
trifling cost per pound. If this should prove 
the success which all indications now warrant, 
California will, in a few years, supply the 
United States with raisins; this industry will 
be worth more to the State than either our 
wine or wool interests, if not more than both 
combined. But the great benefit which this 



fruit-drying process will be to the people, is, 
it will furnish 

A Home Market 
For all their fruit and even vegetables. This 
will encourage fruit-raising, which will be made 
far more profitable than grain-raising, and 
without exhausting the soil. Heretofore, the 
tenderness and bulkiness of succulent crops 
have forbidden transportation to a distant mar- 
ket, and hundreds of tons of fruit have been 
suffered to rot upon the ground. Now, how- 
ever, these richest of crops are to be also the 
safest and cheapest to market. A thousand 
dollars' worth of apples, peaches, pears, cur- 
rants, plums, cherries, tomatoes, sweet pota- 
toes, grapes, or anything else of the sort, will 
not only come from one-fourth the acres re- 
quired for SI, 000 worth of wheat or any other 
of the present agricultural staples, but will go 
into one-fourth the barrels or other packages, 
and will go to any part of the globe for one- 
fourth the freight. The 

Quality of the hruit 
Or vegetables after going through' this process 
is improved rather than deteriorated. We 
were shown and tasted jelly made from the 
dried fruit which was, in every respect equal 
to, if not superior, to that made from the 
fresh fruit. Neither is there any loss in dry- 
ing. The experiment was tried — 20 pounds 
of currants were taken from the same package, 
ten pounds were dried and then made into 
jelly; the other ten pounds were made into 
jelly fresh. The fresh currants made fifteen 
and a half tumblers of jelly, while the dried 
fruit made fifteen tumblers, showing there is 
very little difference between the dried and 
fresh fruit. We shall watch with much inter- 
est the operations of this institution, for we 
look upon it as one of the most important ever 
started in this county; and we hope it will 
prove a complete success. — Oakland Transcript. 

Blackbebries. — At a late meeting of the 
Indiana Horticultural Society, Mr. Ohmer said 
he had been very successful in growing black- 
berries. He had been in the business fifteen 
years, and lost but two crops in ten seasons. 
Three acres had averaged him $1,000 per year. 
His rows were eight feet apart and he sets his 
plants four feet apart in the rows. He planted 
posts three feet high, at intervals of thirty feet, 
and from nails in the top of the posts he stretch- 
ed wires from post to post, to which his vines 
were trained. He plowed once in the spring 
between the rows, and then put in the cultiva- 
tor or harrow. He did not seek to make large 
canes, as these do not produce the best crops. 
He pruned back when the vines are three or 
four feet high. Allow the old wood to remain 
among the vines from year to year, as a support 
to the young vines. The laterals, he cut back 
two feet, or even less, if the vine was delicate. 
Did not allow them to grow too thick, and no 
plants were allowed between the rows. The 
Kittatinny was his favorite, and if he were to 
plant ten acres he would plant all of that variety. 
He marked in half-bushel drawers. Raspber- 
ries pay better when sold in quart boxes. His 
soil was clay with a substratum of gravel. Did 
not manure at all. 

Lakoe Shipping Project.— It has recently 
been proposed to the farmers and capitalists 
of the Mississppi valley that a vast stock com- 
pany should be formed without delay. That 
its capital should be $10,000,000. That its pur- 
pose should be the building of twenty large 
steamships, capable of carrying 100,000 bush- 
els of grain in bulk, and 5,000 bales of cotton; 
that the farmers' granges throughout the Mis- 
sissippi valley should take as much of the stock 
as they can; that the balance should be placed 
among the villages and cities of the valley; that 
calls of but five per cent, should be made, each 
call yielding $500,000— sufficient and equal to 
fully equip one boat — and that no calls, after 
the first boat is built, should be made until it 
had been settled by actual trial that the line 
could earn money, and ot the same time insure 
a cheap rate of freight from New Orleans to 
Liverpool, for both grain and cotton; also for a 
large emigrant travel and regular passenger 
trade to a limited extent. 

A similar project will ere long be "in order" 
for California and the Pacific Coast. The farm- 
ers are beginning to appreciate the fact that 
vast benefits may be derived from concerted 
action among themselves to take care of them- 
selves. ^____ 

Steam Plows in Eobope.— Manufacturers of 
Fowler's steam plow say : We are moking about 
100 plows a year for the English market, and 
about 50 or 60 for foreign countries. They are 
principally of the double-engine class. About 
two-thirds of those sold in England are let out 
on hire, and one-third for private firms. Steam 
cultivation is very much retarded in this coun- 
try, because little or nothing is done to assist 
it in the shape of roads, enlargement of fields, 
etc. so as to make the farms more suitable for 
the'use of steam power. About 50 of our steam 
plows are working in the district of Magdeburg. 
Germany, in the cultivation of beet-root for 
sugar The beet grown on steam plowed land 
shSwsa gain of about 2 per cent of stigar 
and obout 20 per cent, gam in the weight 
per acre. This has induced all the sugar 
cultivators to employ steam. They usually 
work to a depth of from 12 to 15 inches, but 
never less than 12 inches. 

A Flouuing Mili. is being erected at Wheat- 
land forty miles northwest of Sacramento, and 
will cost $16,000. The town oont*ins three 
hundred inhabitants. 



July 26, 1873.] 



53 



4q^lClJL7UE\J^L fI@TE8. 



ALASLEDA. 

Daily News, July 19: What the Granges 
Want. — The Patrons of Husbandry in Califor- 
nia have, through their State organizations, 
expressed their intention to mature plans which 
may be summarized as follows: 

To do away as far as possible, with middle 
men and brokers, to give employment to no 
non-producers unless the services they perform 
are absolutely indispensable. The soundness 
of their position cannot be questioned, the 
general object they desire should be desired by 
all who have at heart the public welfare. Not 
farmers only, but mechanics and laborers do 
not receive as full a return for their labor as 
they deserve. We do not mean that wages are 
as a rule inadequate, perhaps they are not; we 
allude to the existence of the vast number of 
people who manage to make a living and be- 
come wealthy without ever doing anything 
useful. The thousands of individuals who may 
aptly be termed drones, are an indirect burden 
upon all who are engaged in any useful occu- 
pation. The numerous specific measures 
advocated by the Patrons of Husbandry are 
prompted by the underlying idea that the world 
is too full of useless men, and that the indus- 
trious element of society should no longer be 
taxed to support them. 

Wheat Burned. — Thursday afternoon a large 
stack of wheat on the ranch of M. P. H. Love, 
about a mile from Livermore, was discovered 
to be on fire. The intense heat of the day, 
augmented by that of the fire, rendered it im- 
possible for the men to save it. Fortunately 
for the farmers in the vicinity there was no 
wind at the time, otherwise large fields of grain 
would have been destroyed. It has not yet 
been ascertained whether the stack was set on 
fire intentionally or not. The wheat belonged 
to O. Latourel, and it is estimated that there 
were about seven hundred sacks in the stack. 
It is supposed to have caught fire from some 
ashes falling from a cigar or pipe. The day 
was the hottest of the season, the thermometer 
at 2 p, M. being 104 in the shade. 
CALAVERAS. 

Chronicle, July 19 : A tbout weighing thirty 
pounds was caught in Lake Tahoe lately by 
James Stanton — said to be the largest ever 
caught in that lake. 

Hot. — The thermometer has ranged over a 
100 degrees here during the week. 
COLUSA. 

Sun, July 19: Something to Do. — The farm- 
ers who are now figuring to get cheap grain 
sacks have a practical illustration of how the 
tariff affects them. The duty on raw jute is a 
cent and a quarter per pound, upon burlaps 
and sacks forty per cent, of their value, and 
the effect upon the farmers is precisely that of 
an export duty of the same amount on grain. 

AiiFALFA is said to yield four hundred pounds 
of seed per acre. The loctl demand the com- 
ing season will be very large and it cannot fail 
to command ready cash. It will be worth in 
San Francisco not less than twenty cents per 
pound. 
INYO. 

Independent, July 12: Sheep. — From the 
southern and coast counties 19,000 head of 
sheep have been driven to the south fork of 
Kern river, and on the mountains at the head 
of Cottonwood creek. We understand that 
they will not be brought any further north. 

Cattle. — A band of about 3,000 head of cat- 
tle, belonging to one Dan Murphy, are now 
down on the plains opposite town, en route for 
Long Valley. 
MARIN. 

Journal, July 17 : Baled hay, to be first-class, 
requires to be stacked before baling. This al- 
lows it to partially cure, and go through a pro- 
cess of steam or sweat, after which there i"; no 
liability to sour. We understand the people 
of Tomales are stacking more hay this year 
than ever before. 
MONTEREY. 

Advance, July 19; The weather during the 
week may be described as hot, hotter, hottest. 
On Thursday most of those hands engaged on 
outside work, had to suspend operations tem- 
porarily, and seek refuge in the shade. 

The shrill whistle of the threshers is now 
heard in the fields, where harvesting proceeds 
with great vigor. Labor, as is usual at this 
season, is in great demand. 

The farmers speak encouragingly of their 
crops. 
SACRAMENTO. 

Folsom Telegraph, July 19: Good Yield. — 
One hundred and twenty acres of wheat land 
belonging to John B. Taylor, in the upper end 
of Brighton Township, produced thirty bush- 
els to the acre this season. The farmers in 
upper Brighton are good farmers. They gen- 
erally summer fallow their land, which pro- 
duces good crops, and as a consequence they 
are gradually growing rich. 
SAN JOAftUIN. 

Independent, July 15: Cbop Kepobts.— The 
reports of the wheat yield in San Joaquin val- 
ley are much more favorable, as the work of 
harvesting goes on, than they were a week or 
two ago. In many places where it was thought 
that the grain would not pay for the gathering, 
a fair return will be obtained. Had the latter 
part of the season borne out the prospects of 
winter and early spring, the yield of the great 
valley would have beeen immense — almost be- 
yond calculation, but as it is, there is not only 
bread enough but a liberal surplus for exporta- 



tion, and the condition of the crops in Europe 
reasonably warrants the belief that there will 
be no abatement in the demand for our wheat 
in England. 

Hay of an excellent quality is selling for 
twelve dollars per ton in this city, while we 
see it quoted at eighteen dollars in Sacra- 
mento. 
SANTA BARBARA. 

Index, July 17: Santa Barbara county has 
189,061 sheep, 67,415 lambs, 4,439 horses, 285 
mules, 3,560 cows, 4,046 calves, 14,341 beef 
cattle, 21,991 stock cattle, 44 oxen, and 6,725 
hogs. The County Assessor's books are au- 
thority for this statement. » 
SANTA CLARA. 

Mercury, July 17 : The century plant on the 
premises of Mr. Lee now stands thirty-six feet 
high, and has about forty branches which con- 
tain upwards of a thousand buds. The young 
plant on the same place is three feet high, and 
has ten large buds which are as far advanced 
as those on the large plant. Upwards of two 
thousand persons have registered as visitors to 
these plants. 

Oilroy Advocate. Hot.— Last Thursday was 
the warmest day we have experienced this sea- 
son. At two o'clock p. M., in our office, in a 
brick building, the thermometer stood at 99°. 
In some localities that would only be consid- 
ered comfortable, but, we confess that we 
don't care about taking up a permanent resi- 
dence in those places. A cool breeze sprung 
up towards night, however, and the evening 
was deliciously comfortable. Thus far we 
have had as fine a summer as any one could 
wish. 
SAN LXnS OBISPO. 

Tribune, July 19 : Austealian Wheat.— We 
have had occasion to make note from time to 
time, of specimens of wheat shown us by per- 
sons living in this vicinity. We have this week 
the pleasure of giving evidence of the adapta- 
bility of the soil in the northern part of this 
county, to the raising of this class of cereals. 
Mr. Levi Blunt, of Santa Kosa Creek, laid 
upon our table on Saturday last, a specimen of 
Australian wheat grown by him this season, 
the heads of which will average six inches in 
length, and are well filled. He informs us 
that he is confident that his whole crop will 
yield all of seventy bushels to the acre, and 
thinks that if our farmers would make a proper 
use of the advantages of our soil and climate, 
our county would soon take her rightful posi- 
tion in the front rank of the wheat-producing 
counties of the State. 

He also tells us that the corn crop on Santa 
Rosa Creek never gave promise of a better 
yield, and that it is equal to any that he has 
ever seen on the Mississippi bottoms. Devel- 
opment is all that our county needs, and all 
that is necessary to secure such development 
is a few more good, sound, practical farmers 
like Mr. Blunt. To all such, who want a good 
home in a fine country, we say, this is the 
place for you. 

SANTA CRUZ. 

Sentinel, July 19: Fine Fishing. — A party of 
eleven persons went up to the mouth of La- 
guna Creek, one day last week, and caught 
with hook and line over a thousand trout, in 
a few hours. The fish bit freely and had the 
party fished all day, a barrel might have been 
filled. Some of the fish were silver trout and 
others of the brook species, but all speckled, 
of fair size and perfect beauties. 

Pulque Plant. — Mr Dennis Cook, of La- 
guna Creek, has a Mescal or Pulque plant on 
his place in full bloom. It is a splendid blos- 
som with a stock about five feet high, and be- 
longs to the cactus family. The Mexicans 
make a fermented liquor called Mescal from 
the juice, taken by tapping the plant near the 
roots. 

Wool Pulling and Glove Factobt. — The 
company associated to go into this business, 
in Soquel, having organized and incorporated, 
are now preparing to commence business. 
The location is on the Hames & Daubenbiss 
mill property, and the water wheel and flum- 
ing of the mill will for the present remain in- 
tfict and furnish the power. Carpenters are 
now at work tearing out the old machinery and 
putting in new, capable of washing and baling 
wool and running sewing machines in manu- 
facturing gloves, etc. 

Pajaronian. Me. W. D. White, whose busi- 
ness is threshing, informed us that he thinks 
the yield of grain in the Pajaro Valley will be 
equal to the average if not over the average 
crop of other years, many fields yielding finely 
this year which last season produced light 
crops. We are glad to make this note of our 
crops, and we consider the information per- 
fectly reliable. 
TUOLUMNE. 

Democrat, July 19:— One-third of an acre of 
land in Bennett Valley, owned by A. Burnham, 
has yielded two tons of blackberries, for which 
an average of ten cents per pound was ob- 
tained, equivalent to $1,200 per acre. 

The temperature this week went up to about 
one hundred degrees. 

Independent, Silk Raising. — A day or two 
since we were shown, by Mr. G. S. Renter, a 
small twig of oak upon which were clnstered 
61 silk cocoons from worms of his own raising. 
They are the largest and finest we have ever 
seen, and prove that our climate is the natural 
home of silkworms. With a market, this 
would be a profitable and pleasant business 
for the young folks about the farm to engage 
in, and with our climatic advantages the eggs 
and silk raised here would always command 
the highest price. Mr. Renter will send this 
specimen of cocoons to the Exhibition at 
Vienna. 



YOLO. 

Mail, July 17: Farmees AND Their Wheat.— 
The farmers of Yolo county are using money at 
IJi pej cent, and storing their wheat rather 
than to sell it at the present figure. The ware- 
houses here are being filled as fast as they can 
bring it in. while others are storing it at home 
in barns. The wheat merchants are moving 
slowly and carefully, only offering $1.60 per 
cental delivered at Vallejo, which makes the 
ruling price at Woodland' $1.40@.$1.45. The 
Liverpool market keeps up very well, however, 
and there are no indications of a very great de- 
cline. The quotations are, for average Cali- 
fornia, lis 7d@lls 9d ; for club, 12s 2d@12s 4d 
This leaves a margin of nearly $20 per ton for 
freights between deep water and Liverpool, 
which is eating up the farmers' substance very 
fast. The warehousing process is a wise one, 
and may have the effect to teach a good lesson 
to the greedy buyers and shippers. The farm- 
ers have been taught in a severe school of op- 
pression, and if they are only able to husband 
ttieir resources, the small crop of this year may 
bring a greater return than that of last. 

OREGON. 

Oregonian, July 12: Harvesting has been 
commenced in Douglas county. 

Corvalis merchants are paying 22% cents per 
pound for wool. 

There lie at Umatilla Lauding awaiting 
shipmert, two cargoes of wool. 

The contract for building the farmers' ware- 
house in Eugene City was let to Mr. Powers 
for $1,700. 

Lieut. D. B. Boswell has been assigned to 
duty as MiUtary Instructor in the State Agri- 
cultural College of Oregon at Corvallis. 

The farmers in the vicinity of Peak farm. 
Lane county, have succeeded in getting a side 
track, and will immediately commence the 
work of erecting a warehouse. 

Our Pendleton correspondent under date of 
the 4th inst. says: "The farmers are busy har- 
vesting their grain. Large black crickets are 
in such countless numbers in parts of the 
county that they destroy grain, grass and all 
kinds of vegetation that come in their way." 

At a meeting held at Astoria, Thursday of 
last week, for the purpose of subscribing to the 
stock of the corporation known as the Astoria 
Farmers' Warehouse Company, $4,900 were 
subscribed. A committee was appointed to 
rafse the balance of $1,100, making $6,000, 
besides donating the lots and blocks. The 
balance was subscribed in a few hours. 

Jacob Frazer, a farmer living on Birch creek, 
Umatilla county, sheared 4,100 sheep this sea- 
son, from which he realized 31,000 pounds of 
wool, the sheep averaging 8 pounds to the 
shear. His sheep are graded Merinos, except- 
ing 500, which are the coarse wooled Cotswold. 
All excepting the latter, were raised on Mr. 
Frazer's farm. He has 2,100 lambs. 

A Lane county man, J. C. Arnold, the other 
day cut nearly an acre of oats which have been 
the wonder and admiration of all who have 
seen them. The oats would average probably 
seven feet in height, and it was not uncommon 
to find stalks measuring over nine feet. No 
particular credit can be claimed by Mr. Arnold, 
as the crop was a volunteer one. 

A correspondent of the Statesman, writing 
from Tangent, says: "Mowing of volunteer 
grain and orchard grass is going on, and the 
crop is good. Much fall oats is now turning ripe 
and will be fit to cut in ten days. I am on the 
farm of Mr. Miller and find forty acies of ex- 
cellent flax growing on it. I hear of many 
large crops of flax in this county, which prom- 
ise very finely. From all I see and, learn the 
flax crop of this county will be a complete suc- 
cess this year." 

In Umatilla county during the past six weeks, 
there have been turned adrift over $100,000. 
Some 800 head of young cattle have been sold 
by the farmers, from which have been realized 
$10,000 cash money. There nre in the county 
upwards of 100,000 sheep which have yielded 
on an average 6 pounds each. Wool is worth 
20 cents in the market, so that from the wool 
alone there has been realized $120,000. In ad- 
dition a large number of horses were sold. 

The object of the Wool Growers' Association, 
recently organized at Roseburg, as set forth by 
the Constitution, is "for mutual protection 
against all rings and monopolies in whatever 
form they may exist, that are in any way detri- 
mental to the interests of the producing and 
laboring classes. Also for giving and receiving 
instructions in all that pertains to agriculture, 
horticulture and floriculture; also the breeding 
and rearing ot domestic animals, and the em- 
bellishment of our homes." 



The cotton planters of Merced do not suc- 
ceed quite so well as was predicted, owing to 
the unexpected ravages of the cotton bug. Re- 
garding the crops, the Argus says : 

The crops on the Merced River are much 
further advanced than at the same date the 

East year, and than any inspected by Major 
trong. A heavy yield would result from all 
the plantings if unmolested by the bugs, which 
so seriously damaged the Strong crop last year. 
The same crop this year would yield a bale per 
acre, if not damaged by bugs. It has already 
suffered much injury from this pest, and they 
continue to depredate upon it, so that no pre- 
dictions as to yield may be depended upon. 

" " " " Iho crops on Mariposa 
Creek are more promising than at this season 
last year, when the average yield was 250 
pounds of ginned cotton per acre. 

" ' * " The largest crop on Mar- 
iposa Creek is that of Major Strong, compris- 
300 acres, which we think will give an average 
yield of 250 pounds of ginned cotton per acre. 



Home Indastries. 

Near the foot of Clay street in this city, is 
the Pacific Steam Bag factory of Messrs. E. 
Detrick & Co. This firm was formerly largely 
engaged in importing bags and bagging; but in 
consequence of an act of Congress discrimin- 
ating between imported burlaps in bulk and 
the same made into bags for grain or other 
purposes, they have now added to their for- 
mer business the manufacture of bags, for 
grain, flour, wool, ore, etc., and we understand 
this to be the largest bag making establishment 
on the Pacific coast, successfully competing 
with the foreign made article and going far in 
supplying the large demand for every descrip- 
tion of sack called for. 

A ten-horse power engine drives a double 
range of sewing-machines, which are tended 
solely by some thirty or more white girls, no 
Chinese finding employment in any part of the 
establishment. The girls do their work in a 
well-ventilated, well-lighted room, and without 
being over-worked, earn satisfactory wages. 
The firm turns out very nearly ten thousand 
bags a day, and we would recommend to farm- 
ers, miners and wool men, that they give tbem 
a call, as they are entirely competent to com- 
pete in prices with the imported article. 

Machine-sewed bags are now endorsed by 
Farmers' Clubs and farmers, who say they are 
superior to hand-sewed for strength and uni- 
formity. As an evidence, Messrs. D. & Co. 
are obliged to run nights until 9 o'clock, and 
even then their orders are considerably ahead. 

Kansas Agricultural Report. 

We have received from Senator Ingalls, a 
copy of the Transactions of the Kansas State 
Board of Agriculture for 1872, with an abstract 
of the proceedings of the County Agricultural 
Societies and the report of the State Horticul- 
tural Society, by Alfred Gray, Secretary. 

The Secretary in his report to the Board, 
gives utterance to a great truth, pertaining to 
the agriculture of a country, that should every- 
where receive a careful consideration; it is as 
follows : 

"There is no proposition more self-evident 
to the careful observer than that individual 
and national prosperity depends upon the pro- 
ductive qualities of the soil. Where the soil is 
rich and the fertility is maintained through a 
series of years, an accumulation of wealth is 
the result, which in part is observable in im- 
proved school houses and churches, comforta- 
ble and attractive homes, and the varied lux- 
uries and enjoyments attending prosperity. 

When the soil is poor or the fertihty is not 
maintained, a corresponding decline and want 
of thrift is noticeable. All the surrounding and 
dependent industries are quickened or dead- 
ened by the degree of prosperity attending the 
farmer; or more truly speaking, by the ele- 
ments of fertility maintained in the soil. The 
gradual decline of fertility may not be observa- 
ble until to late to apply the proper remedies. 

The incalculable value, therefore, of the sta- 
tistics gathered from year to year to enable the 
farmer, the political economist and the states- 
man to comprehend at one glance the true con- 
dition of things needed, can readily be seen. 
If soil will produce less per acre of any given 
crop, or of the principal crops, in 1872 than 
ten years ago, it is important to individuals 
and to the State to know it in order to apply 
the proper remedies." 

Febtilitx of Water. — The following is an 
extract from the speech of the Hon. Robert B. 
Roosevelt, in the House of Representatives, 
May 13th, 1872, comparing fish culture with 
agriculture : 

The relative fertility of the water and the 
land is altogether in favor of the water. An 
acre of land will produce corn enough to sup- 
port a human being, but an acre of water will 
support several persons, and could be readily 
made, with proper aid, to sustain the lives of 
many more. The former requires manuring, 
working, planting, harvesting; the latter mere- 
ly requires harvesting; and that, where the 
fish are sufficiently abundant, is hardly labor 
at all. 

While the yield from the land is reasonably 
large, the profit is exceedingly small. The 
field must be plowed and harrowed, and fertil- 
ized; the corn must be planted; it must be 
plowed again; and still again, must be hoed; 
and at last the ears must be stripped, husked 
and ground. What is the net result of this, 
compared with the natural fish growth in 
abundance, almost without effort, finding their 
own food, and finally taken in some net which 
does its fishing while its owner is sleeping. — 
Uiica Herald. 



Califobmia Wheat. — The first new wheat of 
this season, received in Chicago, was exhibi- 
ted on 'Change, July 12th. It was from Cal- 
ifornia, and harvested July Ist. The berry is 
large and the quality excellent. 

Ventura boasts of having raised good cof • 
fee. 



54 



[July 26, 1873. 



Our Half Year's Work. 

Sxports of San Francisco for the Six Months 
Ending June 30th, 1873. 

From the following etatistlcs, it will be seen that the 
stride made in our foreign commerce during the last 
8ix months has boon a vaat one. The whole »f the ex- 
ports for the six months ending June 30th, 1872, Imlud- 
ing those by railroad, may be valued at $13,000,00u. and 
those for the same period of the present year at $17,000,- 
(JOG. showing an increase of fl.OOO.OOO, or about 32 per 
cent. This la most gratifying, especially when it is 
taken into consideration that, during the same period, 
our imports have, as sho%vn by the freights paid, slight- 
ly diminished. But our exports of treasure have de- 
creased by $2,028,259, thus leaving the Increase of ex- 
ports to be about IC per cent. The decrease in the ex- 
port of gold and the increase in the export of produce 
show that our commercial isystem is fast righting itself 
and that we may in the future expect few such years of 
financial tightness as during the first half year of 1873. 

The following table, taljen from the "Bulletin," 
shows the quantity and value of our Domestic Exports 
for the period in question : 

ArticleB. 

Abalones, sks 

Asphaltum, tons 

Barley, lOO-lb sks 

Beans, sks 

Borax, cs 

Bran, etc., pkgs 

Brandy, gallons 

" cases 

Bread, pkgs 

Brick, M 

Brooms, dozen 

Broom Corn, lOO-lb sks 

Coal, pkgs 

Com, sks 

Cotton, Itis 

Fish— Salmon, pkgs 

Flour, bbls 

Fruit, bXB 

Glue, pkgs 

Hay, tons 

Hides, no 

Laths, M 

Leather, pkgs 

Lime, bbls 

Live Stock 

Lumber, M feet 

Macaroni, cs 

Mustard Seed, 100-lb sks 

Oats, 100-lb sks 

Onions, pkgs 

Ores— Copper, tons 

Silver, tons 

Various, tons 

Pickets, no 

Posts, no 

Potatoes, pkgs 

Quicksilver, flasks 

Itosin, pkgs 

Salt, pkgs 

Seeds, pkgs 

Shingles, M 

Skins, etc., pkgs 

Spars, no 

Spirits Turpentine, pkgs 

Tallow, pkgs 

Vegetables, pkgs 

Wheats, 100-lb sks 

Wine, gallons 

" cases 

Wool, lbs 



Quantity. 

692 

12 

61,537 

3,308 

8,387 

8,553 

30,339) 

113 J 

7,608 

20 

6,031 

101 

246 

235 

32,887 

22,10* 

161,381 

1,767 

8 

405 

33,420 

121 

1,690 

1,768 

429 

6,.507 

1,665 

7,686 

3,530 

544 

701 

374 

621 

24,000 

7,600 

9,801 

2,585 

45 

995 

64 

2,918 

235 

23 

105 

183 

199 

4,488,035 

2li(l,370) 

3,262) 

198,869 



Value. 

$7,629 
265 

91,944 

10,336 
227,895 

10,611 

68,609 

20,661 

267 

12,701) 

o2.'-> 

343 

323 

6,500 

161,367 

8j3,279 

»,779 

171 

9,044 

154,701 

275 

85.e76 

3,523 

17,684 

147,232 

3,644 

20,887 

8,056 

2,314 

42,057 

65.798 

45,352 

828 

927 

15,680 

17»,.')72 

413 

810 

1.74.'> 

8,213 

45,9W; 

446 

799 

5,M5 

679 

8,712,919 

186,490 

65 447 



ToUl $11,209,761 



The 



Destination 



Of our wheat has been nearly all to Great Britain, that 
exported to other countries not reaching an amount of 
1,000 centals. More than half of our Flour went to Chi- 
na and Japan, the balance chiefly to Central America, 
New York and Great Britain. The latter may be con- 
sidered a new market. Austi alia and New Zealand took 
five-sixths of our Barley export; China and the Hawaiian 
Islands two-thirds of the Oats exported; and New York 
all the Wool, with the exception of 11,824 lbs. which 
went to Great Britain. All our Hides found their way 
to New York; nearly all our Quicksilver to China and 
Mexico. All our Wine, save about 10,000 gallons, went 
to New York. The following table exhibits clearly the 
destination of all our principal exports: 



Flocb. 



New York, bbls 

Great Britain 

China 

Japan 

Philippine Islands... 

Society Islands 

Hawaiian Islands 

Navigator Islands..... 

Guayaquil, S. A 

Central America 

Panama 

Mexico 

British Columbia 

Russian Possessions. 



10,294 

12,677 

8,664 

4,375 

2,800 

3,352 

4,302 

50 

3,000 

16,342 

6,360 

1,094 

854 

5,167 



Totals 151,381 

WH£AX 

Great Britain, 100-tb sks 4,487,066 

Japan 16 

Society Islands 395 

Hawaiian Islands 389 

Central America 66 

Panama 2 

British Columbia Ill 

ToUls 4,488,035 

B.UU.ET. 

China, 100-fc sks 60 

Japan 46 

Australia 37,349 

New Zealand 15,400 



Value. 

$59,328 

6»,303 

432,672 

25,851 

14,815 

18,794 

23,a30 

290 

15,750 

94,760 

35,869 

6,36(; 

4,582 

27.509 



$823,279 



$8,711,076 
31 
755 
716 
130 
4 
207 

$8,712,919 



Society Islands. 
Hawaiian Islands., 
Central America. . . 

Panama 

Mexico 

British Columbia. 



Totals 61,537 

Oats. 

China, lOO-lbsks 1,124 

Japan 443 

Hawaiian Islands 1,201 

Central America 228 

Panama 106 

Mexico 128 

British Columbia 300 



Totals. 



3,630 



$91,914 

2,643 
1,071 
2,658 
662 
247 
298 
077 

$8,066 



Wool. 

New York, lbs 187,045 

Great Britain 11,824 

Totals 198,869 

Hn>E8, 
New York, no 33,420 

QUICKSILVEB 

Chins, flasks 

Japan 

Australia 

Peru 

Mexico 

Panama 

British Columbia 



$53,447 
2,000 



1,000 

30 

105 

300 

1,142 

1 

7 



Totals. 



New York, tons.. 
Great Britain. .. 



Totals 

Wines. 
Gallons. 
New York 250,448 



1,643 
342 
662 



Great Britain 

China 

Japan 

New Zealand 

Hawaiian Islands 114 

Society Islands 180 

Peru ! 314 

Central America 1,808 

Panama 971 

Mexico 2,064 

British Cohmjbia 024 

Russian Possessions 540 



2,585 

6.11 
945 

Cases. 
1,042 
60 
76 
229 
25 
112 
109 

660 
61 

458 



$.55,447 

$154,701 

$68,850 
2,180 
7,260 
21,421 
79,260 
93 
508 

$179,.572 

$52,978 
100,219 



$163,207 

Value. 

$167,127 

1,311 

557 

1,831 

138 

804 

672 

171 

4. 893 

1,339 

4,037 

462 

3,264 



Totals 260,370 8,262 $186,496 

Our Merchandise Exports by Water 

For the hall year have aggregated $13,058,595, as against 
$7,062,387 lor the first half of 1H72, showing an Increase 
of $5,996,238, or nearly 79 per cent. This is on the 
whole, for the exports to New York show a falling off of 
upwards of a million dollars; those to the Hawaiian 
Islands of $8,040; those to British Columbia of $15,638; 
those to Mexico of $39,784: and those to Japan of $126,- 
9.59. In fact, exports to all cuuntrlis, save Great Brit- 
ain, Australia, New Zealand, Society Islands and Philip- 
pine, show a decided falling ofl'. But the increase to 
Great Britain alone, in Itself nearly six hundred per 
cent, is more than sufficient to make up for a hundred 
such losses. 

The following tables show the exports by water for 
the first half years of 1872 and 1873, to all countries with 
which we have communication; the details of the ex- 
ports of Flour and Wheat for the same periods ; and the 
weight in poimds of the export by railroad, for the first 
five montns of the year : 

Exports by Sea for the First Six Months of 
1872 a^d 1873. 
1872. 

New York $2,489,742 

Great Britain l-???-??? 

Hawaiian Islands 

British Columbia 

Mexico 

China 

Japan 

Australia 

New Zealand , 

Eust Indies 

South Sea Islands 

Fij i Islands 

Society Islands 

Philippine Islands , 

Navigator's Islands 

Guayaquil, S. A 

Chile 

Peru 

Central America 

Panama 

Russian Possessions 



278,767 

304,002 

637,731 

679,269 

516,680 

66,416 

10,449 

36,614 

11,359 

600 

108,586 

11,394 



1873. 

$1,307,441 

9,118,908 

230,1.!7 

347,864 

697,977 

771,;i-22 

389,021 

121,095 

29.329 



56,383 
104,833 
261,144 
176,517 
160,490 



117,263 
14,805 
12,478 
25,270 
18,410 
138,337 
188,562 
i:»8,308 
90,818 



1872-73 
13,566 
15,874 
120,320 
7,652 
16,318 
1,250 



2,600 



Total $7,602,357 $13,668,595 

Exports of Wheat and Plour for the First 

Six Months of 1872 and 1873. 

Flowk. 

1871-72. 

New York, bbls 4,833 

Great Britain 9.862 

China 1«.W 

Japan " •**" 

Australia 2,261 

New Zealand 500 

Java 6,880 

Singapore 1,250 

Africa ■ • • • 

Fiji Islands 25 

Philippine Islands 8.056 

Society Islands 6,768 

Hawaiian Islands "'^S? 

South Sea Islands 80 

Navigator's Islands 

Peru 200 

Guayaquil, 8. A • ■ ■ • 

Central America jb,I40 

South America 

Panama "Mi 

Mexico 12,070 

British Columbia 2,913 

UuBsian Possessions 6,543 

Totals 269,753 



5,000 

6,972 

7,80(1 

•231 

50 

240 

3,0(i() 

3S,'2I4 

500 

12,6W 

1,334 

2,815 

5,167 

263,409 



Wheat. 



1871 

New York, 100-lb sks 14, 

Great Britain 1.351, 

France 8* 

China 

Japan 

Australia 

Java 

Africa 

Society Islands 1 

Hawaiian Islands 

Central America 

Panama 

Mexico 

British Columbia 



-72. 
,801 
,064 
,986 
6 
234 
48 
617 

,396 
284 

68 
3 

18 
858 



1872-73. 

8,368 

9,798,913 



1,116 

10 

28,971 



2,042 

718 

803 

66 

2 

1 

625 



Totals 1,404,382 



Railroad 

Base Bullion, lbs. 19,345' 

Beans 41,181 

Borax 100,61)0 

Batter 1(«.«34 

Case Gootls 42,315 

Coffee 1,8.36 

Cotton 123,610 

Fish 544,568 

Flour 162.350 

Furs and Skins. . . 74,455 

Glue 147,177 

Hides and Pelts.. 204,915 

Hops 74,952 

Horus 19,000 



Exports. 

Lead Bars, lbs ... . 

Leather 

Merchandise 

Nuts 

Oil 

Plows 

Quicksilver 

Silk 

Sugar 

Syrup 

Tea 

Wine 

Wool, Domestic.. 
Wool, Australian . 



9,841,621 



41,980 

610,387 

430,709 

149,080 

6,.340 

61,000 

157,860 

287,017 

39,620 

39.250 

1,963,038 

1,183.735 

8,118,916 

866,493 



Total 17,609,797 



Mechanical Movement. 

The accompanying cut represents a new form 
of Hooke's Joint, as recently shown in the En- 
glish Mechanic. Take two rings, and connect 
them as shown in the engraving. If the shafts 




of these links are now placed in the bearings b, 
so that it will be impossible for them to slip, 
the rotation of the shaft ^'l, will bo communi- 
cated to the shaft B. 



Alcohol in Bbead.— Twenty-four pounds of 
bread contains as much alcohol as a bottle of 
port. 



Rape as a Forage Plant. 

A few words from the Americnn Bee Journal 
in our last issue, on Rape as a honey plant, have 
already brought out the question from two of 
our readers, as to what the rape plant is, and 
desiring further information. 

An article in the Can/tda Farmer, comes to 
us just in time to save us the trouble of look- 
ing up facts from other sources— it says: 

We have received a very sensible circular 
issued by a Wisconsin man to his- brother 
farmers, the object of which is to call attention 
to the cultivation of rape; and as we have been 
meditating an article on this vf ry subjf ct for 
sometime past, it may not be amiss to introduce 
the matter to the readers of the Canada Fanner, 
by giving the pith of the circular in question. 
The leading points dwelt on, are as follows: — 
Much painful experience has taught farmers 
that growing wheat ye.tr by year on the same 
land quickly impoverishes it. Hence the ne- 
cessity for a change of crops, and if possible, 
the culture of products that will have a ten- 
dency to enrich rather than exhaust the soil. 
Stock-raising, dairying, growing leaf-crops, 
such as clover, fodder-ccrn, peas, etc., which 
by covering the ground in midsummer with a 
thick shadow of weeds, increase the fertility of 
the soil, are of this character. 

All localities are not adapted to stock-raising 
and dairying, but leaf-crops may be grown 
everywhere. One of these crops, viz., rape, 
has not received the attention it deserves. The 
reason for this may be partly found in ignor- 
ance of the plant, its method of cultivation, 
and uses; and partly in the idea that the soil 
and climate of this country are not suited to 
it. Several years' trial in the town of New 
Holstein, Calumet Co., Wis., where many 
thousj^nds of bushels of rape-seed are now 
raised every season, has proved the suitability 
of the climate and soil. 

The price of the seed has remained steady 
at from two dollars to two dollars and a half 
per bushel, and the average yield per acre has 
varied from ten to eighteen bushels; at times 
reaching from twenty to twenty-five bushels. 
The production, so far, has fallen short of the 
demand. It is a proiuct which does not im- 
poverish the soil while it leaves it in excellent 
condition as to mellowness and cleanliness. 
The time for sowing is from the middle to the 
end of June. This gives the farmer time to 
prepare his land after the rest of the seeding 
is done. The harvest falls from the begini)ing 
to the end of September, a time when all the 
other harvesting is finished. It may be cut 
with cradle or reaper, when it is raked into 
bundles but not bound. 

After ten or twelve days it can be threshed, 
either in a barn or on a fl( or made of boards 
id the field. It may be trodden out by oxen or 
horses, or threshed with a flail. It is cleaned 
in an ordinary fanning mill. To be sure of a 
good crop, put on 100 to 150 tt)8. of plaster to 
the acre. The plaster can be sowed with the 
seed and dragged in. A piece of land produc- 
ing rape one year will certainly yield the fol- 
lowing year from five to eight bushels more of 
wheat per acre than it will after any other kind 
of grain. Two quarts of seed are sufficient for 
an acre. 

So far the circular. It relates to the cultiva- 
tion of this plant for its seed wh ich is ground 
for the sake of the oil it contains, the refuse 
being used both as a cattle-food, and as a ma- 
nure. But there is reason to think that this 
crop is better worth cultivating as a food for 
cattle and sheep in its green state, than it is 
for the seed, even though the near proximity 
of oil mills created a gbod.and steady market 
for it. , ,^ ^, . 

Stephens, in his B(xjk of IM tann, says, that 
in Britain, rape "has been cultivated for the 
fattening of sheep in winter from time imme- 
morial," and that "the green leaves as food 
for sheep, are scarcely surpassed by any other 
vegetable in so far as respects its nutritive 
properties." He adds, "its haulm may be used 
as hay with nearly as much avidity as cut 



straw." Cuthbert W. Johnson in his British 
Husbandry, says:— "On soils which are too 
adhesive for the growth of turnips, this plant 
is very freqtiently cultivated for the purpose of 
affording food for sheep, and perhaps there is 
no other on which they fatten with equal rii- 
pidity, provided the soil be of sufficient hixuri- 
ance to give full vigor to the plant. It may in- 
deed be grown for this purpose with advantage 
upon every description of land as an occasional 
crop. 

Mr. Blftckie, in his essay on the "Improve- 
ment of Small Farms,'' says, that the prodnco 
of rape when well manured, is beyond any 
thing almost that can be imagined, if let stand, 
until it gets into blossom. Manure, he adds, 
"makes the stalk tender and juicy, which would 
otherwise be hard and dry. So that if cut 
into small pieces for the purpose of feeding 
green to cattle, not a bit will be lost, and it 
grows to a heipht of six feet. I am," he says, 
"almost afraid to say that I believe, with the 
addition of some straw, an acre will keep 30 
head of cattle in full milk for a month." 

The Farmer further remarks: 

Rape strongly resembles both the turnip and 
the cabbage, but it lacks the root of the one 
and the head of the other, producing an abun- 
dant growth of stalk and leaf, and flourishing 
most luxuriantly in rich soil. It is a light feed- 
er, so far as the land is concerned, and draws 
largely for nourishment on the fertilizing gasee 
afloat in the atmosphere. It is an exhaustive 
crop, only when allowed to perfect its seed. 
Its culture is very much like that of the turnip. 
Like the turnip, it will not come to much in 
foul land, but once fairly ahead of weeds, it 
smothers down all growth bat its own, in the 
most effectual manner. It is often sown broad- 
cast at the rate of about three quarts of seed 
per acre, and then left to its fate, without horse- 
hoeing or hand- weeding. But it is better to 
sow with the drill, and cultivate between the 
rows. Less seed will suffice, two quarts being 
an ample quantity. The crop acquires greater 
vigor when sown in drills, cultivated and hoed 
after tho manner of first-class turnip culture. 
Thus grown, the destruction of weeds and 
cleaning of the land may be made complete, 
while the crop of rape is proportionately 
greater. 

It may be added, as a final recommendation 
of rape culture, that this plant is valuable for 
its "yield of honey. It supplies a beautiful 
golden honey, of good flavor, and what is of 
great importance to Canadian bee-keepers, it 
comes into blossom when almost all other 
flowers are out of season. Sown the middle or 
end of June, it blooms from the middle of 
August until the beginning of September, a 
time when there is no other honey harvest, 
except in those localities where buckwheat is 
grown. 

A Bust Railboad.— The Virginia and Truck- 
ee Railroad is only 51 "4 miles long, and used 
principally for conveying ores from the Corn- 
stock mines, to the reduction works on Carson 
river. For the six months ending June 30th 
they carried 2'24,088,500 pounds of ore and 
12,096,000 of tailings over the road. The En- 
lerpriie tabulates the tonnage statement as fol- 
lows: 



>lr<>cl«l 




Totals 496,799,310 23,638,624 43,368 248,495 

This is a very good showing for such a 
crooked, steep and short road. Hereafter, the 
number of tons of coal brought to the mines, 
will probably increase and the amount of wood 
proportionately decrease. The Enterprise says, 
that the weight of the crude bullion only 
is given; that is, the bullion in the 
rough, as it is taken from the retorts at the 
mills and sent to Virginia for melting, assay 
and molding into bars. Much of this crude 
bullion is brought to Virginia by the stages and 
by teams belonging to the mills where it is 
produced, therefore the table above given 
shows hardly half of the bullion produced. 
Did the table show the weight of the bars 
shipped, a better idea of the bullion product 
could be obtained^^ 

Coal Neab Vallejo.— The Vallejo Independ- 
ent of yesterday has the following : Matras Dris- 
col, a resident of Vallejo, brought into this 
office, last evening, several specimens of coal 
he had just brought down from the Suscol 
Hills, some nine or ten miles north of Vallejo. 
Driscol represents that the coal in question 
came from the ranch of Thomas Morgan, 
where there are large deposits of the same. A 
piece of the mineral taken from near the sur- 
face of the ground contains considerable earth 
intermixed with it, but another piece coming 
from a depth of twenty-five feet in the bowels 
of the earth, is of a very pure quality of coal, 
heavy and of a shining dark-blue color, denot- 
ing its purity. Driscol also states that there 
are large deposits of various qualities on the 
ranch above mentioned, but that it is not be- 
ing mined, and is waiting for capital to de- 
velop it. 



July 26, 1873.] 



ilsEfUL l[lpQR|^^7ION. 



Resins. 

By the action of the oxygen of the air most 
of the essential oils are gradually thickened, 
and at length converted into a substance termed 
resin. Resins are frequently met with in the 
vegetable kingdom ; in some instances, as with 
coniferous trees, resin flows spontaneously 
from the wood in combination with an essen- 
tial oil, so called Venice turpentine, which 
hardens by exposure to air. Some resins are 
extracted from vegetable matter by means of 
alcohol, this solution being either precipitated 
with water or evaporated to dryness. Kesins 
are either soft, and are then termed balsams, 
chiefly solutions of resins in essential oils, or 
hard. To the former belong Venice turpen- 
tine, Canada balsam, balsam of Peru, Capaiva 
balsam, etc.; to the latter, amber (a fossil res- 
in,) anime, copal, gum dammar, mastic, shel- 
lac, asphalte. The gum resins are obtained 
from incisions made in certain kinds of plants, 
the milky juice of which hardens by exposure 
to air; these substances are partly soluble in 
water, and yield with it in many instances, an 
emulsion; for instance, assafcetida, gum gutti, 
etc. Many gum resins possess a very strong 
odor and contain essential oils. Although it 
is customary to treat of caoutchouc and gutta- 
percha under the head of resins, these sub- 
stances are not related to resins at all, but be- 
long to a separate class of bodies, among which, 
according to Dr. G. J. Mulder's researches, the 
so-called drying oils must be enumerated. — 
Cabinet Maker. 



Putting Old Saws in Order. 

Laborers in the rural districts are not always 
aware how much unnecessary time and muscle 
are expended in the sawing of a few logs with a 
saw that is not in good order. 

We^have in mind two men who said they la- 
bored faithfully for two hours in sawing off one 
white-wood log less than four feet in diameter. 
Two men in Steuben county recently sawed ofif 
a hard curled maple tree, which had been down 
about one year, three feet one inch in diameter, 
in exactly ten minutes. They used the Cham- 
pion saw, and had been sawing all day before 
coming to this cut. 

It matters but little what kind of a saw is 
used, if the teeth are correctly filed and set 
The very points of the teeth are the parts to be 
put in order. When the filing is finished the 
points of the teeth should all range as accu- 
rately as if they had been dressed ofi' with a 
jointer. Then a saw will run through a log like 
a heated knife through a roll of butter. If four 
teeth are filed very fleam-like, and every fifth 
tooth be filed square across on both edges or 
sides and be about one-sixteenth of an inch 
shorter than the fleaming teeth, a saw will op- 
erate beautifully, provided the teeth are not 
set too much. — N. Y. Herald. 




Intensity of Fkost in the Aectic Regions. — 
In the interesting account of the McClintock 
expedition to the Arctic regions, which appears 
in the first number of the Cornhill Magazine 
it is stated that the spirits in the thermometer 
occasionally descended as low as forty degrees 
below zero of Fahrenheit's scale, thus indicat- 
ing (40 + 32) seventy-two degrees of frost! At 
a point above this, viz: seventy-one degrees of 
Fahrenheit, quicksilver is frozen; spirit, how- 
ever, is never congealed by the intensest cold. 
It appears from the voyage of the Fox, that 
eighty degrees of frost, or forty-eight of Fah- 
renheit, was registered by Captain McClintock 
and his crew at the beginning of 1859. 

Deowning in Lake Tahoe. — We believe that 
it is a well established fact that the bodies of 
persons drowned in Lake Tahoe have never 
been recovered, the clear, cold waters of the 
lake absolutely refusing to give up their dead. 
This circumstance, which at first thought ap- 
pears strange, is accounted for upon the 
hypothesis that the waters at the bottom of 
the lake are so icy cold as actually to arrest de- 
composition and consequent expansion of the 
dead body, one of the conditions under which 
it would be expected to return to the surface. — 
Gold Bill News. 



Acid in white lead may be detected by put- 
ting a small portion of the lead in a cup, pour- 
ing a little warm water over it, and stirring the 
lead in the water. Then add a few drops of a 
solution of iodide of potassium; and if the lead 
is acid, or contains acetate of lead, the water 
will turn yellow. 

Flame is one of the most beautiful things in 
the world. Not a sunset sky in summer, not 
a full-blown tropic flower, is more brilliant 
than flame; flame is the Jlower of fire. The ivy 
has no splendor like the mantling flame; it red- 
dens like the thyrsus of the god. 



course of twenty-four hours if he eats the right 
kinds of food and has no bad habits. We 
would, even with right habits of eating, dis- 
courage much drinking during a meal or im- 
mediately after it. 

Years^ ago, when many drank cider as a com- 
mon drink, an old farmer in our neighborhood 
often ate bread and cider as we do bread and 
milk, and he always insisted on having a mug 
of cider alongside of the dish, saying he wanted 
cider to drink when he ate bread and cider as 
much as when he ate other things. We have 
seen hungry boys, when eating bread and milk, 
take up their bowl and drink between times, as 
if a meal of bread and milk, like bread and 
cider, were too dry for health and comfort with- 
out imtermediate drinking. We think people 
should drink less than they do even of that 
only proper drink — pure water. — Phrenological 
Journal. 



isjic Ec@[i@|fAY. 



The abestos of New York and Vermont yields 
fibres up to 40 inches in length. Handker- 
chiefs of this material might be " washed " in 
the fire instead of by the laundress. 



QOOD I-|E^L7lt. 



Rusting. — The slow combustion of metals is 
called rusting, and the oxide formed is called 
rust. All the familiar metals, except silver 
gold and platinum, are tarnished on exposure 
to the air; that is they become covered with a 
film of rust, or oxide. That heat is developed 
by rusting, as by other slow combustion, is 
shown by the fact that if a large pile of iron 
filings be moistened and exposed to the action 
of the air so that they rust rapidly, the tem- 
perature rises perceptibly. A remarkable case 
of heat developed by rusting occurred in En- 
gland during the manufacture of a submarine 
electric cable. The copper wire of the cable 
was covered with gutta-percha, tar and hemp, 
and the whole inclosed in a casing of iron wire. 
The cable, as it was finished, was coiled in 
tanks filled with water; these tanks leaked, and 
the water was therefore drawn off, leaving 
about 163 nautical miles of the cable coiled in 
a mads 30 feet in diameter (with a space in the 
center six feet in diameter and eight feet high.) 
It rusted so rapidly that the temperature in the 
center of the coil rose in four days from 66 to 
79 degrees, though the temperature of the air 
did not rise above 66 degrees during the period, 
and was as low as 59 degrees part of the time. 
The mass would have become even hotter had 
it not been cooled by pouring on water. — Jland- 
Book of Chemisiry. 



The Silk Wobm. — The delicacy and fineness 
of the thread spun by the silk worm is one of the 
marvels of nature. The size of the threads is 
not uniform, but the smallest fibres wrought 
into the cocoon by the worm are so exceeding- 
ly minute that from 200 to 400 of them are 
sometimes required to make a single strand of 
the smallest sized sewing-silk. One ounae of 
the thread measures about 1% miles, and the 
Bilk fibres of which it consists would therefore 
reach about 400 miles. The fibres in four 
porfnds of such thread, if stretched out as orig- 
inally spun by the worm, would make a girdle 
round the earth. 



Chinese Method of Mending Glass. — Take 
a piece of flint-glass, beat it to a fine powder, 
and grind it well with the white of an egg, and 
it joins the china without riviting, so that no 
art can break it in the same place. You are 
to observe, that the composition is to be 
ground extremely fine. 

The Chinese grind shells to powder and use 
this powder in the way we do flock on paper- 
hangings. 



Drinking at Meals. 

As to when and how much a person may drink, 
it depends somewhat upon the constitution of 
the person, the nature of the food, and the char- 
acter of his occupation. A thin, dark-com- 
plectioned, cool organization generally does 
does not incline to drink much, especially if 
the exercise taken is not violent or laborious, 
or not calculated to promote perspiration. In 
a plump, rosy, warm nature, with light hair, 
blue eyes, large lungs, and of active or labori- 
ous habits, inviting perspiration, more liquid 
is required and generally taken. 

Then again, the kind of food eaten is to be 
considered. If one eats fish, or dried salted 
provisions, dry bread and little or no fruit, and 
a large amount of sugar, fatty matter, and 
other heat-producing articles, the desire and 
necessity for a considerable amount of fluid is 
indicated. If a person have a medium con- 
stitution, and is not exposed to heat and vio- 
lent exercise, and his food be normal and 
hygienic, he will be surprised how little drink 
he will require. A person who eats freely of 
vegetables and fruit, and moderately of beef 
and mutton, not cooked dry, will notneed much 
moisture as drink. 

No person should '"wash down" food with 
any kind of beverage. Those who drink tea 
and cofiee should let it stand until cool, and 
this should not be taken with the food, but at 
the beginning or nearly the close of the meal 
— mind you, we do not advise their use. Na- 
ture has provided the mouth and throat with 
salivary glands, which produce moisture and 
will sufficiently moisten dry bread or crackers, 
or parched corn, if one do not eat too fast. 
Many a dyspeptic has cured himself by avoid- 
ing drink during meals and eating dry food 
slowly, masticating it thououghly, and moist- 
ening in the mouth. If people would learn to 
eat bread without butter, using nice, fresh 
stewed food instead, they would avoid 
billiousness, dyspepsia, headache, pimples, a 
greasy and leathery skin, and also the supposed 
necessity for drinking much either at or after 
meals. 

Animals never drink while eating (unless 
kept in a pen and fed on semi-aqueous food.) 
The worked horse or ox, with water at his 
manger, will, if thirsty and hungry, drink when 
he comes to the stable, but he will then eat dry 
hay or oats for an hour or two and not approach 
the water meanwhile. Grass in the field being 
moist, cattle at pasture drink but little — sheep 
and goats very rarely. Sheep feed early, when 
the grass is covered with dew, but for weeks 
together will not descend from the lofty hill-top 
to drink from the springs which flow from its 
base. 

Tne food of man, as it is ordinarily cooked, 
is likely to contain about as much moisture as 
does the grass in hill pastures. Men are made 
thirsty by the condiments they eat, and by the 
heat-producing articles which constitute the 
bulk of their food. Beef steak and roast beef, 
eggs, poultry, fresh fish, and ordinary table 
vegetables contain from 75 to 90 per cent, of 
water. The drinking of water and other bev- 
erages is largely the result of habit, and no 
little disturbance of the health is the conse- 
quence. If one takes no drink but water, he 
is not very likely to ^nk too much in the 



Cure of Dyspepsia. 

Dr. Dio Lewis gives the following advice to 
a dyspeptic, with the promise of a cure if it is 
faithfully followed for three months. 

1. Rise early, dress warmly, and go out. If 
strong, walk; if weak, saunter. Drink cold 
water three times. After half an hour come in 
for breakfast. 

2. For breakfast eat a piece of good steak, 
half as large as your hand, a slice of coarse 
bread, and a baked apple. ]3at slowly. Talk 
pleasantly with your neighbors. Read the 
cheerful comments of loyal journals. Avoid 
Copperheads as you do hot biscuits and strong 
cofiee. Drink nothing. 

3. Digest for an hour, and then to your 
work. I trust it is in the open air. Work 
hard till noon, and then rest body and mind 
till dinner. Sleep a little. Drink water. 

4. For dinner (two or three o'clock) eat a 
slice of beef, mutton or fish as large as your 
hand, a potato, two or three spoonfuls of other 
vegetables, and a slice of coarse bread. Give 
more than half an hour to this meal, Use no 
drink. 

5. After dinner play anaconda for an hour. 
Now for social, pleasant games. Have a good 
time. 

6. No supper. A little toast and tea even, 
for supper, will make your recovery very slow. 

7. In a warm room bathe your skin in cold 
water, hastily, and go to bed in a well ventila- 
ted room before nine o'clock. 



A Variable Diet Neoessaet. — Man being 
omnivorous, his food must be variety frequently 
for the fuU development of those mental and 
physical powers which give him dominion over 
the earth. 

If only one kind of food is supplied for a 
considerable time, as that of potatoes for ex- 
ample, there will be strong muscles but a 
feeble brain force. A varying diet, one thing 
one dayand something the next, not on the table 
at every meal, has a wonderful influence on 
the harmonious manifestations of both mind 
and body. Varying the diet furnishes elements 
essential to health. It conduces to the moral 
well-being of an individual who is both peev- 
ish, dissatisfied and a grumbler if the same 
dishes appear invariably at breakfast and din- 
ner. Coffee and tea, properly prepared, are 
not loathed, but are always welcome; but noth- 
ing else is, on a boarding house table. In 
keeping house we provide what we like. That 
is the difference. 

A positive reason why such multitudes fail 
of success in keeping boarding houses is be- 
cause they serve precisely the same articles all 
the time. A devoutly christian stomach rebels 
against that system. On the other hand, 
hotels or boarding houses having the reputa- 
tion of an admirable table have more patrons 
than they can accommodate. That is the whole 
secret of having no vacant rooms. Starving is 
no economy, as the cost of advertising for 
lodgers is vastly more expensive than a gen- 
erous variety every day in the week, which 
would keep the house full. 

Living well simply means not to subsist on 
the same kind of food, cooked always in the 
same manner. The laws of physiology de- 
mand a varying diet, and those hoping for 
good paying boarders should i>rofit by the sug- 
gestions of science. 

Fat and Lean. — Meat eaters and vegetarians 
show in their persons the effects of the diet. 
The first has the most brain force and nervous 
energy. A mixed food of animal and vegetable 
rations developes the highest intellectual pow- 
ers. A strictly vegetable living ordinarily 
gives a fair complexion and amiability and ex- 
treme pugnacity when the vegetarian's views 
in regard to that one engrossing thought of his 
life are discussed. They are annual-meeting 
reformers, without ever setting a river on fire. 

Arabs are a sober, frugal race, rather slender, 
not tall, concientious and contentious on reli- 
gious subjects. They largely subsist on rice, 
pulse, milk and keimac, something similar to 
a whipped cream, through a vast region of an 
arid country where they are indigenous. They 
are not destitute of mutton, goats, camels and 
game; but they manifest no disposition to feed 
upon meats, as is necessary in temperate 
zones or in high northern latitudes. 

An intellectual man, one of their kindred, 
who rises to distinction by the grandeur of his 
mental status, is extremely rare. 

The beer and ale drinkers expand and grow 
fpt, but they are not much given to profound 
researches in science. 



Good Cookeet. — In summer, particularly, 
health depends considerably upon untroubled 
digestion, and to secure this happy state of 
affairs good cookery is essential. In order to 
acquire health, beauty, strength, and spirits, 
we need nourshing food; and we will further 
say that we do not acquire those faculties or 
conditions of the mind and body, because our 
digestive apparatus gets out of order by reason 
of the indigestible nature of the food crowded 
into it. The greater part of the truly nutritive 
and digestible food is spoiled in the cooking, 
and so rendered unhealthy. It is the business 
of the cook to know what is to be cooked and 
how to cook it; and to do this well, vigilance 
and precision are indispensable requisites 
Again, in order to encourage the machinery of 
mastication, food must not only be well cooked, 
but put on the table in the neatest and most 
elegant manner. The good opinion of the eye 
is the first step toward awakening the appetite. 
Decoration is much more rationally employed 
in rendering a wholesome, nutritious dish in- 
viting, than are the elaborate embellishments 
which are crowded about trifles such as cus- 
tards, cakes, etc. Food to be eaten in perfec- 
tion must be put into the mouth immediately 
after being cooked — anything overdone cannot 
be mended, but if a little underdone, the stew- 
pan, gridiron, or oven even will rectify the 
mistake. If overdone the best juices of meat 
are evaporated, and will serve merely to dis- 
tend the stomach, and if the sensation of hun- 
ger be removed, it will be at the price of an 
indigestion. We repeat that the art of good 
cookery lies in perfect neatness, precision, and 
can be acquired by any one. 

Dey Method of Cleaning Soiled Fabeics. 
Great progress has been made of late years in 
the method of cleaning soiled articles of dress, 
by removing tar, grease, etc., from wool and 
other raw material, this as it appears, being 
accomplished best by the so-called dry method 
rather than by the use of a watery solution of 
soap or other alkaline substance. This orig- 
inally consisted in subjecting the articles in a 
proper apparatus, to immersion in benzine, 
gasoline, bisulphate of carbon, etc., with con- 
tinued rotation of the apparatus. More re- 
cently, however, it has been ascertained that 
the vapor of these substances, caused by dis- 
tillation, is more efficient than the liquid sub- 
stances themselves, the articles thus treated 
being much more thoroughly penetrated, and 
more rapidly than in the old way. 

The articles are placed upon a grating over 
the liquid, the vapor from which permeates 
them completely as it is carried over into the 
reservoir, where it is condensed and is col- 
lected. In this form it contains grease in solu- 
tion, which may be removed by a second distil- 
lation, while the hydro-carbon is obtained in a 
form for further use. — Harper. 



Mutton Hams. — This method of curing mut- 
ton like hams deserves notice. The meat 
should be fat. Mix two ounces of raw sugar 
with one ounce of common salt, and half a 
spoonful of saltpetre; rub the meat with this 
mixture and place it in a deep tureen; let it be 
beaten and turned twice daily for three con- 
secutive days. The scum having been re- 
moved, it is to be wiped and again rubbed 
with the mixture. Next day it should be again 
beaten, and the two operations ought to be re- 
peated alternately during ten days, the meat 
to be turned each time. Let it then be ex- 
posed to the smoke for ten days. The meat 
should be eaten cold. To cure German hams, 
as in Westphalia, let them be placed in tubs 
and covered with layers of salt and saltpetre; 
a few laurel leaves should be added. At the 
end of five days they are covered with brine. 
At the end of three weeks afterwards let them 
be taken out and left to soak for twelve hours 
in clear well water. Let them be exposed for 
another three weeks to smoke produced by 
juniper branches, in November and March. 

Pbeservino Fbuits. — It is generally known, 
that boiling fruit a long time, and skimming it 
well, rciihoiU the sugar, and loithoul a cover to 
the preserving pan, is a very economical and 
excellent way — economical, because the bulk 
of the scum rises from the fruit, and not from 
the sugar, if the latter is good; and boiling it 
without a cover, allows the evaporation of all 
the watery particles therefrom ; the preserves 
keep firm, and well-flavored. The propor- 
portions are, three-qnarters of a pound of 
sugar to a pound of fruit. Jam made in this 
way, of currants, strawberries or raspberries, 
is excellent. 

To PioKLE Whole Tomatoes. — Prick each 
tomato with a fork to allow some of the juice 
to exude, put them into a deep pan, then add 
vinegar, pepper, cinnamon and cloves, sprinkle 
some salt between each layer, and let them re- 
main for three days covered, then wash off the 
salt and cover them with a pickle of cold wa- 
ter which has been boiled with the spices. It 
will be ready for use in ton or twelve days, and 
is an excellent sauce for roast meat of any kind. 



Pig's Head Baked.— Let it be divided and 
thoroughly cleaned; take out the brains, trim 
the snout and ears; bake it an hour and a half; 
wash the brains thoroughly, blanch them, 
beat them up with an egg, pepper and salt, 
and some finely chopped or pounded sage, 
and a small piece of butter; fry them or brown 
them before the fire; serve with the head, 



56 



[July 26, 1873. 






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Inserted at special rates. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 26, 1873. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

aENERAL EDITORIALS. — Small Peaches; 
Rape as a Forage Plant; Popular Science, 49. Home 
Industries; Kansas Agricultural Report, 63. A Mel- 
onaceous Offer, 56. A Day Around Stockton; Wood- 
ward's Aquarium, 64. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Organization 
of the State Grange of California, 75. " For the 
Good of the Order." 60. 

ILLTJSTRATIONS.— Lake Tahoe, 49. Mechani- 
cal Movement, 54. American Cowslip or Shooting 
SUr, 56. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Notes from Butte County; 
Alfalfa; Crops in Tulare; Dry Creek, Stanislaus 
County; Poultry in the Foothills; Westminster 
Colony; Lone Hill Vineyard; Cost of Living; The Al- 
garoba, 50. 

FARMERS IN COTTNCIL.-San Jose Farmers' 
Club: San Joaquin Farmers' Club, 62. 

AQRICtTLTURAL NOTES from various coun. 
ties iu California aiul (->ret,'un, 53. 

USEFUL INFORMATION. - Resins; Putting 
Old Saws in Order; Rusting; The Silk Worm; Chi- 
nese Method of Mending Glass; Intensity of Frost in 
the Arctic Regions; Drowning iu Lake Tahoe; Acid, 
55. 

OOOD HEALTH. -Drinking at Meals; Cure of 
Dyspepsia; A Variable Diet Necessary; Fat and Lean, 
55 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. - Good Cookery; Dry 
Method of Cleaning Soiled Fabrics; Mutton Hams; 
Preserving Fruits; To Pickle Whole Tomatoes; Pig's 
Head Baked, 55. 

HOME CIRCLE.— Inventors Among Kings (Poe- 
try) ; How Beecher Commenced Preaching and House- 
keeping; Ease in Society; What it Would Cost to 
Build a Pyramid To-Day; Stopping Places; Don't 
Let your Life be a Failure; Spare the Broom; A Good 
Old Age, 58. 

YOUNO FOLKS' COLUMN. -Advice to Boys; 
Beauty of California Children, 58. 

MISCELLANEOUS-— Ancient Construction; Coal 
iu San Francisco; A Novel Railroad Stove; Station 
Announcer; To Distinguish Iron from Steel: Sympa- 
thetic Vibrations in Machinery; Progress of Astron- 
omy in the United States: Does the Hun Influence a 
Fire; Non-Chemical Analysis, 51. The Extension of 
the Signal Service to the West Indies; Fruit Growing 
and Fruit Drying; Blackberries; Large Shipping Pro- 
ject; Steam Plows in Europe, 52. One Half Year's 
Work; Rape as a Forage Plant; A Busy Railroad; 
Coal Near Vallejo, 54. 



A Melonacuous Offer. 

Without intiniatiDg that the editor of the 
EcRAL Pbess is extravagantly fond of melons, 
we would remark that it is a favorite proposi- 
tion of his, that the largest specimens of the 
game variety of fruit, are better than the small 
specimens. Now to test the truth of his pro- 
position, and as he can get all the small melons 
he wants, for little or nothing, but cannot get 
the largest on the same terms, he makes this 
offer: 

To the person who will send to him at his 
"sanctum," 414 Clay street, free of cost, the 
largest ripe watermelon in the month of July 
of this year, he will send the Kural Press, 
post paid, for six months; for the second larg- 
est, the RoRii, for four mouths; for the third 
largest, two months. The same offer is ex- 
tended to that class of melons usually desig- 
nated cantaleups. 

A like offer is extended for the largest melons 
in the months of August and September, dis- 
tinct offers for each month; and if his proposi- 
tion is not fully substantiated by that time he 
will extend his offer into winter. The name of 
the variety, time of planting and the address 
of the donor, with any remarks regarding cul- 
ture, etc., should accompany the melons, that, 
at the end of the season a complete report of 
weight, quality, names of donors, etc., may be 
given. The public will then know of whom to 
procure seeds of the largest and, we think, the 
best melons. 



On File. — A Plea for the Civil Damages Act; 
Notes Around Santa Cruz; Gophers Canned; 
Letter Prom Sacramento; From A. H., Wat- 
aonville; European Immigration; About Basp- 
berry Boots, etc.; Answers to Agricultural De- 
partment Questions; A Cluster of Plums; 
Lady Bug. 



American Cowslip, or Shooting Star.— 

( Dodecatheon Meadia.) 

No wild flower of Great Britain, Switzerland 
and other parts of Europe is more justly cele- 
brated on its native soil for its beauty and its 
early appearance in spring than the world-re- 
nowned primrose. Its botanical name, Pri- 
mula, from the Latin primus, refers to its being 
first to flower. One of its many species, P. 
y'eiis, or spring primrose, is the noted English 
Cowslip. 

The odd and saucy-looking flower which our 
engraver has accurately represented here iu its 
natural size, is the most beautiful member of 
the primrose family among the native flowers 
of California and other parts of the United 
States. Hence its common name, American 
Cowslip. 

Gray tells us it is found in rich woods, from 
Pennsylvania and Maryland to Wisconsin and 
southward. He also adds, that it is called iu 



riety, each flower-leaf, varying in number from 
five to eight, is a pure white with a straw- 
colored spot at the base. This is followed by 
a ring of a deep velvet-like purple, then a sec- 
ond and smaller ring of a bluish purple. At the 
base of each of these rings are small yellow spots. 
In the center of the flower, the stamens and 
pistil unite in a spike of a bluish-black hue. 

The variety and delicacy of coloring make 
the entire appearance of the flower one of ex- 
quisite beauty. Its odor is strong and spicy, 
like cinnamon, and very similar to that of the 
most fragrant pinks. Its roots are fibrous, its 
leaves oval, small and radical, resting flat upon 
the ground. From the center of these arises a 
single flower stalk, usually from six to nine 
inches high, without a leaf, and surmounted by 
a cluster of drooping -flowers, varying from 
four to ten in number. The work of the en- 
graver, as in all object-teaching, gives a more 
accurate idea of the plant than any attempt at 
description can possibly do. 

To offer a short lesson in botany for those of 
our readers who may not have had an oppor- 
tunity to study that beautiful and useful sci- 




AMERICAN COWSLIP OR SHOOTING STAR. 



the West, Shooting Star; alluding, no doubt, 
to the manner in which its flower-leaves are 
turned back. This gives each bloom some- 
what the appearance of the bright head of a 
meteor, followed by a train of light. 

The reason for this common name is much 
more apparent than for the systematic one, 
Dodecatheon, from two Greek words, meaning 
the twelve gods, in allusion to the twelve chief 
divinities of the Bomans. To pronounce cor- 
rectly, it is accented on th« third syllable. 
This name was given fancifully by the eminent 
Linnicus himself, and we are at a loss for its 
application, unless it be that he wishes thus to 
stamp it pre-eminently as a crowning glory 
among our wild flowers. The specific name, 
Meadui, was given in honor of a Dr. Mead, of 
Virginia, by Catesby, a pioneer of American 
Botany, through whom it was first introduced 
into England from Virginia, as early as 1744. 

Loudon, in his Encyclopicdia of Plants, de- 
scribes no less than five different varieties of 
this handsome plant, with white, rose-colored, 
and lilac flowers. Gray describes but one spe- 
cies belonging to the older States, its flowers 
rose-color, or white. 

At least three varieties are common to Cali- 
fornia, the white and the cream-colored belong- 
ing to the hard, knolly lands of our plains, the 
rose-colored found only in the mountains. 

In the white, which is the most common va- 



ence, allow a brief explanation here of a few 
technical terms, according to a former prom- 
ise. It will enable any one who wishes to do 
so, to separate a flower into its different parts, 
that is, to analyze it; and will prevent such 
terms from being an unknown language in the 
future to those who wish to learn them. 

Every perfect or complete flower, such as the 
lovegrove, violet, cowslip and pink, is natural- 
ly divided into four parts, called the calyx, the 
corolla, stamens, and pistils; the first name 
being of Greek, the remaining three of Latin 
origin. Calyx means cup. It is the outer 
covering of the bud, is usually green, and is 
frequently divided into parts like small leaves. 

Corolla means little crown. It is the colored 
part which we generally call the flower, and 
when open it usually rests on the calyx, as if 
in a cup. It surmounts the flower-stem like a 
crown. It may be single, or divided into sep- 
arate parts. Inside of the corolla we find small, 
thread-like members, of two different shapes. 
The outer ones are called stamens, meaning 
threads. Those in the center, and attached to 
the upper part of the young seed-pod, are quite 
unlike the stamens in form, and are called pis- 
tils, {lom pislUlum, a pestle, so much do some of 
them resemble the pestle of a druggist's mor- 
tar. 

It should be further remembered, that, when 
the calyx and corolla are separated into parts, J 



the parts of the calyx are called sepals; of the 
corolla, petals. 

LiunjEus discovered, but little more than a 
hundred years ago, the difference of sex exists 
in plants as among animals, and that stamens 
are males and pistils females in the world of 
flowers. 

The calyx and corolla of a flower may be 
wanting, and frequently are; but stamens 
and pistils must be present for the plant to re- 
produce its kind. Flowers may have but one 
stamen and one pistil, or several of each. 

On this simple principle, Linnaeus based a sys- 
by which all the flowering plants known in the 
world are arranged is Classes and Orders. The 
number of stamens forms the Class; the number 
of pistils, the Order. Each Class contains two 
or more Orders. To each he gave suitable 
names, most of which were derived from the 
Greek words for man and woman and the Greek 
numerals. For example a plant whose flower 
has but one stamen and one pistil belonging to 
to the Class Monandria, literally a plant with 
one man, that is one stamen, and Order, Hon- 
ogynia, meaning a plant with one woman, or 
one pistil, and so on for other Classes and Or- 
ders. 

LinnEeus thus divided the whole Vegetable 
Kingdom into two great Sections, the Flower- 
ing and Flowerless plants, the latter being 
either entirely without stamens or pistils, or 
not showing them. The former Section is di- 
vided into twenty-three Classes, while all Flow- 
erless plants, such as a fern, a moss, a sea- 
weed, and a fungus, being comparatively small 
in number, form but a single Class, the twenty- 
fourth and last. 

In this way he reduced the knowledge of 
plants to a science, and is hence called the 
Father of Botany. His plan is known as the 
Artificial System, and though it has to a great 
extent given away to the Natural System of 
Jussieu, so called because it classifies plants 
more in accordance with their natural qualities 
and resemblances, it will always be a useful aid 
to students of botany. It was Linnseus, too, 
who invented the plan of giving a double name, 
in the Latin language, though sometimes de- 
rived from Greek, to every plant and animal in 
the world. The first name, like DodeeaiUon, 
makes the genus, and is called the generic name; 
the second, as Meadia, makes the species, and is 
called the specific name. The first corresponds 
to a man's surname, the second to his given 
name. The order in which they are placed 
follows the Latin usage, in putting adjectives 
after their nouns. The plan reminds na of 
rolls, made out in alphabetical order, in which . 
the surname comes first. 

On these simple principles, all the 150,000, 
or more, different kinds of plants throughout 
the world have been named and classified, or 
will be, so soon as they become known to 
naturalists, thus erecting to the genius of Lin- 
na-us a monument more lasting than marble or 
brass. 

Most of these points have been explained, 
especially to call attention to a difference be- 
tween the American Cowslip, as found in Cal- 
ifornia, and the species described by Prof. 
Gray. He says the Eastern kind has the calyx 
5-clef t ; corolla 5-parted, with 5 stamens and 1 
pistil. In the California species, the calyx is 
from 5 to 7-clift, usually 6; corolla 5 to 8-parted 
usually 6; stamens 5 to 7, usually 6; pistil 1. 

The primrose of Europe, according to Lou- 
don, blooms from March to June; our Cowslip, 
from February or March to May. Prof. Gray 
speaks of the Eastern species as very handsome 
in cultivation. So, no doubt, would our spe- 
cies be a most valuable addition to the choice 
flower gardens of California. — Ralph Bawbler 
in Illustrated Press for July. 

Hkn Economt. — We have upon our table 
from the hand of Mr. I. C. Boot, four hens' 
eggs of colossal size. There would be noth- 
ing remarkable in that alone, for other editors 
have been egged in much the same way now 
and then; but the really remarkable feature 
about ours is, that the layer of them, instead 
of bothering herself to lay an egg a day, as al- 
most any other Light Brahma one year old can 
do, our hen — probably to economise in the pro- 
duction of shell material — lays one of these 
enormous eggs once in three days only; but 
each egg has three yolks, at least, others of the 
same hen's production, of similar size, all had. 
She simply puts three days work into one, 
and really seems to like it, having in one in- 
stance done better than that, laying three eggs 
in eight days. We want some big egg chroni- 
clers to do better than our hen if they can, hon- 
estly. 

Tbk bark louse may be cleaned from the ap- 
ple or pear tree by washing, any time previous 
to the opening of the blossom buds, with a 
moderately strong lye of wood ashes. Some 
use caustic lime mingled, others use sulphur 
and soot, and some copperas and salt; but sim- 
ple wood ash lye is as effective as anything and 
attainable by all. 

Bain in Jdly. — Just to make a note of the 
fact, we take a line or two, to record the fall of 
a light shower of rain on this, Tuesday, the 
22d of July, at 4. p. m., in San Francisco. 

Fabmebs in S17XTEB CoiTNTX are talking of 
building warehouses at three different points 
on Feather river. 



July 26, 1873.] 



57 



/^TE\©pls @p pfuss^iMo^Y 



Organization of the State Grange of 
California. 

The Patrons of Hobbandky, thronghout tlie 
Stat© in particular, and, we believe, also the 
farmers generally, will rejoice in the successful 
and harmonious organization of a State Grange 
for California. We doubt whether the Order 
has made more rapid progress in any other 
State in the Union than it has here since the 
organization of the first local Grange. The 
farmers of California are evidently alive to the 
work, and if wise counsels prevail, the move- 
ment which has been so happily inaugurated 
will go on increasing in strength and interest 
with each recurring week. The men who are 
engaged in it are representative men in the 
class for whose benefit the move is being made. 
Of course, there are men in the State more 
eminent for scientific attainment, more elo- 
quent and more learned in law; but we do not 
believe there are any who surpass them in 
plain common sense or in true devotion to the 
general good of the State. They are not men 
of one idea, or men who think all other inter- 
ests must give way to theirs. They are men 
who are willing that all who labor for an honest 
livelihood should have an honorable and com- 
petent living, and in seeking to protect their 
own rights they will guard with jealous care 
- the rights of every other calling which tends 
to elevate or improve the State and nation. 
They do, however, object to being compelled to 
pay tribute to any class of men, who act 
merely aa go-betweens, when such service can 
just as well be performed by themselves. They 
are opposed to all oppression, let it come from 
whence it may, and they are opposed to all men, 
without distinction of party or creed, who seek 
to impose unjust or usurious burthens upon 
the people; but whatever means they employ 
to right the wrong will be legitimate and proper. 
Their " Declaration of Principles " is fully 
set forth in the resolution, which will be found 
below under that head, and their " Plan of Op- 
erations " to correct wrongs, and secure their 
legitimate rights, is as fully and boldly set 
forth under its appropriate head. To these 
two declarations we would refer all who desire 
to learn what the Patrons of Husbandry pro- 
pose to do, and how they propose to do it. In 
their purposes they have nothing to conceal ; 
but for the more ready accomplishment of 
those purposes, they have thought best to com- 
bine in a close union, whereby their efforts 
may be made more efi'ectual and more persist- 
ent. 

First Day's Proceedings— Tuesday. 
In our last issue we announced the meeting 
at Napa, of the Masters and Past Masters of 
the local Granges, who were eligible to member- 
ship in the State Grange, for the organization 
of which they had then and there assembled. 
The preliminary organization was noted, and 
the excellent and appropriate address of the 
Worthy Deputy, N. W. Garretson, was given 
in full. 

Verbal Reports of tlie Worthy Masters. 
The Masters present, in answer to a call 
from Secretary Baxter, for information from 
their respective Granges, responded verbally, 
giving great encouragement and satisfaction 
for the future of the Order. We can only give 
the following substance of a portion of their 
remarks, which must lack much of their force 
and pleasantness when read, instead of being 
listened to from the earnest hearts and lips 
that uttered them. 

BENNETT VALLEY ORANGE, Santa Rosa, Sonoma Co. : 
NEL.SON CARa. Master; J. H. Plank, Sec'y. 

Our Grange was instituted in May, and is in- 
creasing in numbers. Have held meetings in 
private houses. Members active and earnest; 
a new hall is contemplated soon. 

BODEGA GRANGE, Bodega, Sonoma Co. : J. H. IIegeler, 
Master. 

The youngest Grange, yet very confident of 
much good work to be accomplished. 

CAMBRIA GRANGE, Cambria, San Luis Obi.spo Co.: 
RUFUS RiODON, Master- C. U. Ikvink, Sec'y. 

Not represented. 

OHICO GRANGE, Chico. Butte Co.: W. M.Theop, Master; 
J.W. Scott, Sec'y. 

There are 113 members in this Grange. A 
system of obtaining statistics of the crops 
and reporting other valuable information has 
been adopted. Have had application to organ- 
ize several Granges. Men come 24 miles to 
join, some with a view to prepare themselves 
for starting Granges in other localities. 
DIXON GRANGE, Dixon, Solano Co. ; J. C. Meubvfield, 

Master; Jameb a. Ellih, Sec'y. 

Organized with full number of charter mem. 
bers. We mean work and are ready now to go 
ahead. 

ELMIRA GRANGE, Vaca station, Solano Co.: J. A.Claiik, 
Master; M. D. Cuopeb, Sec'y. 

Commenced operations in a busy season with 
a full number of charter members, and have 
elected several new members since. 



GRAYSON GRANGE, Grayson, Stanislaus Co.: I. G. Gar- 
dener, Muster; G. H, Copland, Sec'y. 

Have admitted seven new members. All the 
farmers will be likely to join. 

GUENOC GRANGE, Guenoo. Lake Co.: J. M. Hamilton, 
Master; A. A. Ritchie, Sec'y. 

Had 25 charter members; have held two 
meetings and admitted a number of new ones. 
The reputation of all is good. The jurisdiction 
extends from 5 to 12 miles in each direction. 
HOLLISTEK GRANGE, No. 11, HolUster, Monterey Co.: 
J. D. FowLEK, Master; S. F. Cowan, Sec'y. 

Commenced with 27 charter names including 
4 ladies. Have received 20 applications. We 
have none but farmers, farmers' wives and 
daughters as members. 
HEALDSBURG GRANGE, Healdsburg, Sonoma Co. : T. 

H. Mebky. Muster; L. M. Holt, Sec'y. 

Have 55 members. Started with more than a 
full charter list. Have made arrangements to 
buy sacks of importers at about 14 cents, as 
against 16 cents at retail. Such accomplished 
objects are much more telling than words, with 
both members and outsiders. Have contracted 
for 50x300 feet of land along the railroad to 
build a warehouse, to be owned by the Patrons. 
Many of the members live at a distance, and it 
is anticipated that four Granges may yet exist 
in the territory, of this one; 20 Granges maybe 
anticipated in Sonoma County, it having al- 
ready six. 
MERCED GRANGE, Merced, Merced Co. : H. B. Jolley, 

Master : E. R. Elliott, Sec'y. 

Have had two meeting and elected 12 new 
members since the organization. There is 
much interest manifested. 

MORO CITY GRANGE, Moro, San Luis Obispo Co.: A. J. 
Mathersead, Master; H. Y. Stanley, Sec'y. 

Not represented. 
NAPA GRANGE, No. 1, Napa City, Napa Co.: W. U. 
Baxter, Master; J. W. "SVard, Sec'y. 

This was the first Grange organized, which is 
here represented. Have succeeded beyond ex- 
pectations. Have now 120 members besides 
applications on hand. Effects are wonderful 
in making neighbors social. Regular meeting 
held once a month, but are busy enough really 
to hold weekly meetings. Are rejoicing in 
great progress and seem to be effecting a higher 
standard of intelligence by unity of associa- 
tion; will ultimately overthrow the oppression 
which keeps down the best interests of farm- 
ers. [Reported by Worthy Past Master, W. 
A. Fisher. 

OLD CREEK GRANGE, Old Creek, San Luis Obispo Co. : 
Isaac Floyd, Master; R. M. Preston, Sec'y. 
Not represented. 

PESCADERO GRANGE, Pescadero, San Mateo Co.: B.V. 
Weeks, Master; H. B. Sprague, Sec'y. 

Just organized with 20 members; others are 
ready to join. 

PETALUMA GRANGE, Petaluma, Sonoma Co.: L. W. 
Walker, Master; D. G. Heald, Sec'y. 

Master temporarily absent. 

PILOT HILL GRANGE, Pilot Hill, El Dorado Co. : [Offi- 
cers not reported,] 

Not represented. 

POINT OF TIMBER GRANGE, Antioch P. O., Contra 
Costa Co.: R. G. Dean, Master; J. B. W. Carey, Sec'y. 
Not represented. 

SACRAMENTO GRANGE, No. V2, Sacramento, Sacra- 
mento Co. : W. S. Manlove, Master; Geo. Rice, Secy. 

Have held two meetings and admitted a 
number of new members. Passed resolutions 
to receive none except farmers and those re- 
ceiving their principal pecuniary benefits from 
farming pursuits. 

SALIDA GRANGE, No. 8, Modesto P. O., Stanislas Co. : 
Joseph Reydorn, Master; Lafayette Dioket, Sec'y. 
Instituted under favorable circumstances, 
with 22 charter members. Meetings attended 
with great interest, and reluctantly adjourned; 
have added new members. 

N. L. Allen, 



SALINAS GRANGE, Salinas.Monterey Co. 
M:i6ter; Samuel Cassidy, Sec'y. 
In a flourishing condition. Have elected 41 
male members, and now have a total of 65 
members; including five matrons. Expect 100 
or more of each sex. ' Members are all plucky, 
and with unity are bound to face the organized 
enemy in front. Have experienced some good 
results already, and expect more. We must 
have none but good men and women, even 
from among farmers. 

SAN JOSE GRANGE, No. 10, San Jose, Santa Clara Co.: 
G. W. Henning, Master ; S. H. Herring, Sec'y., San Jose. 
Are organized for work without further 
talk. 

SANTA ROSA GRANGE, Santa Rosa, SonomaCo. : Geo. 
Vf. Davis, Master ; J. A. Obreen, Sec'y. 
Organized with 13 good members from Farm- 
ers' Club with several others; applications for 
membership coming in. 

SAN LUIS OBI.'^PO GRANGE, San Luis Obispo, San Luis 
Obispo Co. : Wm. Jackson, Master; G. V. Smith, Se ■ 'y 
Not repressnted. 

STANISLAUS GRANGE, ModeBto, Stanialaus Co.: J. D. 

Spencer, Master; Jab. McHenry, Sec'y. 

Organized by 20 select men from the Farm- 
ers' Club; have added 24; some 30 on the road 
to membership. There are four Granges in 
Stanislaus Co., and 8 or 10 more are soon ex- 
pected, with prospects of more eventually. Meet 
second Saturday of each month. The work 
will be exemplified with due diligence and cau- 
tion. 

ST. HELENA ORANGE, St. Helena, Napa Co.; O. B. 
Crane, Master; J. L. Edwards, Sec'y. 

Grange warm in its swoddling cloths and 
will prove a healthy one. The work is a good 
material to feed on; full in spirit but have had 
no meetings yet. Why have not farmers before 
this shaped their own destiny and prosperity? 
Business can be done better by members hero 
than by politicians. What may we not ration- 
ally expect with the ladies associated with us 
in these social relations. 

SUISUN VALLEY GRANGE, Suisun, Solano Co.: R. C. 
Haile, Master; A. T. Hatch, Sec'y. 
Organized a short time; full number of char- 
ter members; number of members of both 
sexes has increased; expect little this year 
but much next. Determined to act on the 
enemy which is located with them too. 

SYCAMORE GRANGE, Grand Island, (Julusa Co.: J. J- 
IIlcoK, Master; J. O. WiLKINfl, Sec'y. 

Just organized, with full list of charter mem- 



bers; have received members from a farmers' 
club; the club is still in existence. In Spring 
Valley precinct the club is attempting to meet 
next week to form a Grange; other Grange 
expected; considerable business on hand. 

TEMASCAL GRANGE. Oakland P. O, Alameda Co.. 
Alfred T. Dewey, Master; Oh*s. W. Dwinelle, Sec'y. 
Place of meeting, 4 miles from Oakland. 
Organized with 23 good members and will ad- 
mit none but good ones. 

TURLOCK GRANGE, Turlock, SUnislaus Co.: J. W. A. 
Wright, Master; John A. Henderson, Sec'y. 
Organized with 28 members; are doing well. 
Burdens there yet increasing. Recommend 
greater care in selection of charter members. 
The ennobling influence of women is beneficial 
and one of the beautiful features of the Or- 
der. 

VACAVILLE GRANGE, 'Vacaville, Solano Co.: T. Hart 
Hyatt, Alaster; T. Hart Hyatt, Jr., Sec'y. 

Solid men of wealth among us; meaning 
earnest work; adding four to eight members 
each meeting. The same old enemy stretches 
itself to their precincts, but they have a rod in 
pickle for him. Not having a satisfactory 
blacksmith in town, have appointed one of 
their own, who is giving satisfaction at lower 
rates. 
WEST SAN JOAQUIN GRANGE, Ellis, San Joaquin Co.: 

E. B. Stiles, Master ; H. W. Fassett, Sec'y. 

Second Grange regularly organized, with full 
charter membernhip. Have since added other 
members. Have appointed committee for pur- 
chase of wheat, with good results; see the ne- 
cessity of further work. 

WINDSOR GRANGE. Windsor, SonomaCo.: A. B. Nal- 
ley, Master; J. Mct^LELLAN, Sec'y. 

Not represented. 

YOLO GRANGE. Woodland, Yolo Co.: W. M. Jackson, 
Master; D. Schindler, Sec'y. 

Have had 30 proposals. Reccommends State 
Grange to lay out the work. Thorough co-oper- 
ation strongly urged, and plans recommended. 

YOUNTVILLE GRANGE, Youutvllle, Napa Co.: J. M. 
Mayfield. Master; T. B. Hopper, Sec'y. 

Small Grange, but growing; have courage 
and pluck to accomplish their object. 
second Day's Proceedings— Wednesday. 

The Grange being called to order by the 
Worthy Deputy, the minutes of the previous 
day read and approved, the committee on Rules 
of Order made their report, which was adopted. 

A